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Full text of "A dictionary of the drama; a guide to the plays, play-wrights, players, and playhouses of the United Kingdom and America, from the earliest times to the present"

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VOL. I. A— G 

0-- THZ 





i-^*— « 







The aim of this work is to provide the student and the 
general reader with a handy means of ready reference to 
the leading facts of the history of the theatre in the 
United Kingdom and the United States. The scope of the 
" Dictionary " is so far comprehensive that it seeks to give 
information about playhouses and their designers, the 
writers of plays, plays themselves, jDerformers in them, 
their critics, their scenic and musical illustrators, theatrical 
terms, and stage literature generally. 

The accounts of Playhouses are ranged here under the 
names of the cities and towns possessing them, and form 
short sketches of the theatrical history of the more impor- 
tant localities. All the more prominent theatrical architects 
find a place in these pages. 

In the case of Writers of Plays, the main attempt 
has been to supply a chronological list of their works, with 
the dates (where discoverable) of publication or perform- 
ance, or both. Only in the instance of the more notable 
dramatists of the past have biographical data been included ; 
in that of living playwrights, the details are confined to 
their productions. The foreign authors introduced are 
those who have become well known to the English and 
American public through translations or adaptations of 
their works. 


Performers in Plays, whether actors or vocalists, or 
both, are dealt with on the same principle as the Play- 
writers. Of the living, no biographical particulars are 
furnished, beyond an occasional record of the date or place 
of birth ; otherwise the particulars relate solely to roles (and 
especially " original " roles) which they have undertaken. 
Deceased players are treated, as a rule, more fuUj", selected 
criticisms being sometimes given, as Avell as references to 
biographical and critical authorities. 

Theatrical Managers, as the producers of plays and 
operas, necessarily figure here; as do the leading Scenic 
Artists and Musical Composers, the latter ranging from 
the writers of operas and operettas to the providers of 
"incidental numbers" for plays. Most of the musicians 
included are English or American ; but mention is also made 
of foreigners whose works have been produced with English 
librettos on one side or other of the Atlantic. 

Writers on the subject of the Theatre generally, or of 
plays and players particularly, receive due attention ; and 
side by side Avith the historians, biographers, and critics 
will be found the pamphleteers and satirists in prose and 

In the case of Plays, the endeavour, in general, has 
been to indicate the author, the date and place of first 
performance, and in some instances the date of first publica- 
tion. Sometimes only the title and the name of the writer 
are given ; usually there are details of the first '•' cast ; " 
and, in all the more important cases, record is made of the 
principal revivals of the pieces, and of the performers 
appearing in them. Special pains have been bestowed upon 
the stage history of Shakespeare's plays and of the other 
classics of our dramatic literature. Further, plays with the 


same title or on the same subjects are, for the convenience 
of the reader, grouped together. 

Separate entries are made of Characters in Plays, 
preference being given, of course, to the most notable. Some 
are inserted only by way of illustrating the stage nomen- 
clature of the past. A feature is also made of First Lines 
OP Songs in Plays ; and some explanations are oifered of 
Terms used familiarly in connection either with plays or 
with the fabric or appointments of the Theatre. 

No claim to an impossible "completeness" is made for 
this work. In all its departments a careful selection has 
been necessary, and that has been made with a view alike to 
the limits of space and to the probable requirements of the 
reader. Nor is it pretended that the " Dictionary " relates 
the theatrical events of yesterday or the day before. No 
work of reference, not even an " annual," can be absolutely 
"up to date." Scattered over these pages are many 
references to the stage history of the present year ; but the 
object throughout has been to record rather the perma- 
nently than the temporarily interesting. 

Finally, the mass of material collected — very much of it 
from unprinted sources — has been so great as to necessitate 
condensation and compression to the fullest extent consistent 
with clearness and accuracy. As regards the latter quality, 
every effort has been made to secure it ; but, in the multitude 
of facts and figures contained w^ithin these covers, it would 
be almost miraculous if no misprints were detected. More- 
over, theatrical chroniclers often differ as tb dates ; others, 
especially when they are autobiographers, offer none or few ; 
many indulge in a pei'plexing vagueness. In truth, those 
to whom the subject of this "Dictionary" is most familiar 


will be the first, one may be sure, to pardon any little slip, 
of omission or commission, into wliich the author may by 
chance have been betrayed. 

It should be added that the second, and concluding, 
volume of this work is passing through the press, and will 
be issued in the early autumn. 

W. D. A. 
June, 190 Jt. 


A la Campag-ne. See Doubtful 
"Victory, A. 

A Trente Ans. See Charming 
Woman, A. 

A 1. A character in F. Talfourd's ' Abon 
Hassan' (^.t'.). 

Aaron. A Moor, in ' Titus Andronicus ' 
(q.v.) ; beloved by Tamora, Queen of the 
Goths (q.v.). 

Abaddun. An evil genius in Planchil's 
■*Good Woman in the Wood' (q.v.). 

Absellino, the Great Bandit. A 

(drama adapted by William Dunlap (q.v.) 
from tlie (Jerman story by Zschokke (the 
orighial of M. G. Lewis's tale, ' The Bravo of 
Venice '), and first performed at New York, 
U.S.A., on February 11, 1801, with Hodgkin- 
son as the hero, and his wife as Rosamimda. 
Ahcellino was among the rdles of J. R. Duff, 
and Itosamunda among those of his wife. 
The drama itself gave, says William Winter, 
"an occasion for a facetious exploit by 
Jefferson the third and his comrades, to 
the discomfiture of an actor named Andrew 
Jackson Allen [q.v.]. . . . Allen was partial 
to the play of ' Aba?llino,' and on the occa- 
sion named he had chosen it for his benefit 
night. Its closing situation presents the 
whole dramatis personce on the scene, and, 
at a critical moment, they all are to exclaim, 
* Where is Abcellino ? ' But Jefferson's 
mischievous plan had arranged that when 
this moment should come tlie entire com- 
pany should stand immovable and speech- 
less. Abcellino, his head darkly muffled in 
his cloak, for a while awaited the word. 
At last he was heard to mutter several 
tunes, ' Somebody say *' Where's Abcellino ?" ' 
There was no response, and the house was 
already in a titter. The dilemma was finally 
broken by Allen himself, who loudly cried 
out, ' If you want to know where's Abcellino, 
here he is,' and threw off his disguise, amid 
shrieks of laughter." There are several 
other plays based (m Zschokke's story. See 
Rugantino and Venetian Outlaw. 

Ahanazar. (1) A Jew in Planche's 
' Jewess ' (q.v.). (2) The magician in the 
various dramatizations of the story of 
Aladdin (q.v.). 

Abbaye de Castro (L'). 
Demonio and Broken Vow. 

See Bel 

Abbe Constantin (L'). A play by H. 
Crernieux and P. Decourcelle (itself founded 
on a novel by Ludovic Halevy), adapted by 
Clinton Stuart, and produced at Wallack's 
Theatre, New York, in 18S8, with J. Gilbert 
in the title part, and Miss F. Gerard (Mrs. 
Abbey) in the principal female r6le. 

Abbe de I'Epee (The); or, Deaf 
and Dumb. A play adapted from the 
French of Bouilly by W. Dunlap (q.v.), and 
produced at New York in 1801, with Mrs. 
Powell as the deaf and dumb boy. See 
Deaf and Dumb. 

Abbe Vaudreuil (The); or, The 
Court of Louis XV. A play by 11. R. 
Addison (q.v.), first performed at the Lyceum 
Theatre, London, on March 19, 1860, with 
Mdme. Celeste in the title part (which was 
always a favourite role with her, and in 
which she took her "farewell benefit" at 
the Adelphi on December 17, 1870). The cast 
also included Miss Hudspeth as Marie de 
Rohan, Miss Kate Savile as Mdme. de Pom- 
padour, and Villiers as Henri Delcour. A 
portion of the action consists of what 
Delcour imagines to have happened in a 
dream. The Abb^ appears (along with Mdme. 
de Pompadour and others) in the vision, 
and acts as the familiar spirit of Delcour in 
various adventures. 

Abberville, Lord. The hero of Cum- 
berland's 'Fashionable Lover' (q.v.). 

Abbey, H. E. See New York Thea- 

Abbey of St. Aug-tistine (The). A 
play by Robert Merry (q.v.), first per- 
formed at Philadelphia in 1797. 

Abbey Park Theatre. See New 
York Theatres. 

Abbot of St. Maurice (The) figures 
in Lord Byron's ' Manfred' (q.v.). 

Abbott, Mrs. William (ne'e Buloid). 
Actress, died 1858 ; made her debut in New 
York in 1834, and married Abbott in 1842. 
She was the second representative in America 
of Grace Harkaway in ' London Assurance ' 
(q.v.), and supported Charlotte Cushman at 
Niblo's Theatre, New York, in 1858. Seo 
Ireland's ' New York Stage ' (1866). 

Abbott, WiUiam. Actor and dramatic 
writer, born at Chelsea in 1789, died at 



Baltimore, 1843'; -nja'tle. Ins dt^hut at Bath 
in 1S(U5 ; appeared at the Haymarket in 
I80S, ami agabi in 1810 ; wa^s engaged at 
Co vent Garden from lol3 onwards ; accom- 
panied Miss SmitliSon Lo' Paris in 1827; 
returned to Covent Garden, and in 1835 
went to America, where he met with little 
success, and died at last under melancholy 
circumstances. He was the original per- 
former of Lothair in 'The :Miller and his 
Men' (q.v.), Appius Claudius in ' Virginius' 
{q.v.), and Modus in 'The Hunchback '(^.r.). 
He played Pylades in ' The Distressed 
IMother'at Covent Garden in 1816, Charles 
Surface at Paris in 1827, Romeo at Covent 
Garden in 1830, and Hamlet at Philadelphia 
in 1836. "Mr. Abbott," wTote Hazlitt, 
"never acts ill." He was the author of 
two melodramas: 'The Youthful Days of 
Frederic the Great' {q.v.) and 'Swedish 
Patriotism' {q.v.). See 'Biography of the 
British Theatre ' (1824) ; Genest's ' English 
Stage ' (1832) ; Donaldson's ' Recollections of 
an Actor ' (1865) ; Brown's ' American Stage ' 
(1870) ; and the ' Dictionary of National 
Biography ' (1885). 

Abdalla. A tragedy by J. Delap {q.v.\ 
printed in 1803. See Genest's 'English 
Stage ' (1832). 

Abdalla. Brother of the caliph, in 
Mrs. Manley's ' Almyna' {q.v.). 

Abdallali. (1) A character in ^liss Lee's 
' Almeyda ' {q.v.). (2) Captain of the Forty 
Thieves, in all the pieces founded on the 
well-known story. See Ali Baba ; FORTY 
Thieves; Open Sesame. 

Abdelazer; or, The Moor's He- 
vengre. A tragedy by Aphra Bkhn {q.v.), 
performed at the Duke of York's Theatre in 
1677, with Betterton in the title part, Mrs. 
Lee as the Queen, Han-is a,s Ferdinand, Mrs. 
Betterton as Florella, and Smith as Philip. 
The play is based on Marlowe's ' Lust's Do- 
minion ' {q.v.). " Mrs. Behn," says Genest, 
" has made some considerable changes in the 
fifth act, and improved the whole play. Ab- 
delazer is a striking character. The outlines 
of Zanga are evidently borrowed from it, 
but the two parts differ in this — Zanrja has 
one object only in view, revenge; whereas 
Abdelazer is instigated not only by the 
desire of revenge, but also by jealousy, am- 
bition, and love" ('The English Stage'). 
Abdelazer is the son of the King of Fez, 
who has been conquered and killed by the 
Kinrf of Spain. To revenge himself on the 
latter, Abdelazer becomes the paramour of 
his " lascivious queen." He afterwards 
poisons the Kinfj, and kills the King's son 
Ferdinand, who has assailed the chastity of 
Florella, Abdelazefs wife. Eventually the 
Queen is assassinated by order of Abdelazer, 
who in the end is slain by the King's other 
•son, Philip, and his party. See Revenge, 

Abdelmelec. Uncle of Miilg Mahamet 
in 'The Battle of Alcazar' (^'.i'.). 

Abder Khan. King of Tartary, in 
H. M. MiLNER's 'Mazeppa' {q.v.), and 

which he was editor (1867-71), 
White (1872), the Edinburgh d 

in H. J. Byron's burlesque of that name 

Abdicated Prince (The); or, The 
Adventures of Four Years. A poli- 
tical pamphlet, written in dramatic form, 
and directed against James II. One of the 
characters remarks of that king that " cer- 
tainly never man took such pains to win a 
kingdom as this unhappy prince does to 
lose one." James is also accused of com- 
passing the death of his brother Charles. 
The " hero " of the piece, which was pub- 
lished in 1690, is the Duke of Monmouth. 
See the ' Biographia Dramatica ' (1812). 

A Beckett. See Becket and Thomas 

A Becket. 

A Beckett, Arthur "William. Dra- 
matic Avriter, novelist, and journalist, liorn 
1S44 ; son of Gilbert Abbott t\ Beckett ; 
author of the following plavs : ' Faded 
Flowers' (1872), ' L. S. D.' (1872), 'About 
Town ' (1873), ' On Strike ' (1873), and ' Long 
Ago ' (1882), all of which see ; also, co-author 
with J. Palgi-ave Simpson {q.v.) of 'From 
Father to Son' {q.v.): has contributed 
theatrical criticisms and other articles to 
the Oriental Budget (1862-4), the Glowworm 
(1865-7), a 'Saturday Journal of Satire' of 
Black and 
Courant and 
Perthshire Advertiser (1871-5), Punch (since 
1875), the Sunday Times (" Greenroom 
Recollections"), the Theatre, London Society, 

"!A. Beckett, Gilbert Abbott. Dra- 
matic writer, born 1811, died 1S56 ; author 
of the following dramatic pieces : ' The 
Ambassadress,' 'The Artist's Wife,' ' The 
Assignation,' 'The Black Domino,' ' Thu 
Castle of Otranto,' ' A Clear Case,' ' Fi- 
garo in London,' 'Jack Brag,' 'Joe ISIiller 
and his Men,' 'The King Incog.,' 'Kini; 
John ' (burlesque), ' Love is Blind,' ' Tin; 
Magic Mirror,' ' Man-Fred,' ' The Man with 
the Carpet Bag,' ' The Mendicant,' ' Pascal 
Bruno,' 'The Postilion,' ' The Revolt of the 
Workhouse,' ' The Roof-Scrambler,' ' The 
Siamese Twins,' 'St. :Mark's Eve,' 'The Sou 
of the Sun,' 'The Three Graces,' 'The 
Tradesman's Ball,' ' The Turned Head,' 
'Unfortunate Miss Bailey,' 'Wanted, a 
Brigand,' ' The Wonderful Lamp in a New 
Light,' 'The World Underground,' and 'The 
Yellow Dwarf ;' the libretti of ' Agnes Screl ' 
and 'Little Red Riding Hood;' and, Avith 
Mark Lemon, 'Don Caesar de Bazan,' 'The 
Chimes,' 'The Knight and the Sprite,' 'O 
Gemini,' 'Open Sesame,' 'Peter Wilkins,' 
' Sardanapalus,' and 'St. George and the 
Dragon,'— all of which see. A Beckett was 
also the author of 'Scenes from Rejected 
Comedies ' {q.v.) and ' Quizziology of the 
British Drama' {q.v.). See Queen's Ball. 

A Beckett, Gilbert Arthur. Dra- 
matic and miscellaneous writer, born 1837, 
died 1891 ; son of Gilbert Abbott h. Beckett 
{q.v.) ; wrote the following plays, burlesques, 
and pantomimes : ' Ali Baba,' ' The Babes 
in the Wood,' ' Charles XL ; or, Something 



like History,' * Christabel,* ' Diamonds and 
Hearts,' 'Face to Face,' 'Glitter,' 'In the 
Clouds,' 'Last of the Legends,' 'Lending 
a Hand,' ' Red Hands,' ' Terrible Hymen,' 
' Two Harlequins,' and ' An Utter Perver- 
sion of the Brigand," all of which see ; also 
the following, produced at the German Reed 
entertainments : ' The Ancient Britons,' ' A 
Christmas Stocking," ' A Mountain Heiress,' 
' Once in a Centurv,' ' The Pirate's Home,' 
' The Spanish Bond,' ' The Three Tenants,' 
' That Dreadful Boy,' ' Two Foster Brothers,' 
and ' The Wicked Duke ; ' also the legend 
of 'The White PilgTira' (q.v.); the libretti 
of 'L'Ombra' (q.v), 'Savonarola' (^'.t'.), and 
'The Canterbury Pilgrims' (q.v.)', and lyrics 
for ' Captain Ther^se ' (q.v.) and ' La Cigale ' 
(q.v.). He was part author (Avith W. S. 
Gilbert) of 'The Happy Land' (q.v.), (with 
C. H. Ross) of ' The Sleeping Beauty ' (q.v.), 
(with Clement Scott) of 'Many Happy 
Returns,' of 'An Indian Puzzle,' and of 
' Grimstone Grange.' 

Abedneg-o. (1) The Jew, in T, Dibdin's 
'Jew and the Doctor' (q.v.). (2) A money- 
lender in R. Buchanan's 'Dick Sheridan' 

Abel. A " sacred drama," set to music 
by Dr. Arne, and performed at Drury Lane 
in 17.55. — Abel is among the personoe in Lord 
Byron's 'Cain : a :Mystery' (q.v.). 

Abel Drake. A drama in five acts, 
founded by John Saunder.s (q.v.) (with 
some assistance from Tom Taylor) on his 
novel of the same name, and first performed 
at the Theatre Royal, Leeds, on October 9, 
1874, with D. Bandmann in the title part, 
and Mrs. Bandmann as Barbara, other roles 
being taken by Mrs. H. Kirby and S. John- 
son ; first performed in London at the 
Princess's Theatre, on May 20, 1S76, and 
afterwards reduced to three acts. 'Abel 
Drake's Wife' is tlie title of a play pro- 
duced at Her Majesty's Theatre, Richmond, 
Surrey, in January, 1872. 

Abelard, Count. A character in H. 
F. Chorley's ' Duchess Eleanour ' (q.v.). 

Abelard and Heloise. A drama in 
three acts, by J. B. Buckstone (q.v.), first 
performed at the Surrey Theatre, London, 
with E. F. Saville and Jlrs. Yates in the 
title parts, and other characters by Yates, 
"O." Smith, D. Pitt, J. Reeve, Buckstone, 
Mrs. R. Honner, and Mrs. Fitzwilliam. See 
Buckstone's ' Popular Dramas ' (1834-7). 

Abenamar. Father of Almahide (q.v.), 
in Dryden's 'Conquest of Granada' (q.v.). 

Aberdeen. The first record of theatrical 
performances in this old Scotch city relates 
to 1562, when Queen Mary visited the place, 
and was received with festivities which 
included the performance of "spectacles, 
plays, and interludes." It appears to have 
been the habit of the citizens at this period 
to "make glaid the Kynges Majestie with 
farsceis, playes, histories," etc. In 1601 King 
James ordered Lawrence Fletcher and his 
comedians to exhibit "plays, comedies, and 

stage plays " in Aberdeen, and we read that 
they were presented with thirty-two merks 
and entertained at supper, the freedom of 
the city being also conferred upon them. In 
1745 the Edinburgh company paid a visit, but 
in the interval a change had come over the 
spirit of the municipality, and the actors 
were prohibited from performing. They 
came again in 1751, and, being again pro- 
hibited, erected a wooden building outside 
the city limits, where, however, they met 
with little success. In 1768 AVilliam Fisher 
and his company played in a hall at the 
New Inn, but they, too, met with little 
encouragement. At last, in 1780, Aberdeen 
obtained its first theatre— built at the back 
of an inn in Queen Street. " It had," says 
J.Keith Angus, " no boxes ; the price of ad- 
mission to the pit was half a crown, to the 
gallery one and sixpence ; when filled, the 
receipts amounted to nearly forty pounds." 
Another theatre, with boxes, was erected at 
about the same time in what is now called 
Chronicle Lane. It was conducted by one 
Sutherland on the "starring" system. 
There is also record (in 1779) of a theatre 
being " run" in Shoe Lane by West Digges 
(q.v.). In 1789 the building in Queen Stireet 
was converted into a chapel, and six years 
after (1795), a house in Marischal Street was, 
by way of compensation, converted into a 
theatre, at a cost of about £3000. This 
latter establishment forms the subject of a. 
monograph by J. Keith Angus (' A Scotch. 
Playhouse,' 1875), from which most of the par- 
ticulars in this article are derived. Stepher> 
Kemble (q.v.) was the first manager, but. 
did not stay in Aberdeen long. In 1799 one- 
Bell figured as lessee, in 1802 one Hamilton 
and later still came a Mr. Beaumont, a Mr. 
and ]Mrs. Mudie, and a Mr. Eraser (1812). 
In 1817 the theatre passed into the hands of 
Corbet Ryder (q.v.), who remained in posses- 
sion till 1842. He was followed by managers 
of the names of Langley and Adams, and 
by his widow, who afterAvards married a 
member of her company called Pollock. 
He died about 1853, and Mrs. Pollock con- 
ducted the theatre alone till 1S62. She was. 
succeeded in 1869 by A. D. jM'Neil (q.v.), and, 
later, by Edward Price (q.v.), who, like 
M'Xeil, had mai-ried one of her daughters, 
by -her first husband. The boards of the 
theatre had been trodden at one time or 
other by such "stars" as Edmund and 
Charles Kean, Charles Mackav, John Van- 
denhoff, J. P. Kemble, J. B. Booth, Sheridan 
Knowles, Miss O'Neil, T. P. Cooke, G. V. 
Brooke, Mrs. Warner, John Bannister, 
Daniel Terry, Charles ^NLayne Young, Miss 
Helen Faucit, Samuel Phelps, and Oxberry. 
The present theatre (Her Majesty's) was 
built in 1872 and opened in December of 
that year, under the management of W. 
Gomersal. The lesseeship has .since been 
held successively by Miss Annie Baldwin, 
W. M'Farland, and R. Arthur. 

Abhorson. An executioner in 'Measure 
for Measure' (g. v.). 

Abigail. (1) The waiting-woman in 
Beaumont and Fletcher's 'Scornful Lady' 



(q.v.). (2) Daughter of Barabas in Mar- 
lowe's 'Jew of Malta' {q.v.). (3) Hand- 
maid to the Jewess in W. T. Moncrieff'S 
play of that name C?.r.). (4) Handmaid to 
Lady Agnes in J. B. BucKSTONE'S ' Flowers 
of the Forest ' (q.v.). (5) A waiting-maid in 
H. J. Byron's 'Princess Springtime' (q.v.). 
(6) The Lady Aurora Abigail is first lady of 
the bedchamber in Planche's 'Sleeping 
Beauty in the Wood' (q.v.). See Allspice, 

Abimelecli. An oratorio, music by 
Dr. Arnold, performed at Covent Garden 
in 1768. 

Abing-don, W. L. Actor, born ISGO ; 
made his professional debut at Belfast in 
18S0, and his London debut, as George Benson 
in ' Shadows of a Great City,' in 1S87. Since 
then he has figured in the original casts of 
Cleary's ' Mirage,' Nisbet's ' Dorothy Gray,' 
Doone's 'Daughter's Sacrifice,' Sims and 
Pettitt's 'London Day by Day,' Sims and 
Buchanan's ' English Rose ' and ' Black 
Domino,' Mrs. Wylde's 'Her Oath,' Mackay 
and Denbigh's ' The Life we Live,' Miss 
Burney's ' The 'County,' Keith's ' Hush 
Money,' and Grundy's ,' An Old Jew ;' also, 
in the original London casts of Camp- 
bell's ' Siberia,' Arthur's ' The Still Alarm,' 
Pettitt's 'Hands Across the Sea,' Zola's 
' Ther^se Raquin ' (Laurent), 'The Great 
Metropolis,' Nouhuys' 'The Gold Fish' 
{Kooders), 'The Broken Melody.' and De 
Mille's 'The Lost Paradise.' He has also 
been seen as Dr. Bank in ' A Doll's House ' 
(1891), and Captain Hawtree in ' Caste ' 

Abing-ton, Mrs. (Fanny Barton). 
Actress, born about 1737, died 1815 ; the 
daughter of a private soldier, though some 
have traced her connection with the Bartons 
of Derbyshire. She began her career as a 
flower-girl, being known to " the town" as 
•'Nosegay Fan." She afterwards became 
servant to a French milliner, and thus ob- 
tained a taste for dress, and an acquaintance 
■with her employer's native tongue, which 
were eventually of much service to her. 
She is also said to have acted as cookmaid 
in a family, and to have gone through other 
and less creditable experiences. Her first 
appearance on the stage was made through 
Theophilus Cibber, and at the Haymarket 
on August 21, 1755, the character being that 
•of Miranda in ' The Busybody.' Afterfigur- 
ing in a few other parts, she went succes- 
sively to Bath and to Richmond, where she 
■was engaged by the manager for Drury Lane. 
She appeared at the last-named theatre in 
Novembei', 1756. In 1759 she married her 
music-master, Mr. Abington : and, at the 
end of her fourth season at the Lane, mi- 
grated to Dublin (Smock Alley Theatre). 
There she remained for five years, "highly 
esteemed." Reappearing' at Drury Lane in 
1765, .she was at once accepted as the repre- 
sentative of the leading parts in comedy— a 
position which she occupied at the theatre 
for the next eighteen years. She will always 
be best remembered as the first imper- 

sonator of Lady Teazle, but her range of 
characters was a wide one. She was the 
original of Maria in ' Arden of Feversham,' 
Lady Bab in ' High Life Below Stairs,' 
Betty in 'The Clandestine Marriaee,' Char- 
lotte in ' The Hypocrite,' Charlotte in 
' The West Indian,' Bcxalana in ' The 
Sultan,' and Miss Hoyden in ' The Trip to 
Scarborough.' Among her Shakespearean 
parts were Desdemona (1755), Beatrice (1759), 
Portia (1759), Ophelia (1771-2), and Olivia 
(1771-2). Her other roles included Sylvia 
in 'The Recruiting- Officer' (1755), Prince 
Prettyman in 'The Rehearsal' (1755), Lady 
Pliant in ' The Double Dealer' (1756), Lucy 
Locket in 'The Beggar's Opera' (1758-9), 
Mrs. Sullen in ' The Beaux' Stratagem ' 
(1759), Lady Fanciful in 'The Provoked 
Wife' (1759), the "fine lady" in 'Lethe' 
(1759), Kitti/ in 'High Life Below Stairs' 
(1759), Miss Prue in ' Love for Love ' (1760-1), 
Polly Honeyeomhe in G. Colman senior's 
plav (1760-1), Widoiv Bellmour in 'The Way 
to keep Him ' (1760-1), Mrs. Oakley in ' The 
Jealous Wife' (1761-2), Polly Peachum in 
' Beggar's Opera ' (1764-5), Millamant in 
'The Way of the World' (1765-6), Lady 
ToM'uZe?/ in 'TheProvokedHu.sband' (1767-8), 
Mrs. Ford in ' Merrv Wives of Windsor' 
(1769-70), Lady Sadlife in ' The Double Gal- 
lant ' (1769-70), Lady Betty Modish in ' The 
Careless Husband' (1769-70), Lady Froth in 
' The Double Dealer' (1772-3), Miss Hoyden 
in 'The Man of Quality' (1773-4), Lady 
Flutter in 'The Discovery' (1775-6), Lydia 
Languish in 'The Rivals' (1776-7), Lady 
Backet in 'Three Weeks after Marriage' 
(l7Si-5), Scrub in 'The Beaux' Stratagem' 
(1785-6), and Bisarre in 'The Inconstant' 
(17S7-8). Davies wrote of her : "So various 
and unlimited are her talents, that she is not 
confined to females of a superior class ; she 
can descend occasionally to the country girl, 
the romp, the hoyden, and the chambermaid, 
and put on the various airs, humours, and 
whimsical peculiarities of these under-parts ; 
she thinks nothing low that is in nature : 
nothing mean or beneath her skill which 
is characteristical." O'Keefe testifies that 
" Mrs. Abington's manner was charmingly 
fascinating, and her speaking voice melo- 
dious. She had pecuUar tricks in acting ; 
one was turning her wrist, and seeming to 
stick a pin in the side of her waist. She 
was also very adroit in the exercise of her 
fan." Dibdin records that "her taste for 
dress was novel and interesting. She was 
consulted by ladies of the first distinction, 
not from caprice, but from a decided con- 
viction of her judgment in blending what 
was beautiful with what was becoming." 
See Davies' ' Life of Garrick ' (1780), Dibdin's 
'History of the Stage' (1795), O'Keefe's 
' Recollections ' (1826),'s 'English 
Stage ' (1832), Taylor's ' Records of Mv Life ' 
(1869), Crahb Robinson's 'Diary' "(1869), 
Dutton Cook's 'Hours with the Players' 
(1881), and 'Actors and Actresses' (New 
York, 1886). 

Able. A character in Howard's ' Com- 
mittee ' (q.v.). 



Aboan. A character in Southerne's 
'Oroonoko ' (q.v.). 

Abomelique. The hero of the old 
melodrama 'Blue Beard' (q.v.), and of H. 
J. Byron's burlesque of that name (q.v.). 
He figures in Planche and Dance's ' Blue 
Beard' (q.v.) as the Baron Abomelique, and 
in BURNAND's 'Blue Beard' {q.v.) as the 
Baron Abomelique de Barbe Bleue. 

Abomelique the Second. Prince of 
Piombino in ISABELLA VERNIER'S ' Barber 
and Bravo' (q.v.). 

Abon Hassan. A character in the 
' Arabian Nights,' and the leading figure in 
(1) 'Abon Hassan : ' a farce by W. Dimond 
(q.v.), first performed at Drury Lane on 
April 4, 1S25, with Horn as the hero, Miss 
Graddon as Zulima, Bedford as the Caliph, 
and Mrs. Orger as Zobeide ; first produced 
in New York in 1S27. The main incidents 
had previously been treated by O'Keefe in 
his 'Dead Alive' (q.v.). Abon and Zulima 
have married contrary to the wishes of the 
Sultan and Zobeide, but, after certain mysti- 
fications produced by their pretending to be 
dead, they are taken back to favour. (2) 
' Abu Hassan ' (q.v.). (3) ' Abon Hassan ; or. 
The Hunt after Happiness : ' an extravaganza 
by Francis Talfourd (q.v.), first performed 
at the St. James's Theatre, London, on 
December 26, 1854, with ^Nliss Marshall in 
the title part, J. L. Toole as Uaroun-al- 
Itaschid, and Miss Eleanor Bufton as Equa- 
■nocta ; "smartly written, but inett'ective," 
was E. L. Blanchard's comment in his 
' Diary.' (4) 'Abon Hassan ; or, An Arabian 
Knight's Entertainment : " an extravaganza 
by Arthur O'Neil, first performed at the 
Charing Cross Theatre on December 11, 1869, 
with Miss E. Fowler in the "name role," C. 
P. Flockton as Haroun, and Miss R. Roberts 
as Zobeide. 

Aboudlefatalikh.anshah. The pacha 
in W. H. Oxberry's 'Pacha's Pets' (q.v.). 

About, Edmond. The ' Roi des Mon- 
tagues ' of this author (1S2S-1S84) was the 
foundation of Tom Taylor's 'Brigand and 
his Banker' (^'.r.). See, also, Sunny Side, 

A"bout Town. A comedy in three acts 
by Arthur W. A'Beckett (q.v.), first per- 
formed at the Court Theatre, London, on 
:\Iay 12, 1873, with Edgar Bruce as Sir Walter 
Mervyn, Chippendale, jun., as Monteagle, 
Miss Kate Bishop, Miss Marie Litton, 
George Rignold, E. C. Righton, and INIrs. 
Stephens. Mervyn and Monteagle are two 
young men " about town." The comedy was 
first played in America at Daly's Broadway 
Theatre, New York, on September 29, 1873, 
with Miss Minnie Waltou in Miss Bishop's 

Above and Below. A comic drama 
in two acts, by Edward Stirling (q.v.), first 
performed at the Lyceum Theatre, London, 
on July 16, 1846, with a cast including A. 
AVigan, F. Matthews, Keeley, Diddear, 

Meadows, and Miss Fairbrother. In this 
piece the action is carried on simultaneously 
in two rooms, one "above" and one "be- 
low." See Actor of All Work; Sans 

Abra-Mule ; or, Love and Empire. 
A tragedy by Dr. Joseph Trapp (q.v.), 
founded on a " history of the dethronement 
of Mahomet lY." by Le Noble (translated 
by " S. P."), and first performed at Lincoln's 
Inn Fields in January, 1704, with Mrs. 
Bracegirdle in the title part, Yerbruggen as 
Pyrrhus, Betterton as Mahomet IV., and 
Powell as Solyman. Abra-Mule loves and 
is beloved by Pyrrhus, the grand vizier ; 
Mahomet, the emperor, and Solyman, his 
brother, also love her ; but Mahomet is 
deposed,and Solyman resigns her to Pyrrhus. 

Abra.dates and Pantbea. (1) A tra- 
gedy by Roberts, founded on a passage in 
Xenophon's ' Cyropsedia,' and acted in 1770 
by the scholars of St. Paul's School. (2) 
An unacted tragedy by John Edwards, 
published in 1808, and founded, like its pre- 
decessor, on Xenophon. Abradates is King 
of Susiana, and, he being killed in battle, 
his wife Panthea commits suicide. See 

Abraham. The Hebrew patriarch is 
the central figure in various old dramas. 
(1) The story of Abraham and Isaac, for 
example, forms the subject of plays in the 
Chester, Coventry, and Widkirk series. The 
Chester play has a comic prologue by one 
" Gobbet on the Green " (q.v.). For analysis 
and quotations, see Collier's ' Di-amatic 
Poetry ' (miracle-plays). (2) ' The Ti-agec\ie 
of Abraham's Sacrifice ; ' a religious play, 
translated by Arthur Golding (g.i'.) from 
the French of Theodore Beza, and published 
in 1577. (3) ' Abram and Lot' figm-es in 
Henslowe's list of the plays acted by "the 
Earl of Sussex's servants " in 1593. (4) 
•Abraham,' a 'mystery,' was edited by J. 
P. Collier, and published in 1836. 

Abraham and Isaac. See Abraham. 

Abraham Parker. See Addison, H. R. 

Abraham's Sacrifice. See Abraham. 

Abrahamides. A character in 'The 
Tailors' (q.v.). 

Abram and Lot. See Abraham. 

Abricotina. The princess's maid, in 
PLANCiiii's 'Invisible Prince' (q.v.). 

Abroad and at Home. A comic opera 
in three acts, by J. G. Holman (q.v.), 
first performed at Covent Garden Theatre 
on November 19, 1796, Avith INIrs. Second as 
Miss Hartley, INIrs. Martyr as Kitty, Incledon 
as Ilarcourt, Quick as <SVr Simon Flourish^ 
Fawcett as Young Flourish, Munden as Old 
Testy, and Knight as Young Testy. Old 
Flourish and old Testy are the guardians of 
3Iiss Hartley, and each desires to marry her 
to his son. But young- Testy marries Kitty, 
Miss Hartley's maid, thinking her to be her 
mistress ; young Flourish is supposed to be 
" abroad," though really "at home;" and 



2'fL^s Hartley is united to Harcourt, whom 
she loves. 

Absalom, son of King David, was the 
hero of (1) a drama by Bishop Bale (q.v.), 
no longer existent ; (2) a manuscript Latin 
tragedy by John Watson, Bishop succes- 
sively of i>incoln and Winchester, referred 
to by Ascham in his 'Schoolmaster' (1570) 
and Meres in his 'Palladis Tamia' (1598). 
See David and Bethsabe. 

Absence of Mind; or, Wanted 
£5. A comedietta, adapted by W. Poel 
from the German of Kotzebue, and per- 
formed atthe Victoria Theatre, London, with 
a cast including the adapter and Mrs. C. 
M'arner ; also, at the Olympic Theatre, July 
11, 1884. 

Absences de Monsieur (Les). See 
Absent Man ; Out of Sight, Out of Mind. 

Absent Apothecary (The). A farce 
in two acts, attributed to the authors of 
'Rejected Addresses' (James and Horace 
Smith), and first performed at Drury Lane 
on February 10, 1S13. It was finally con- 
demned on the second night of its produc- 
tion. Miss Kelly, Bannister, John.stone, and 
Knight were in the cast. "The 'Ab.sent 
Apothecary' was by no means an original 
character, as he strongly resembled the 
* Absent Man ' " (q.v.). 

Absent, liOrd and Lady. Characters 
in Taverner's 'Artful Wife' (q.v.). 

Absent Man (The). (1) A farce .said to 
have been written by Thomas Hull (q.v.), 
■and first performed at Covent Garden on 
April 28, 1764, with Shuter, Dunstall, Mat- 
tocks, and Miss Miller in the cast. (2) A 
farce by Isaac Bickerstaffe (q.v.), per- 
formed at Drury Lane on March 21, 1768, 
with King as Shatterhrain the hero, Cau- 
therley as Welldon, and Mrs. W. Barry as 
Flavia. Shatterhrain is engaged to marry 
Flavia, but forgets all about the ceremony, 
and the lady takes the opportunity to 
Welldon, her lover. The author confesses to 
having taken the idea of the farce from La 
Bruyere's " character" of Menalcas. (3) A 
farcical comedietta in one act, freely adapted 
by G. Roberts {q.v.) from ' Les Absences de 
Monsieur ' {q.v.), and first performed at the 
Holborn Theatre, London, on June 18, 1870, 
with A. Wood as J^l armaduke Maze and W. 
Brunton as Sam Sloper. 

Absent One (The). See Wigan, 

Absolute, Sir Anthony and Cap- 
tain. Father and son in Sheridan's 
'Rivals' (7. r.). Sir Anthony, says Hazlitt, 
is " an evident copy after Smollett's kind- 
hearted and high-spirited Matthew Bram- 
ble" (a character in 'Humphrey Clinker.') 
Captain Absolute, in love with Lydia 
Languish (q.v.), masquerades as ' Ensign 

" Absolute the knave is ! (How)." 

— ' Hamlet,' act v. so. 1. 

Abstract and brief chronicles of 
the time." Hamlet's description of "the 
players " in act ii. sc. 2. " After your death," 
he adds, " you were better have a bad 
epitaph than their ill report while you live." 

Abu Hassan. An operetta, music by 
Weber, produced, with an English libretto, 
at Drury Lane in 1835. See Abon Hassan. 

Abudah. An Arab wamor in Hughes's 

* Siege of Damascus ' (q.v.). 

Abudah ; or, The Talisman of 
Orosmanes. A musical piece by J. R. 
Planche (q.v.), founded on one of Ridley's 
' Tales of the Genii,' and produced at Drury 
Lane Theatre, London, on April 13, 1819, with 
H. Kemble as Ahvdah, Harley as Fadlah- 
dallah, and IVIrs. Bland as Zemroude. " The 
ballads sung in it were set by that extra- 
ordinary character, Michael Kelly" (q.v.). 

Abuses: "containing both a Comedy 
and a Tragedy, performed July SO, 1606, 
before the Kings of Great Britain and Den- 
mark, by the Children of Paul's." See Sir 
Thomas More. 

Academy (The) ; or. The Cam- 
bridg-e Dons. A manuscript comedy by 
Joshua Barnes, in the library of Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge; "appears," says W. C. 
Hazlitt, "to have been written about the 
year 1675." 

Academy of Music. See New York 

Acasto, Lord, in Otway's 'Orphan' 
(q.v.), is father to Castalio, Polydore, and 
Serina, and guardian of Monimia. 

Accomplished Maid (The). A comic 
opera, adapted from 'La Buona Figliuola' 
of Goldoni by Edward Toms (q.v.), and first 
performed at Covent Garden on December 3, 
1766, with Mrs. INIattocks as Fanny the 
heroine. Mattocks as Lord Bellmour, and 
Shuter, Dibdin, etc., in other parts. Fanny, 
a foundling, turns out to be a German 
baroness, and is married to Bellmour. 

Accring^on (Lancashire). The Prince's 
Theatre here was built in 1882. 

Accusation ; or, The Pamily of 
Ang-lade. A play in three acts, by J. 
Howard Payne (q.v.), adapted from the 
French, and first performed at Drury Lane 
on February 1, 1816, with Miss Kelly as Ma- 
dame d'Anglade, Rae as D'Anglade, Wallack 
as Valmore, Mrs. Glover as Madame de 
Cerval, and Bartley, Barnard, Knight, 
Powell, and Penley in other parts. Another 
version, entitled 'The Portfolio' (q-v.), was 
brought out at Covent Garden on the same 
evening as a farcical after-piece. The play 
was produced in ?sew York in 1816, with 
Mrs. Barnes as Madame d'Anglade. Hazlitt 
wrote of 'Accusation' that " the old histo- 
rical materials are rather scanty, consisting 
only of a narrative of a robbery committed 
on a nobleman by some members of his own 
household, for which a INI. d'Anglade, who 
with his fumily occupied part of the same 
hotel, was condemned on false evidence to 
the galleys." 



Accusing: Spirit (The); or, The 
Three Travellers of the Tyrol. A 

drama in three acts, by W. E. Suter (q.v.), 
first performed at the Grecian Theatre, 
London, on March 5, 1S60, Avith ]Mead as 
£ric; revived at the Queen's Theatre in 
May, 1861, with C. Sennett as Uric. 

Ace of Clubs (The). A play in five 
acts, adapted by Arthur Shirley from 
P. Decourcelle's 'L'As de Trefle' (Ambigu, 
Paris, March, 1883), and first played at the 
Theatre Royal, Darlington, on March 22, 

Achademios, The Comedy of. A 

dramatic work by John Skelton (q.v.), 
referred to by him in his ' Garlande or 
Chapelet of Lawrell ' (1523). 

"Aches." — 'Tempest,' act 1. sc. 2. 
John Kemble's mode of pronouncing this 
word — as if in two syllables — was the cause 
of much controversy and excitement. In 
1806 "a crowded house attended Cooke's 
first performance of Prospero merely to 
ascertain whether he would or would not 
adopt his manager's orthoepy. Cooke dis- 
creetly avoided the difficulty by omitting 
altogether the lino in which the disputed 
word occurs." 

Achilles. The Greek hero is a promi- 
nent personage in several dramatic pieces : 

(1) ' Achilles ; or, Iphigenia in Aulis : ' a 
tragedy by Abel Boyer (q.v.), translated 
from the ' Iphigeuie ' of Racine, and per- 
formed at Drury Lane in 169i), with Powell 
as Achilles, Wilks as Agamemnon, Gibber as 
Ulysses and Calchas, Mills as Areas, iNIrs. 
Rogers as Iphigenia, and Mrs. Knight as 
Clytemnestra. The only variation from 
Racine is in the last scene of the fifth act. 
The play was revived at Covent Garden in 
March, 1778, under the title of ' Iphigenia.' 
It was printed in 1700. See Victim, The. 

(2) 'Achilles :' an opera by John Gay (q.v.), 
first performed at Covent Garden on Feb- 
ruary 10, 1733, with Salway in the title part, 
Quin as Lycomecles, Chapman as Ulysses, 
and Miss Norsa as Ueidamia. " This piece, 
which is in the manner of the ' Beggar's 
Opera,' is aludicrous relation of the discovery 
oiAcliilles by Ulysses. The scene lies in the 
court of Lycomecles. Achilles is in woman's 
clothes through the whole play, and it con- 
cludes by his marriage with Deidamia." 
Doran remarks that, "by the treatment of 
the subject. Gay did not manifest the inno- 
cency to which he laid claim, nor show him- 
self either in wit a man or in simplicity a 
child." Under the title of 'Achilles in 
Petticoats,' Gay's opera, altered by George 
Colman (q.v.), and set to music by Dr. Arne, 
was brought out at Covent Garden on De- 
cember 16, 1773, with Mattocks as Achilles, 
Du-Bellamy as Lycomedes, and Mrs. Mat- 
tocks as Deidamia. (3) ' Achilles in Scyros : ' 
an opera, translated from Metastasio by 
John Hoole, and printed in 1800. (4) 
' Achilles in Scyros : ' a dramatic poem by 
Robert Bridges (q.v.). — Achilles has 
figured also in burlesque, e.g. in Kenney's 

*La Belle Helene' (q.v.), and R. Brough'a 
* Siege of Troy ' (q.v.). 

Achilles in Petticoats. See Achilles. 

Achilles in Scyros, See Achili^s. 

Achman. An actor employed at Drury 
Lane, mentioned by Churchill in ' The Ros- 
ciad,' and highly praised by Hugh Kelly 


Achmet. A character in Brown's 
'Barbarossa' (q.v.). 

Achmet, Mrs. Actress (nde Egan), and 
a pupil of Lee Lewis ; made her firsc appear- 
ance in Smock Alley Theatre, Dublin, about 
1785, and was successful there in ' The 
Grecian Daughter,' 'Imoinda,' and other 
plays. After her marriage she toured in 
the English provinces, and in 1789 made 
her debut in London at Covent Garden as 
Juliet. Among her other parts was Sir 
Harry Wildair. "In person," wrote a 
contemporary, " she is elegant, in action 
graceful, but deficient in force and anima- 
tion." See the ' Tliespian Dictionary' (1805). 

Achoreus. A character in Beaumont 
and Fletcher's 'False One' (q.v.) and 
CiBBER's ' Cajsar in Egypt' (q.v.). 

Achurch, Janet. Actress, born 1864 ; 
made her debut in London at the Olympic 
Theatre in 1883, playing Lady Stanmore in 
'A Great Catch' and Lady Albemarle in 
'The Queen's Favourite.' She afterwards 
toured through the provinces, starring as 
Lady Audley in. 'Lady Audley's Secret' and 
Mercy Merrick in 'The New Magdalen,' etc. ; 
and playing ,"lead" with F. R. Benson in a 
round of Shakespearean and other "legi- 
timate " plays (Lady Macbeth, Queen iu 
' Hamlet,' Pauline in ' Lady of Lyons,' etc.). 
Between 1886 and 1890 she enacted in Lon- 
don the following (and other) original 
r6les : CUmence in 'A Gay Husband,' 
Angela in Chambers and Little's 'Devil's 
Caresfoot,' Alice Lellairs in Buchanan's 
' Partners,' Mathilde in Wills and Grundy's 
' Pompadour,' Ile.^ter Prynne in Nelson's 
' Scarlet Letter,' and Nora in Ibsen's 'Doll's 
House." In 1890-2 she and her husband- 
Charles Charrington (q.v.) — undertook a 
"starring" tour in Australia, India, and 
Egypt, where she added largely to her 
repertory. Returning to London in 1892, 
she appeared at the Avenue Theatre as 
Stephanie de Mohrivart in ' Forget me Not ' 
(q.v.), and at the Grand Theatre, Islington, 
as the Princess Claudia in ' The Red Lamp ' 
(q.v.). In 1893 she "created" at the Royalty 
the title 7'6les of 'Alexandra' (q.v.) and 
' Clever Alice ' (q.v.), and at Terry's the lead- 
ing female part in W. H. Pollock's ' An Inter- 
lude,' in A. C. Doyle's ' Foreign Policy,' and 
in J. M. Barrie's ' Becky Sharp.' At the 
former theatre, also, she appeared as Ad- 
rienne Lecouvreur. In 1896 she was seen 
at the Avenue as Pita in ' Little Eyolf,' and 
in 1897 at the Olympic as Cleopatra. See 
Mrs. Daintree's Daughter. 

Acis and G-alatea. (1) A masque, by 
Peter Motteux (q.v.), founded on a story 



in Ovid's ' Metamorphoses,' bk. xiii. ; set 
to music by John Eccles, and performed at 
Drury Lane, with Mrs. "VViUis, jun., as Acis, 
and Mrs. Tenoeas Galatea ; also at Lincoln's 
Inn Fields. In this piece the lovers are 
made " happy at last by marriage." It was 
first printed in 1701. (2) A dancing enter- 
tainment at Drury Lane in 1728. (3) A 
"serenata," founded on the same story as 
that of Motteux's masque ; music by Handel, 
words by JOHN Gay (q.v.), with additions 
by Dryden, Pope, and Hughes ; composed 
at Cannons, probably in 1720, and performed 
there, probably, in 1721 ; first pei-formed in 
London at the Haymarket in 1732, in three 
acts, and with Miss" Arne as Galatea; revived 
at the Queen's Theatre, London, in Feb- 
ruary, 1831, with Mrs. Glover, Mrs. Humby, 
E. Seguin, T. Green, etc., in the cast ; at 
Drury Lane by Macready, on February 
5, 1S42, Avith Miss P. Horton as Acis, 
Miss Romer as Galatea, H. Phillips as 
Polyphemus, and the scenery from designs 
by Stanfield ; at New York in 1842. with 
Mrs. Seguin ; at the Princess's Theatre, 
London, in August, 1869, with Vernon 
Bigby as Acis, Herr Formes as Polyphe- 
mus, and Miss Blanche Cole as Galatea; 
and at the Gaiety Theatre, Glasgow, in 
1876, with G. Perren and Madame Rolt in 
the title parts, and Signor Foli as Poly- 
phemus. It was first printed in 1732. (4) A 
burlesque of ' Acis and Galatea,' by W. 
H. OxBERRY iqv.), was produced at the 
Adelphi Theatre, London, in 1842, three 
days after Alacready's production of the 
original. (5) A travesty by F. C. Burnand 
{q.v.), entitled 'Acis and Galatea; or. The 
Nimble Nymph and the Terrible Troglo- 
dyte,' was brought out at the Olympic The- 
atre, London, on April 6, 1863, with Miss 
Hughes as Galatea, and Miss Annie Kemp 
as Acis. (6) A burlesque, by T. F. Plowman, 
entitled ' Acis and Galatea ; or. The Beau ! 
■ the Belle ! ! and the Blacksmith ! ! ! ' was 
produced at the Victoria Theatre, Oxford, 
in 1869. 

Acolastus. A " comedy " on the story 
of the Prodigal Son ; translated by John 
Palsgrave, for the use of children, from the 
Latin of Fullonius ; and printed in 1540, 
with the .statement that Fullonius had " set 
it forthe before the bourgeses of Hagen [the 
Hague] in Holand, anno MDXXix." 

Acorn. (1) The Acorns, in Raymond's 
'Farmer's Daughter' {q.v.), include Farmer 
Acorn, his brother George, and his daughter 
Mary. (2) Jack Acorn figures in I\Irs. Su- 
sanna RowsoN's ' Columbia's Daughter ' 

Acoulina, A character in 'The Serf 

Acres, Bob, in Sheridan's ' Rivals ' 
(q.v.), is described by Hazlitt as "a distant 
descendant of Sir Andreiv Aguecheek" (q.v.). 
"Squire Acres," says a more recent critic, 
" is a country gentleman of limited intel- 
ligence, and incapable of acquiring, even by 
contagion, the curious system of referentia'l 
swearing by which he gives variety to his 

speech. But his indeterminate valour is 
sj aptly utilized, and his ultimate poltroon- 
ery in the duel scene is so whimsically deve- 
loped, that he would be a very hard-hearted 
critic indeed who could taunt Mr. Acres 
with his artistic shortcomings." Byron has 
recorded in ' Don Juan ' how 

" Through his palms Bob Acres' valour oozed." 

Acrobat (The). A drama in four acts, 
founded by Wilson Barrett (q.v.) on 'Le- 
Paillasse' of D'Ennery and Fournier, and 
first performed at the Olympic Theatre, 
London, on April 21, 1891, with the author 
as Belphcgor, Miss Winifred Emery as' 
Madeline, Cooper Cliffe as Lavarennes, and 
G. Barrett as Flip-Flap. See Belphegor. 

Across Her Path.. A play in four acts, 
by Annie Irish (q-v.), founded on Miss A. 
Sevan's novel of the same name, and first 
played at Terry's Theatre, London, on 
January 21, 1890, with the adapter as tho 

Across the Atlantic. See Home. 

Across the Continent. A drama, 
in prologue and three acts, by James 
M'Closkey (q.v.), played at the Alfred 
Theatre, London, in July, 1871 ; at Victoria 
Theatre in March, 1872. In America Miss 
Ada Rehan has played Agnes Constant in 
this drama. 

Act at Oxford (An) . See Hampstead- 

Act-drop (The). The name given to the 
curtain, usually painted in a more or less- 
artistic .style, which is " dropped " at the 
conclusion of each "act" of a play. In 
some theatres it is the custom to drop and 
draw a curtain from each side of the pro- 
scenium, and that is generally called a. 
" tableau curtain." 

Act8ea,in Halm's 'Son of the Wilder- 
ness' (q.v.), is the unother oi Parthenia (q.v.), 

Actaeon, the hunter changed by Diana 
into a stag, is the hero of R. Cox's ' Actseon- 
and Diana' (q-v.), and figures also in W. 
Brough'S 'Endymion' (q.v.). 

Actaeon and Diana. An interlude 
by Robert Cox, "with a pastoral story of 
the nymph Qilnone, followed by the several 
conceited humours of Bumpkin the hunts- 
man, Hohhinal the shepherd. Singing Simp- 
kin, and John Swahher the seaman," founded 
on a passage in the ' JMetamorphoses ' of 
Ovid, and described in the second edition 
(1656) as having been performed with ap- 
plause at the Red Bull. To this edition was 
added the character of Simpleton the smith. 
The interlude was reprinted in Kirkman's 
' Wits ' (1673), and in Chetwood's ' Collection* 

Acting- as a Profession. The name 
of the first English professional actor is, it 
need scarcely be said, not known. Nor, 
one may add, is there any record of the- 
first professional performance in England. 
Dutton Cook observes that " acting^ as a 
distinct profession, seems to have been 
known in England at least as far back as 



the reign of Henry VI.," but everything 
depends upon what is understood by "act- 
ing." Another historian of the stage re- 
minds us that " the pagan Saxon era had 
its dialogue-actors or buffoons," and he goes 
on to relate that "when the period of 
Christianity succeeded, its professors and 
teachers took of the evil epoch what best 
suited their purposes." " In castle-hall, 
before farmhouse fires, on the bridges, and 
in the market-places, the men who best per- 
formed the united offices of missionary and 
actor were, at once, the most popular 
preachers and players of the day" (Doran). 
The alliance between "the Church and the 
Stage" is, indeed, as old as it has been 
intimate. The monks welcomed the wander- 
ing strollers, and, it is said, did not disdain 
to compose songs for them to sing. At last, 
the rapprochement became such that " actors 
and other vagabonds " were prohibited by 
royal decree from having access to the 
monasteries. Then, it would appear, the 
clergy began to vn-ite their own dramas and 
play in them themselves. (See M0R.4.LITIES 
and Mysteries.) The first official recogni- 
tion of the actor as a professional person 
was made, apparently, by the Duke of Glou- 
cester, who was afterwards to become so 
famous and so infamous as Richard III. 
The duke had players attached to his house- 
hold, and, when he had no need of their 
services, sent them, so to speak, "on tour" 
for their own benefit. Others of the nobility 
followed his example, and eventually actors 
in the pay of the aristocracy were allowed, 
by royal licence, to give performances wher- 
ever and whenever their employers per- 
mitted them. Of Henry VII. we read that 
he employed official "players of interludes," 
and Collier prints a document, dated Easter, 
1494, in which the actors acknowledge the 
receipt of their pay for the half-year. By 
1509 "acting had become an ordinary occu- 
pation," but "it seems not to have been 
considered by any means a respectable vo- 
cation." Henry VIII. followed for a time 
his father's example in maintaining players 
at court, and at one time rejoiced in "two 
companies, styled respectively the "king's 
players" and the "king's old players" (1514). 
But towards the end of his reign repressive 
measures began to be taken with regard to 
actors, and in 1543 the first act for the regu- 
lation of the stage was passed. In 1547 the 
king died, and it is recorded that the players 
then came into collision with the clergy, 
through announcing "a solempne play,""in 
evident opposition to " a solemn dirge " per- 
formed by the latter in honour of the de- 
ceased monarch. During the reign of Edward 
the law was often put in force against per- 
formers. In 1549 all plays were suppressed 
for a time, and again, in 1551, the players of 
the Marquis of Dorset were exhorted under 
penalties not to perfoi-m elsewhere than in 
their employer's presence. Five years later, 
under the auspices of Mary, all "players 
and pipers " were forbidden to " stroll,'"' on 
the ground that they were "disseminators 
of seditions and heresies " (Doran), the fact 
being that they were suspected of being in- 

fluenced by a desire to serve the Protestant 
cause. It was in this reign, too, that the 
authorities of London made a raid upon some 
actors who were appearing in ' A Sackf ull of 
News ' (q.v.). This was said to be " a lewd 
play," and the mayor was bidden to send 
his officers to the place, not only to arrest 
the comedians, but to " take their play- 
book from them." The actors were soon 
released, but only on condition that they 
"and all other players throughout the city" 
performed only "between All Saints and 
Shrovetide" and only such pieces as were 
approved by the Ordinary. In 1572 was 
passed the royal decree threatening to treat 
as " rogues and vagabonds" all those roving 
performers who, before setting up their 
stage, failed to secure the licence of " two 
justices of the peace at the least." This was 
apparently suggested by the large increase 
in the number of professional actors. Two 
years after, Elizabeth granted the first royal 
patent ever conceded to the profession — a 
patent empowering Lord Leicester's players 
to produce such works as they desired, *" as 
well," said her Majesty, "for the recreation 
of our loving subjects, as for our solace and 
pleasure when we shall think good to see 
them." The favour with which Elizabeth 
regarded the drama, and therefore the pro- 
fession of the actor, is familiar to every- 
body. But all her subjects were not so^ 
complaisant. The magistrates of London 
and Middlesex protested against the patent 
of 1574, and so persecuted the players as 
to lay, no doubt, the foundation of the 
enmity with which playwrights so long 
pursued the whole clan of justices and 
" city knights." In 15S1 the Cambridge 
authorities objected to the Earl of Oxford's 
actors performing at that town. Archbishop 
Bancroft is said to have been favourable to 
theatrical exhibitions, but the clergy gene- 
rally were certainly not of that mind. In 
1579 Gosson had published his 'School of 
Abuse ' (q.v.)—" a pleasant invective against 
players and such-like caterpillars of a Com- 
monwealth," to which reference is made 
elsewhere in 'this volume. This was an 
assault indeed ; and it was followed in 
1616 by one less historically notable, the 
author of which, Sutton, was preacher at 
St. Mary Overy's. A vigorous reply to 
this was made by the actor Nathaniel 
Field (q.v.). In truth, the actors were 
not wholly blameless, for they were con- 
stantly trying to evade the law, and bring-- 
ing down upon themselves its perfectly 
justifiable rigours. They would act at 
places and on days which they knew were 
forbidden, and they would perform pieces 
which they knew were proscribed —c.^t. 
in the case of Middleton's ' Game of 
Chess' (q.v.), which was held to be offen- 
sive to Spain, and was accordingly sup- 
pressed, the author being placed in durance 
vile. This was the more vexatious, as the 
comedy Avas then drawing £100 a day I 
During the reigns of James I. and Charles I., 
the theatrical licences were affected very 
much by the fluctuations of the plague, the 
actors not being allowed to play in London 




till the deaths had decreased to thirty per | 
Aveek. Thus it is recorded of the year 1625 
that the "common players" were then 
allowed to come to court, because " the 
plagae is reduced to six." In 1631 the 
churchwardens and others of Blackfriars 
petitioned against the performances given 
by the players in that place, and were told 
in reply that the queen (Henrietta Maria) 
was " well affected " towards plays. It was, 
however, enacted that there should be only 
two houses in the city, and that each com- 
pany should play not more than twice a week, 
•' forbearing to play on the Sabbath Day, 
in Lent, and in times of infection." This 
measure was followed, in 1633, by the second 
great published attack on the profession— 
namely, Prynne's 'Histrio-Mastix' (g.r.), in 
■which it was indignantly recorded that 
there were no fewer than five " devil's 
chapels" in London. The players, however, 
had the Court on their side, and so all went 
tolerably well with them till 1647-S, when, 
the Puritans being uppermost, the English 
stage was for the time suppressed, its 
votaries being described as no better than 
heathens, and intolerable to Christians. 
Many of the actors, we read, took service 
with" the king ; others clung to their calling, 
and gave surreptitious performances, in face 
of the new law to the contrary, some of 
these representations taking place in the 
houses of wealthy lovers of the drama. 
]Many efforts were 'made to obtain the revo- 
cation of the hostile decree, but without 
effect. At length there was an end to the 
Commonwealth ; Monk made his entry into 
London on behalf of the second Charles, 
and he was at once besought to give his 
countenance to the actors. He did so 
readily ; and not many hours passed before 
the drama was again to be witnessed in one 
or more of its old strongholds. From this 
point onward the path o"f "the profession" 
was fairly smooth. In 1663 Charles granted 
patents to Killigrew and Davenant, and 
English actors became once more recog- 
nized and protected members of society. 
True, they still had their enemies. The 
authorities of London remained as bitter as 
ever against them, and we read that in 1700 
the loi'd mayor and aldermen issued an 
order, forbidding any playhouse bill to be 
set up -within the precincts of the city, and 
declaring the theatres a public nuisance. 
Twenty years after, Dennis was found taunt- 
ing the players of the day with being 
" rogues and Vagabonds ; " and certainly the 
rule of the lord chamberlain was some- 
what arbitrary. The number of patent 
theatres in London continued to be strictly 
limited up to ISiS, when free trade in 
the drama was proclaimed, and when 
naturally the personnel of the profession 
largely increased. In Scotland, the history 
of the player was marked by very similar 
vicissitudes. Thus, in 1574, the General 
Assembly prohibited all plays founded on 
Scripture, and in 1597 the Kirk Session of 
Edinburgh fulminated against both players 
and their patrons. ISIuch later— in 1715 — 
the Presbyterian ministers preached against 

the theatre at HoljTood, threatening to 
withhold from its frequenters the means of 
obtaining the sacrament ; in 1726, Antony 
Aston's theatrical company, arriving in 
Edinburgh, met with a like reception from 
the local clergy ; whilst in 1756, when the 
Rev. John Hom'e {q.v.) produced his tragedy 
of 'Douglas' iq.v.), the Presbyteries of 
Edinburgh and Glasgow " excommunicated," 
not only him, but everybody connected with 
the performance ! Nevertheless, with all 
this, actors in Scotland could, it seems, 
always depend upon an audience, and they 
were never at any time so fiercely persecuted 
as players in England were by the Puritans. 
The annals of acting in Ireland do not begin 
till the reign of Elizabeth, during which, it 
is recorded, plays were performed at Hoggin 
Green, Dublin, before the Lord Lieutenant. 
The first Dublin theatre, due to the enter- 
prise of John Ogilby, dates from 1635. During 
the civil war, the st^age languished in Ireland 
as in England, being resuscitated in both 
countries about the same time. The Smock 
Alley Theatre was opened in 1662, also under 
the auspices of Ogilby. The beginnings of 
the profession in America would seem to date 
from 1733, when, apparently, theatrical per- 
formances of some sort were given in New 
York. In 1749 there was a company of 
players at Philadelphia, and in 1750 it made 
its "appearance in New York, afterwards 
going to Williamsburg, Virginia. There had 
previously been several dramatic seasons in 
Jamaica, Avhere ^Nloody, the Irish comedian, 
played about 1745, re'turning by-and-by to 
England, and sending thence a regular 
troupe, which performed in the island in 
1751. In 1752 an English company, exploited 
by William, and headed by Lewis, Hallam, 
appeared at Williamsburg, and this is the 
first combination of which we possess many 
particulars. The troupe numbered twelve, 
each of whom.had one share (out of eighteen 
shares) in the* profits, save Le^-is, who had 
two shares, one as actor and one as mana- 
ger. The advent of the company had been 
preceded in 1750 by a declaration of the au- 
thorities of Massachusetts against the acting 
of stage plays, and it was followed in 1774 by 
the closing of the theatres in Philadelphia, 
in accordance with a decree of Congress. In 
1793 the Massachusetts order was repealed. 
In America, as in the United Kingdom, the 
early years of the drama were charac- 
terized" by much struggling between actors 
and the law, the latter, when inimical to 
the players, being as far as possible defied 
or evaded. At the present moment the 
British player has no impediment placed in 
his way, the closing of London theatres on 
Ash Wednesday, which used to obtain, 
having been abolished in lSs5. For some 
further details bearing generally on the 
subject, see Actors ; Actresses ; Salaries ; 
Theatres ; etc. See, also, the histories of 
the English stage by Chetwood, CoUier, 
Dibdin, Doran, Genest,"etc.; of the Scottish, 
by Jamieson ; of the Irish, by Hitchcock ; 
and of the American, by Dunlap, Ireland, 
Blake, Brown, Clapp, Phelps, etc. ; as well as 
the works of James Boaden, Colley Gibber, 



Duttoii Cook, Thomas Davies, W. Donaldson, 
Michael Kelly, J. O'Keefe, etc., and the 
biographies of actors generally. 

Acting-, The Art of. See Art of 


"Action to the word, Suit the."— 
Hamlet's advice to the players, act iii. so. 2, 

Actor (The). (1) ' A treatise on the Art 
of Playing, interspersed with theatrical 
anecdotes, critical remarks on plays, and 
occasional observations on audiences ; ' 
adapted from 'Le Com^dien' of Remond 
<le Sainte-Albine (1747), and published in 
1750. In the first part the writer discourses 
on " the principal advantages which a player 
ought to have from nature," and in the 
second on " those appliances which players 
ought to receive from art." Under the first 
head he discusses such questions as whether 
an actor can excel without a good under- 
standing, whether sensibility is the more 
important to a performer in tragedy or in 
comedy, whether an actor can have too much 
fire, whether it would be to the advantage 
of all players to be of a distinguished figure, 
and so forth. It is laid down that gaiety of 
temper is absolutely necessary to the players 
in comedy, that no man who has not naturally 
an elevated soul can succeed in the part of a 
hero, and that only those players who are 
naturally amorous should perform the part 
of lovers. Underj the second head the 
author pronounces on truth of action, truth 
of recitation, natural playing, finesses in 
playing, by-play, variety and graces in 
playing, etc. "The whole theoretical por- 
tion of ' The Actor,' " says William Archer, 
"is simply translated from 'Le Comedien.' 
The adaptation, however, is, if not an abler, 
at least a more entertaining book than the 
original. Sainte-Albine dealt far more in 
precept than in example. The adapter, on 
the other hand, lost no opportunity of point- 
ing his moral by references to the players 
and actors of his own day" ('Masks or 
Faces?' 1S88). 

(2) ' A treatise on the Art of Playing. A new 
work, written by the Author of the former, 
and adapted to the Present State of the 
Theatres ; ' published in 1755, and including 
"impartial observations on the performance, 
manner, perfections, and defects " of Garrick, 
i^arry, Woodward, Foote, Havard, Palmer, 
Ptyan, Mrs. Cibber, Mrs. Pritchard, Mrs. 
Wottington, Mrs. Clive, Mrs. Bellamy, and 
other contemporary players. This is vir- 
tually the book of 1750, re-written and con- 
densed. The writer urges, among other 
things, that a good actor ought to express his 
author's, not his own, ideas ; that he must 
himself feel the passion that he would raise 
in others ; that any particular turn of mind 
is of disadvantage to him ; that an actor 
ought to be ditterent from himself on many 
occasions ; and so on. ' The Actor ' was 
re-adapted into French by Antonio ^Fabio 
Sticotti, an Italian player, under the title of 
' Garrick, ou les Acteurs Anglois ' (1769), 
and this Avork suggested to Diderot (q.v.) an 
essay (contributed by him to Grimm's ' Cor- 

respondance ') on which he afterwards based 
his famous ' Paradoxe sur le Com^dien.' 

(3) A poetical disquisition on the art of 
acting, written by Robert Lloyd (1733-17C4), 
and published in 1760. The author begins 
by laying down the axiom that acting 
draws its perfection from no observance 
of mechanic laws. The player's profession, 
he goes on to say, 

" Lies not in trick, or attitude, or start — 
Nature's true knowle(l;,'e is the only art. . , . 
To this one standard make your just appeal ; 
Here lies the golden secret — learn to feel. " 

It is next asserted that 

" The pl.iyer's province they but vainly try 
Who want these Tpov/'rs— deportment, voice, and eye." 

And, first, in reference to deportment— 

"The critic sight 'tis only ffrace can please ; 
No figure charms us if it has not case.'' 

The player is exhorted not to attitudinize, 
and is warned, further, against over-acting : 

"Of .all the evils which the stage molest, 
I liate your fool who overacts liis jest, 
AVIio murders what the poet finely writ, 
And. like a burglar, haggles all his wit. 
Witli shrug, and grin, and gesture out of place, 
And writes a foolish comment with his face." 

Coming to the voice, Lloyd observes that 
it is not enough it should be "round and 
clear " — 
" 'Tis modulation that must charm the ear." 

" Desperate heroines," we are told, should 
not " grieve with tedious moan," or "whine 
their sorrows in a see-saw tone." 

" The voice all modes of passion can express, 
Tliat marks the proper word with proper stress ; 
But none emphatic can that actor call 
Who lays an equal emphasis on all." 

Equally does Lloyd censure those who 

" Point ev'ry stop, mark ev'ry pause so strong," 


" Their words, like stage processions, stalk along." 

He condemns those for Avhom " in vain the 
pleasing measure tiows," and 

" Whose recitation runs it all to prose ; " 

and he is not less severe upon those who 
rant : 

" More nature oft and finer strokes are shown 
In the low whisper.tlian tempestuous tone." 

In the same way— 

" The modes of grief are not included all 
In the white handkercliief and mournful drawl ; 
A single look more marks th' internal woe, 
Than all the windings of the lengthen'd Oh." 

From this the poet passes on to enumerate 
and castigate some of the vices of the 
acting in his time. One of these, he tells 
us, is 

"A want of due attention on the stage." 
He has seen, he says, actors, " and admir'd 
ones, too," who 

" Seem unmov'd at what the rest may say ; 
Whose eyes and thoughts on difTrent objects roam, 
Until the prompter's voice recall them Lome." 

He specially satirizes those who transfer 
their gaze from their brother-actors to 
the spectators in the auditorium. He also 
deplores the traditional character of the 




costumes worn, and "business" adopted, in 
certain cases. Finally, he declares that the 
true aim of acting is 

" To purge the passions and reform the mind, 
To give to nature all the force of art, 
And while it charms the ear to mend the heart." 

We are not to judge of the theatre by its 
least creditable characteristics. 

"Tho' oft debas'd with scenes profane and loose, 
No reason weighs against its proper use." 

The poem then concludes with a contrast 
between the contemporary honour and ap- 
plause accorded to the actor, and the neces- 
sarily fleeting nature of his reputation. See 
the Theatre magazine for September, 1879. 

(4) A 'Guide to the Stage; simplifying 
the Whole Art of Acting ; in which the 
Dramatic Passions are defined, analyzed, 
and made easy of acquirement ; the whole 
interspersed with Select and Striking Ex- 
amples from the Most Popular Slodern 
Pieces ; ' publi-shed in 1821, and described in 
the preface as mainly " a re -arrangement of 
Mr. Aaron Hill's celebrated Essay upon the 
Ilistrionic Art, the positions of that able 
writer being merely brought forward, and 
enforced by modern examples." For a de- 
scription of Hill's essay, see Art of Acting. 

Actor (The). A play by T. E. Pemberton 
{q.v.), first performed at Birmingham in 
May, 1886, with E. Compton and his wife in 
the chief parts ; since reconstructed by the 
author and E. Compton, and re-christened 
' Step-Brothers' (1S91). 

"Actor leaves the stag-e, After a 
•well-graced."—' Richard II.,' act v. sc. 2 
{Duke of York). 

Actor of All Work (The) ; or, First 
and. Second Floor. A comedietta in one 
act, by George Colman {q.v.), founded 
on a French piece, and first performed at 
the Haymarket, on August 13, 1817, with 
Charles Mathews {q.v.) as Midtij^le (q.v.), 
and Connor as Velinspeck ; produced at 
New York in 1822, with Mathews in his 
original part. Multiple, an actor, has been 
refused an engagement by Velinspeck, a 
manager, on the ground of his incompe- 
tency ; so the former sets to work to 
appear before the latter in a variety of 
characters, including a prompter, a French 
tragedian, an apprentice, a Scotch pawn- 
bi'oker, his wife, and a fat coachman. He 
eventually discovers himself, and Velinspeck 
admits his competency. The manager occu- 
pies a first and the actor a second floor, both 
floors being represented on the stage, as in 
' Above and Below ' {q.v.). See Actress of 
All Work ; Cozening ; Twelve Pre- 

Actor's Budg-et,The: " consisting of 
monologues, prologues, epilogues, and tales, 
serious and comic, togetlier with a rare 
collection of theatrical anecdotes and comic 
songs ;" written by W. OXBERRY {q.v.), and 
printed in 1820. It had been preceded in 
1809 by a similar work from the same pen, 
entitled ' The Theatrical Banquet ; or, The 
Actor's Budget.' 

Actor's Daug-hter (An). A play by 
Mary Hamilton, first performed at St. 
Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A., in 1887. 

Actor's Retreat (The). An extrava- 
ganza in one act, by W. Brough {q.v.y 
and A. Halliday {q.v.), first performed at 
the Adelphi Theatre, London, on 11, 
1864, with a cast including J, L. Toole, Paul 
Bedford, 11. Romer, and Mrs. Alfred Mellon 
(Miss Woolgar). 

Actor's Wife (The). A domestic 
drama in four acts, adapted by Edmund 
Leathes from his novel of the same name, 
and first performed at the St. James's 
Theatre, Manchester, on October 24, 1884. 

Actors are mentioned by Shakespeare 
in ' Coriolanus,' act v. sc. 3 ; ' Julius Csesar,*" 
act ii. sc. 1 ; ' Hamlet,' act ii. sc. 2 ; ' Richard 
II.,' act V. sc. 2 ; etc. See Acting as a Pro- 

Actors, An Apolog-y for. See 
Apology for Actors, An. 

Actors, The Old, and The Relig-ion 
of Actors. Essays by Charles Lamb 

{q.v.). See his ' Essays of Elia.' 

Actors al Fresco. A musical piece 
composed by J. Blewitt, T. Cooke, and C. E. 
Horn, and produced in 1823. 

Actors by Daylig-ht, or Pencil- 
lings in the Pit. A weekly illustrated 
miscellany, published in 1838-9, and con- 
taining memoirs of performers, etc. 

Actors by Gaslig-ht, or "Boz" in 
the Boxes. An illustrated periodical, 
published weekly in 1838. 

Actors by Lamplig-ht. See Behind* 

the Scenes. 

Actors' Remonstrance or Com- 
plaint (The), " for the silencing of 
their profession, and banishment from their 
several playhouses, in which is fully set 
down their grievances for their restraint ; " 
"as it was presented in the names and 
behalfs of all our London comedians . . . 
and published by their command " in 1643. 
This tract was reprinted in vol. vi. of 
' The British Stage ' (1822), the Roxburghe- 
Library (1869), Ashbee's ' Facsimile Re- 
prints ' (1869), and Hindley's ' Old Book 
Collector's iliscellany ' (1873). 

Actress by Daylig-ht (An). An 
adaptation of Fournier's ' Tiridate, oit 
Comedie et Tragedie,' first performed at the- 
St. James's Theatre, London, in April, 1871, 
with Mrs. John Wood as Anne Bracegirdle,. 
Miss F. Brough as Dolly, W. Farren as. 
John Burgess, and F. Mervin as Justinian 
Burgess ; played in New York in 1868. See- 
Art ; Comedy and Tragedy ; Nance Old- 
field ; Tragedy Queen. 

Actress, Life of an. See Life op 
AN Actress. 

Actress of All Work (The) ; or. 
My Coimtry Cousin. A comic sketch 
in one act, by W. Oxberry (a.v.), first per- 



(formed at the Strand Theatre, London, in 
1819, with Mrs. Edwin in the title part 
(Maria), which was afterwards played by 
Mrs. Davison, Mrs. Fitzwilliam, Mrs. Tay- 
leure, Miss Booth, IMiss Clara Fisher, Miss 
iBrunton, etc. Widdicomb was the original 
Frederick. The piece (which was produced 
at New York in 1820) is on similar lines to 
those of 'The Actor of All Work' (g.v.). 
Maria, a country actress, is in love with 
Frederick, son of a manager who refuses to 
engage her until (like Multiple) she gives 
him proof of her ability by assuming several 
•diverse characters, e.g. a country gawky, a 
London actress, a deaf old lady, a literary 
fop, and an opera-singer. 

Actress of Padua (The). A play, 
adapted by John Brougham {q.v.)irom the 
' Angelo ' of Victor Hugo, and performed at 
New York in May, 1852, with Miss Charlotte 
Cushman in the title part (Tisbe) ; produced 
in London, at the Haymarket, in May, 1855, 
with Miss Cushman, Howe (as Angelo), ^y. 
Farren (as Rodolfo), and Miss Reynolds (as 
•Catarina); also at the Theatre Royal, Dublin, 
in November, 1873, with Miss Genevieve 
AVard as Tishe ; revived at Daly's Broad- 
way, New York, in same year and month. 
See Angelo. 

Actress of the Present Day 
^The). An anonymous novel, published in 
1817, "in Avhich the villainy of hypocrisy 
is justly exposed, and held up to public 
detestation, while the virtuous mind, har- 
assed by the snares of temptation and 
insult, finally triumphs over every artifice of 
calumny and slander, and arrives at dignity 
and honour." 

Actresses first appeared on the English 
stage in 1629, when a troupe of French 
players, male and female, relying, no doubt, 
upon the patronage of their countrywoman. 
Queen Henrietta Maria, essayed to give 
performances at Blackfriars. Up to this 
time the feminine parts in the native drama 
had been enacted invariably by boys or 
youths, trained to the profession by the 
older actors, who were allowed to take 
them as apprentices, and were paid for 
tlie services they rendered. Thus the em- 
ployment of women was a striking inno- 
vation, and it is not surprising that it 
was resented by the playgoers of the day. 
According to a letter addressed to Laud, 
then Bishop of London, by one Thomas 
Brande, the public were indignant. The 
French actresses were " hissed, hooted, and 
pippin-pelted from the stage," so that the 
■wi'iter "did not think they would soon be 
ready to try the same again." As a matter 
of fact, they reappeared a few weeks after 
at the Fortune and Red Bull theatres, but 
Jiot successfully. They were, indeed, so far 
.from being popular that the Master of the 
Revels, "in respect of their ill luck," re- 
turned them a portion of the fees which 
they had had to pay for their licence. 
Three years later, in 1632, Lady Strangelove, 
in Brome's comedy, ' The Court Beggar ' 
iq.v.), was made to say : "The boy's a pretty 

actor, and his mother can play her part : 
women-actors now grow in request." But 
it is not clear to what actresses the allusion 
refers. In 1633 Prynne brought out his 
• Histrio-Mastix ' (q.v.), in which he stigma- 
tized all "women-actors" as "monsters," 
and applied to their performances such 
adjectives as " impudent," " shameful," and 
" un womanish." In 1656 Davenant's ' Siege 
of Rhodes' (q.v.) was acted, at Rutland 
House, before a paying audience, with a cast 
which included Mrs. Coleman as lanthe, and 
to that lady, therefore, must be accorded 
the honour of having been the first English 
professional actress. On December 8, 
1660, Killigrew gave, at the theatre in 
Vere Street, a representation of ' Othello,' 
in which the role of Depsdemona was per- 
formed by a woman. The occasion was 
signalized by a prologue from the pen of 
Thomas Jordan {q.v.), in which attention 
was drawn to the special attraction :— 

" I come, unknown to any of the rest. 
To tell the news ; I saw the lady drest — 
The woman plays to-day ; mistake me not, 
No man in gown or page in petticoat." 

Some of the inconveniences of having men- 
actresses were amusingly glanced at :— 

" Our women are defective, and so sized 
You'd think they were some of the guard discuised; 
For, to speak truth, men act, that are between 
Forty and fifty, wenches of fifteen ; 
With bone so large and nerve so incompliant. 
When )ou call Desdemona, enter giant." 

The name of the actress who played Desde- 
mona is not known. Killigrew's principal 
lady at this time was Ann Marshall (q.v.), 
and the role would naturally fall to her ; 
but there is no record of her having 
appeared as the heroine of Othello, and it 
is more likely that the part was taken in 
this instance by Margaret Hughes {q.v.), 
who was the seconda donna of the company. 
Pepys, it would appear, Avas not present at 
the performance, for, writing about ' The 
Beggar's Bush' (q.v.) which he saw at the 
same theatre on January 3, 1661, he de- 
scribes that as "the first time that ever 
he saw women come upon the stage." In 
the same month he witnessed Kynaston's 
impersonation of a female in 'The Silent 
Woman' — the fact being that women did 
not at once banish men-actresses from the 
stage. Then, in June, 1661, came a per- 
foriiiance of 'The Siege of Rhodes' at 
Davenant's theatre, with Mrs. Davenport 
as Roxalana and Mrs. Saunderson CBetter- 
ton) as lanthe. By this time the prejudice 
against " women-actors " had abated. Nay, 
playgoers, it would seem, had begun to take 
as much objection to " boy-actresses " as 
they formerly did to "women-actors ;" and 
so 'it came to pass that when, in 1662, 
Killigrew and Davenant received a renewal 
of the letters patent granted to them in 
1660, the documents included permission 
to place female parts in the hands of 
women. In 1664 Killigrew carried the con- 
cession to an extreme, for we read that, in 
that year, he produced his comedy, 'The 
Parson's Wedding' {q.v.), with women in 



all the parts. This.Pepys was " told," took 
place "at the Kin<i's house." And it is re- 
corded that, in 1672, 'Philaster' and other 
playswere represented atLincoln'sInnFlelds 
under the same conditions, Dryden writing 
prologues for the occasion. In our own 
days, 'As You Like It'(g.r.)and an opera di 
camera entitled 'An Adamless Eden' (g.f.) 
have been represented entirely by women. 
See Dutton Cook's ' Book of the Play ' (1876), 
J. Knight's preface to his edition of Downes' 
' Roscius Anglicanus ' (1SS6), and the various 
histories of the British stage. 

Actresses, Titled. The following 
actresses married men of title : Anastasia 
Robinson, who, in or about 1724, became 
Countess of Peterborough ; Lavinia Fenton, 
who, in 1752, espoused the Duke of Bolton ; 
Elizabeth Farren, who, in 1797, married the 
Earl of Derby ; Louisa Brunton, who. In 
1808, became Countess of Craven ; Mary 
Bolton, w^ho, in 1813, espoused Edward, 
Lord Thurlow ; Elizabeth O'Neill, who, in 
1819, married Mr. (afterwards Sir AVilliam) 
Becher (Bart.) ; Susannah Paton, who, in 
1824, became Lady William Pitt Lennox ; 
Harriet Mellon (Mrs. Coutts), who, in 1827, 
espoused the Duke of St. Albans ; Maria 
Foote, who, in 1831, married the Earl of 
Harrington ; Katherine Stephens, who, in 
1838, became Countess of Essex ; Louisa 
Mordaunt (Mrs. Nisbett), who, in 1844, 
espoused Sir William Boothby, Bart. ; 
Helena Faucit, who, in 1851, married Mr. 
(since Sir) Theodore IMartin (Kt.) ; also 
]Miss Robinson, the wife of Sir Charles 
Felix Smith ; Miss Saunders, the Avife of 
Sir William Don; Miss Fortescue, the Avife 
of Sir W, Gardner ; Miss Belle Bilton, who 
married Viscount Dunlo, and became 
Countess of Clancarty ; IVliss Constance 
Gilchrist, who wedded *the Earl of Orkney ; 
Mrs. Fanny Stirling, who married Sir 
Charles Gregory ; and Miss Rosie Boote, 
who espoused the Marquis of Headfort. 

Acts. The principal sections into which 
plays are split up; "acts," in their turn, 
being frequently— not invariably— broken up 
into "scenes." The ancients, apparently, 
knew nothing of "acts," the story of the 
Greek dramas being arrested onlv by the 
interpellation of the Chorus. The first 
Greek play in which the Chorus did not 
appear was the 'Plutus' of Aristophanes, 
and in that the action has no pause. The 
first historical reference to "acts" is that 
made by Horace in his epistle ' Ad Pisones,' 
where he declares that a play ought invari- 
ably to consist of five " acts." Among Eng- 
lish dramatists there has been, in this 
respect, the greatest diversity of habit. By 
common consent, "tragedies" of the tra- 
ditional sort have mos^tly maintained the 
five-act form, but outside of that class there 
has been no settled rule. Romantic plays 
and comedies have ranged from five acts to 
one. In modern comedies the three-act 
division has been largely adopted, w^hilst in 
some modern "dramas" the "acts" have 
been as numerous as nine or more. Of late 
years, managers have, on occasion, dropped 

or draAvn the curtain at each distinct change 
of scene, thus extending the number of 
"acts" considerably. See Scenes. 

"Acts our ang-els are, Our."— 
Beaumont and Fletcher's ' Honest Man's 
Fortune ' — 

" Or good or ill, 
The fatal shadows that walk by us still." 

Adah.. A character in Lord Byron's 
' Cain : a Mystery' iq.v.). 

Adalg-isa. A priestess, in W. West's 
version of ' Norma' {q.v.), W. H. Oxberry's 
'Norma Travestie '{q.v.), and W. S. Gil- 
bert's ' Pretty Druidess' iq.v.). 

Adam. Servant to Oliver (q.v.) in 'As 
You Like It' {q.v.). "The serving -man, 
Adam, humbly born and coarsely nurtured, 
is no insignificant personage in the drama ; 
and we find in the healthy tone of his 
mind, and in his generous heart, which, 
under reverses and vATongs, still preserves 
its charitabla tr.;:st in his fellows, as well 
as in his kindly, though frosty age, a 
delightful and instructive contrast to the 
character of Jaques [q.v.], which could have 
hardly been accidental." There is a tradi- 
tion that Shakespeare himself played Adam, 
and this is thought to be confirmed by the 
folloAA-ing statement of Oldys in reference 
to the poet's brother : " All that could be re- 
collected from him of his brother Will . . . 
was the faint, general, and almost lost ideas 
he had of having once seen him act a part in 
one of his own comedies, wherein, being to 

Eersonate a decrepit old man, he wore a long 
eard, and appeared so weak and drooping, 
and unable to walk, that he was forced to 
be supported and carried by another i)erson 
to a table, at which he was seated among 
some company who were eating, and one of 
them sung a song." This would certainly 
appear to refer to act ii. sc. 6 and 7 of ' As 
You Like It.' 

Adam is the subject of an Anglo-Norman 
drama, described in Notes and Queries for 
April 9, 1870. He also figures among the 
persona} in Lord Byron's ' Cain: a Mystery' 
(q.v.). See Death of Ad.\m. 

Adam, Adolphe Charles. A French 

composer (1803-1856), some of whose operas 
and ballets have been performed in England. 
His most successful work was ' Le Postilion 
de Longjumeau ' (1835). His ' Brasseur de 
Preston ' (1S3S) may also be mentioned. See, 
further, Giralda. 

Adam. Bede. (1) A drama in three act.s. 
founded by J. E. Carpenter {q.v.) on George 
Eliot's novel, and first performed at the 
Surrey Theatre, London, on February 2S, 1862, 
wath W. Creswick in the title partj Miss G. 
Pauncefort as Hettj/ Sorel, Miss E. Webster 
as Dinah Morris, Vincent as Arthur Donni- 
thorne, IMiss E. Johnstone as Mrs. Poyser, 
and C. Rice, Vollaire, Maclean, etc., in other 
parts. (2) A drama in four acts, by W. 
Howell Poole, also founded on the novel» 
and first performed at the Holborn Theatre 
London, on June 2, 1SS4, with W. Rignold 



as Adam, and the author, J. Vollaire, H. 
Vernon, >Miss Edith Jordan, etc., in other 
parts ; afterwards played in the EngHsh 
provinces and in London (April, 1SS6), with 
W. Ttignold as Adam and Miss Sophie Fane 
as Heity. 

Adam Buff; or, The Man -witlioxit 
a Shirt. A farce in one act, by E. L. Elan- 
CHARD (g.v.), founded on a story by Douglas 
Jerrold, and first performed at the Surrey 
Theatre, London, on March 4, 1850, with 
Widdicomb in the title part. Among the 
characters axQ Dick Dulcimer, Louisa Laven- 
der, Mrs. Scriihwell, Mr. Socrates Shortsiglit, 
Miss Deborah Shortsiglit. 

Adamant, Abel. A character in G. 
Almar's 'Seven Sisters' {q.v.). 

AdamlessEden(An). A"comicopera 
di camera," words by H. Savile Clarke 
iq-v.), music by Walter Slaughter, first per- 
formed at the Opera Comique, London, on 
December 13, 1SS2, with Miss Emily Cross as 
the Duchess of Breeks, Miss Cicely Richards 
as Lady Mantrap, etc. ; produced in New 
York in November, 1884, 

Adams, Ed'win. American actor, born 
1834, died 1877 ; made his ddbut at Boston, 
U.S.A., in 1853, and his last appearance at 
San Francisco in May, 187G. He created, 
among other parts, that of Enoch Arden in 
the play of that name(^. r.), and was also the 
original in America of Robert Landry in 
'The Dead Heart,' and of Ivan Khorvitch in 
' The Serf.' He was for some time " leading 
man " at Booth's Theatre, New York, and 
his repertory included all the chief roles in 
tragedy. Jefferson writes : "The animation 
of his face, the grace of his person, and, 
above all, the melody of his voice, well fitted 
him for the stage. While he could not fairly 
be called a great artist, he was something 
often more highly prized— a born actor, a 
child of nature if not of art, swayed by warm 
impulse rather than by premeditation. His 
Enoch Arden, so far as the character is 
related to the stage, was a creation entirely 
his own, and one, too, that touched the 
sympathies of his audience " (' Autobio- 
graphy,' 1889-90). — Mrs. Edwin Adams 
(daughter of William Whitlock) was an ac- 
tress and a danseuse. 

Adams, G-eorg-e. Fellow of St. John's 
College, Cambridge (circa 1729-35) ; author 
of ' The Heathen" Martyr ; or, The Death 
of Socrates,' a tragedy (1746) ; translator of 
the ' Ajax,' ' Electra,' 'CEdipus Tyraniius,' 
* Antigone,' ' QEdipus Coloneus,' ' Trachmire,' 
and ' Philoctetes ' of Sophocles (1729). 

Adams, Isabel. See CliftOxN, Mrs. 

Adams, Jack. A character in A 
Beckett and Lemon's ' Peter Wiikins ' (q.v.). 

Adams, John Jay. American actor ; 
played Hamlet in New York in 1822. 

Adamson, John. Translator (from the 
Portuguese) of ' Dona Inez de Castro,' a 
tragedy (ISOS). 

Adcock. Actor ; a member of Lewis 
Hallam's first American company. See 
Hallam, Lewis. 

Addams, Aug-ustus A. American 
actor, died 1851 ; Included in his repertory 
such parts as Hamlet, Othello, Macbeth, 
Drutus, Pierre, The Stranger, Virginius, 
Damon, and Canenchet, in ' Miantoninoh ' 
(q.v.). "From what is known to us of 
Augustus Addams, he must have been," 
says Lawrence Barrett, "an actor of un- 
common force. He was the idol of his 
audiences, and held an equal place with 
Forrest [q.v.] for a time in the estimation 
of playgoers." See Ireland's 'New York 
Stage " (1867). 

Addams, Mrs. Aug-tistus. 
Porter, Mrs. J. G. 


Addel, Sir Arthur. A character in 
Caryl's 'Sir Solomcn' (q.v.), originally re- 
presented by Nokes (q.v.). It is recorded 
that, in dressing for the part, Nokes Avas 
assisted by the Duke of :Monmouth, who, 
in order that the actor might the better 
imitate the French fashion of the day, took 
off his own sword and belt, and buckled 
them to Nokes's side. "Mr. Nokes," says 
DoAvnes, "lookt more like a drest up ape 
than a Sir Arthur: which upon his first 
entrance on the stage put the king and 
court to an excessive laughter ; at which 
the French look'd very shaggTin, to see them- 
selves ap'd by such a buffoon as Sir Arthur " 
(' Roscius Anglicanus '). 

Addie, Mrs. (Fanny Hamilton). Ac- 
tres.-;, born 1816, died July 4, 1875 ; ap- 
peared at the Olympic Theatre, London, 
in 1841, and was engaged also at the 
Princess's and the Adelphi, 

Adding-ton, Sir William. Chief ma- 
gistrate at Bow Street ; died ISll ; author 
of ' The Prince of Agi-a,' a tragedy (1774). 

Addison, Carlotta. Actress, born at 
Liverpool in July, 1850 ; daughter of E. P. 
Addison (q.v.) ; gained her early experience 
in her birthplace, and made her debut in 
London, at St. James's Theatre, in October, 
1866, as Lady Touchwood in 'The Belle's 
Stratagem.' She has " created " the folloAV- 
ing parts: Adina in Gilbert's 'Dulcamara,' 
Jessie Bell in Halliday's ' Daddy Gray,' Mrs. 
Waverham in Yates's ' Tame Cats,' Bella in 
Robertson's ' School,' Faith Deybrooke in 
Robertson's ' :M.P.,' Fanny Smith in Byron's 
' Partners for Life,' Ruth in Byron's ' Fine 
Feathers,' Ethel Grainger in Byron's 
' Married in Haste,' Mrs. Redruth in 
Albery's ' Forgiven,' Peep in Albery's 
' Oriana,' Victoria Coote in Albery's ' Wig 
and Gown,' Mrs. Wagstaffe in 'Committed 
for Trial,' Mabel Ransome'in Hay's ' Mabel,' 
Cou7itess cl' Av7'anches in i3arrymore's 
' Honour,' Mazeppa in Boucicault's ' Mimi,' 
Aiint Janet in D. G. Boucicault's 'My 
Little Girl,' Lady Dolly in Hamilton's 
' ^Moths,' Mrs. Melton in Sturgis's ' Picking 
up the Pieces,' Lady Dexter in Thomas and 
Stephenson's ' Comrades,' Miss Macleod in 



Hamilton's ' Harvest,' Madame 3[orozoff in 
Ambient and Lynwood's 'Christina,' Lady 
Bellamy in Chambers and Little's ' Devil 
Caresfoot,' Padh Rolt in Pinero's 'Sweet 
Lavender,' Margaret in 'Dream Faces,' Miss 
Brent in Pinero's ' Lady Bountiful,' Mrs. 
<ireenthorne in 'Husband and Wife,' Lady 
Carsloiv in 'The Fringe of Society,' and 
Lady Ingleby in Miss Warden's 'Uncle 
Mike.' Miss Addison has also appeared in 
the following, among other roles : Maud 
Hetherington in Robertson's 'Society' (1S6S), 
Dot in 'The Christmas Story' (1S71), Mrs. 
Cuthbert in Byron's 'Cyril's Success' (1872), 
Nerissa in ' The Merchant of Venice' (1875), 
Georgina Vesey in Lytton's ' Money ' (1875), 
Grace Harkaway in Boucicault's ' London 
Assurance' (1877), Julia in 'The Rivals' 
(1878), Cherry in ' The Beaux' Stratagem ' 
(1879), Minnie in Gilbert's ' Engaged ' (1881), 
Lady Muriel Beauclerc in ' A Pantomime 
Rehearsal ' (1891), Mrs. Linden in ' A Doll's 
House ' (1893), and Mrs. Seabrook in Cham- 
bers's ' Captain Swift ' (1893). 

Addison, Edward Phillips. Actor, 
born 1803, died 1874 ; father of Carlotta and 
Fanny Addison (q-v.); "created," among 
other parts, those of Xutbrown in Jerrold's 
' Heart of Gold,' Binnings in Troughton's 

* Leading Strings,' Major Steele in Tom 
Taylor's ' Going to tbe Bad,' Percy Kirke 
in Taylor's ' Sheep in Wolf's Clothing,' 
Father O'Clery in Falconer's ' Peep o' Day,' 
Br. Sutcliffe in Robertson's ' School,' Isaac 
Skoome in Robertson's 'M.P.,' Father Bar- 
beau in ' Fanchette,' and Pickwick in 
Albery's adaptation. Among his other 
roles may be mentioned Sir Toby in ' Twelfth 
Night ' (1851), Lord Priory in Inchbald's 

* Wives as they Were ' (1856), Jacob Dale in 
Collins's 'Lighthouse '(1857), Causticin 'The 
Way to get Married' (1867), Damas in * The 
Lady of Lyons' (1867), and Goldthumb in 
' Time works Wonders' (1873). See Morley's 

* Journal of a London Playgoer ' (1866). 

Addison, Fanny. Actress, born in Bir- 
mingham in December, 1847 ; daughter of E. 
P. Addison (q.v.) ; made her debut in London, 
at Her Majesty's Theatre, in November, 
1866, as the heroine of Falconer's ' Oonagh,' 
after a professional novitiate at Doncaster, 
Liverpool, Newcastle, Bath, and Bristol. 
She has been the original representative of 
the follovsing roles: Josephine de Beaure- 
paire in Reade's ' Double Marriage,' Martha 
Trapbois in Halliday's ' King o' Scots,' Rosa 
Dartle in Halliday's ' Little Em'ly,' Queen 
Elizabeth in Halliday's 'Amy 'Robsart,' 
Ulric in Halliday's "' Rebecca,' Earl of 
Margate in Gilbert's ' La Vivandiere,' Lady 
Psyche in Gilbert's 'Princess,' the Countess 
in ' The Danischeffs, Sister Celia in Brough- 
ton's 'Light and Shade,' Mrs. Rochester in 
Willing's 'Jane Eyre,' Lady Tempest in 
iVilling's 'Delilah,' Martha in 'Quicksands' 
{q.v.), etc. Miss Addison has also been 
seen in the English provinces as the heroines 
of the Robertson comedies, and in London, 
at Toole's Theatre, as Lady Shendryn in 
Robertson's ' Ours.' 

Addison, Henry Robert. Dramatic 
author and journalist ; born 1805, died 1876 ; 
began to write for the stage in 1830 ; author 
of ' Lo Zingaro,' ' Jessie, the Flower of Dum- 
blaine,' and 'Marie, a Tale of the Pont 
Neuf ' (in Duncombe's ' British Theatre ') ; 
' Locked in with a Lady,' ' Sophia's Supper,' 
and ' 117, Arundel Street, Strand ' (in Lacy's 
'Acting Edition'); 'Tam o' Shanter' and 
' The King's Seal ' (1834), ' The King's 
Word' (1835), 'Abb6 Yaudreuil' (1860), 
'What! no Cab?' 'Who would be Mar- 
ried ? ' ' Malice Prepense,' ' Solon,' ' Abra- 
ham Parker,' etc. Addison is said to have 
written about sixty pieces for the London 
theatres, " many of them iXpropos farces, 
most successfully illustrating the popular 
topic of the time." 

Addison, John. Composer, died 1844 ; 
wrote the music for the following pieces (all 
of which see) : ' The Sleeping Beauty ' (1805), 
'The Roman Impostor' (1809), 'My Aunt' 
(1813), 'Two AVords' (1816), 'Free and 
Easy' (1816), 'My Uncle' (1817), etc. He 
was also part author of the music in ' The 
Farmer's AVife ' (1814). 

Addison, Joseph. Dramatic writer, 
essayist, poet, and statesman ; born 1672, 
died 1719 ; Avas the author of ' Rosamond, 
opera (1706), 'Cato,' tragedy (1713), and 
' The Drummer,' comedy (1715), all of which 
see. He also helped Steele in ' The Tender 
Husband' {q.v.), and contributed to the 
Spectator {q.v.) a number of criticisms on 
the drama and dramatic works. "Addison," 
says W. J. Coiirthope, "had not the genius 
of a dramatist. The grace, the irony, the 
fastidious refinement which give him such 
an unrivalled capacity in describing and 
criticizing the humours of men as sl spectator 
did not qualify him for imaginative sym- 
pathy with their actions and passions. . . . 
Anybody who reads the thirty-ninth paper 
in the Spectator may see, not only that 
Addison was out of sympathy with the tra- 
ditions of the English stage, but that his 
whole turn of thought disqualified him from 
comprehending the motives of dramatic 
composition." See the ' Lives ' by Steele 
(1724), Tickell (1765), Sprengel (1810), Aikin 
(1843), and Elwin (1857) ; also Johnson's 
' Lives of the Poets,' Macaulay's ' Essays,' 
Jeffrey's ' Essays,' Hazlitt's ' Comic Writers,' 
Thackeray's 'Humorists of the Eighteenth 
Century,' Courthope's ' Addison,' and the 
various reprints of the Spectator (edited by 
Henry Morley, etc.). 

Addison, Laura. Actress, born at 
Colchester, 1S22 ; died 1852 ; made her first 
appearance on the stage at Worcester in 
1S43, playing afterwards at Glasgow, Edin- 
burgh, and Dublin. In August, 1S46, she 
appeared at Sadler's Wells 'Theatre, where 
she remained for three years. In 1849 she 
went to the Haymarket, and in 1S50 to Drury 
Lane. In 1S51 she migi-ated to America, ap- 
pearing at New York in September of that 
year as Lady Teazle, and at Philadelphia in 
October as Lady Mabel in ' The Patrician's 
Daughter.' She was the first representative 



of Margaret Randolph in ' Feudal Times,' and 
Lilian Savile in ' John Savile of Haystead.' 
Among her other roles were Juliet, Portia, 
Imogen, Lady Macbeth, Mirandai'Temipest'), 
Isabella ('Measure for Measure'), Panthea 
(' King and No King '), Juliana, Mrs. Haller, 
Mrs. Beverley, and Bianca (' Fazio '). vSee 
Brown's ' American Stage ' (1870) and ' Dic- 
tionary of National Biography ' (1885). 

Addison, Mrs. John (n^e Williams). 
Vocalist ; appeared at Covent Garden in 1796 
as Rosetta in 'Love in a Village,' and in 
other characters. She afterwards sang in 
the English provinces and in Ireland (as 
"Mrs. Nun.") 

Addlebrain, Philander. A character 
in Dr. MILLING e.n's ' Who'll lend me a 
Wife?' {q.V.). 

Adela. A tragedy by Mrs. "West, un- 
acted, but printed among the author's 
' Plays and Poems ' in 1799. 

Adelaide. Daughter of the Count of 
Xarbonne, in Jeph-Son's play of that name 
{q.v.) ; in love with Theodore. 

Adelaide. (1) A tragedy by Mrs. Opie, 
privately played at Norwich on January 4 
:uid 6, 1791, with the author in the title 
part. (2) A historical tragedy in three acts, 
Ly Henry James Pye (q.v.), first per- 
formed at Drury Lane on January 25, 1800, 
■with Kemble as Prince Richard, Mr.s. Sid- 
dons as Adelaide, Bavrymore as Prince 
John, J. Aikin as King Henry, and C. 
Kemble as Clifford. The prologue was by 
Southey ; the epilogue was delivered by 
Harriett Mellon {q.v.). The play is founded 
on Lyttleton's ' History of Henry II.' 
Adelaide, sister of King Philip of France, 
is in love with and beluved by Richard, but 
John tells his brother that Adelaide is also 
beloved hy King Henry, and Adelaide, indig- 
nant at the jealousy of Richard, takes 
refuge in an abbey. She becomes a nun, 
and Richard sets off for the holy wars. 
(3) ' Adelaide ; or. The Emigrants : ' a 
tragedy in five acts, by R. SiiEiL (q.v.), 
performed at Covent Garden (for the tirst 
and only time) on May 23, 1816, with Miss 
O'Neil in the title part, C. Kemble as Count 
Lunenburg, and Young, Abbott, Murray, 
Egerton, Mrs. Egerton, and Miss Foote in 
other parts. " If," says Hazlitt, " there 
had been one good passage in this play, it 
would infallibly have been damned. But 
it was all of a piece ; one absurdity justified 
another. . . . Count iz<ne?i?>u?-/7 cannot marry 
Adelaide, because 'his emperor's frown' has 
j forbidden his marriage with the daughter 
I of an emigrant nobleman ; and so, to avoid 
! this imperial frown, he betrays her into a 
pretended marriage, and thus intends to 
divide his time between war and a mistress. 
: Hence aU the distresses and mischiefs which 
} ensue." 'Adelaide ' was printed in 1816, but 
j without the epilogue (spoken by Mathews 
: as Sir Fretful Plagiary). It was produced 
I at New York in 1S19. (4) A dramatic frag- 
; ment, adapted by W. Poel from the German 
of Dr. Hugo Miller, and performed at the 1 

Vaudeville Theatre, London, on the after- 
noon of July 5, 1887. It deals with an 
incident in the life of Beethoven. 

Adelaide of "Wulfing-en. An unacted 
tragedy in four acts, adapted from the 
German of Kotzebue by B. Thompson 
iq.v.), and printed in 1798. The heroine, 
unknowingly, commits incest, and in a fit 
of frenzy kills her two sons. 

Adelbert of Warsaw. A play pro- 
duced at New York in 1819. 

Adelg-itha ; or, The Fruits of a 
Sing-le Error. A tragedy in five acts, 
written by M. G. Lewis (q.v.), with inci- 
dental music by Kelly ; first performed at 
Drury Lane on April 30, 1807, with Mrs. 
Powell as the heroine, EUiston as Lothair, 
Raymond as Michael Ducas, H. Siddons 
as Robert Guiscard, and Mrs. H. Siddons as 
Imma. Adelgitha is the wife of Guiscard, 
but, when very young, had been seduced 
by George of Clermont. Lothair is her 
unacknowledged son by George. In the 
absence of Guiscard, Ducas makes love to 
her. He possesses her letters to George, 
and threatens exposure. Ultimately he is 
stabbed by Adelgitha, who, though forgiven 
by Guiscard, kills herself. Imma is beloved 
by Lothair. 'Adelgitha' was played in Ame- 
rica, for the first time, in 1808. It was fre- 
quently revived : notably at Covent Garden 
in 1819, with Miss Somerville as Adelgitha, 
C. Kemble as Lothair, Macready as Duccyr, 
and Young as Guiscard ; at Drury Lane in 
1823, with Kean as Lothair and Cooper as 
Ducas; at the Bowery Theatre, New York, 
in March, 1827, with Mrs. J. R. Duff as 
Adelgitha, Charles Young as Guiscard, Blake 
as Lothair, and G. Barrett as Ducas ; at 
Drury Lane in April, 1828, with John 
Cooper as Guiscard, Wallack as Ducas, and 
Miss Foote as Imma. Guiscard, Lothair, 
and Ducas were all among J. R. Duff's 

Adelinda. A play by Hannah Brani> 
(q.v.), printed in 1798. It was adapted fi-om 
the ' Force du Naturel ' of Destouches. See 
Genest's ' English Stage ' (1832). 

Adeline. A melodrama in three acts, 
adapted fi-om the French by Howard 
Payne (q.v.), and first performed at Drury 
Lane on February 9, 1822, with Miss Copeland 
as the heroine, INIiss Smithson as Countess 
Wilhelm, S. Penley as Coimt Wilhelm, and 
Cooper as Dorlin. The Count, under the 
guise of an artist, has seduced Adeline, 
daughter of Dorlin, a blind old soldier ; 
and Adeline, when she finds the Count is 
married, throws herself into a river, and 
ultimately dies on the stage. The play was 
performed at New York in INIay, 1822, with 
Miss Johnson in the title part and Mrs. 
Battersby as the Countess. 

Adelle. 'The New York Saleslady,' in 
the play of that name (q.v.). 

Adelmann. Mayor of the palace, in 
Tom Taylor's ' Wittikind an ' his Brothers' 

(q.v.). ^ 




Adelmorn; or The Outlaw. A drama, 
^v-ith songs, in three acts, by M. G. Lewis 
■[q.v.), first performed at Drury Lane, May 4, 
isoi, with C. Kemble as the hero, Raymond 
as Count Ulric, Bannister, jun.,as Lodoivick, 
Suett as Hujo, and Mrs. Jordan as Innogen. 
Adelmorn is suspected of having killed his 
uncle, is arrested, escapes, and is outlawed. 
Lodou'ick discovers that the crime has 
really been committed by Ulric, and de- 
nounces him. The ghost of the uncle 
appears, and Ulric confesses his guilt. Iltifjo 
is a minstrel and " a good comic character.' 
Reduced to two acts, ' Adelmorn ' was 
revived at Di-ury Lane in 1802, and was 
performed at New York in the same year. 

Adelphi ; or, The Brothers. A 

comedy hv Terence (B.C. 160) ; translated 
into English by Bernard (1598), Hoole (1663), 
Echard and others (1694), Bentley (1726), 
Cooke (1734), Patrick (1745), Gordon (1752), 
the elder Colman (1765), Cotter (1824), Riley 
(1848), Giles (1856), Parry (1857), Davies 
(1869), :Mongan (1S&1\ Burnett and Haydon 
(1887), and Hawkins (1891). 

Adelphi Theatre- See London 


"Adieu; farewell earth's bliss." 
First line of a song in Nash's ' Summer's 
Xast Will and Testament' (q.v.)— 

' This world uncertain is ! 
Fond are life's lustful joys ; 
Death proves them all but toys." 

Adina; or, The Elixir of Love. 
A.n English version of Donizetti's opera, 
' L'Elisir d'Amore,' first played at the Court 
Theatre, Liverpool, on February 24, 1892. 
The heroine of this work is the heroine also 
of Reynoldson's adaptation of 'L'Elisir 
d'Amore ' (q.v.), and of \V. S. Gilbert's bur- 
lesque, 'Dr. Dulcamara' (q.v.). 

Aditha. A tiring- woman in Talfourd's 
burlesque, ' Godiva' (q.v.). 

Admetus. King of Thessaly, in 
Spicer's 'Alcestis' (q.v.), and in Tal- 
fourd's burlesque of that name (q.v.). 

Admirable Crichton (The). (1) A 
tragedy by G. Galloway, printed in 1802. 
(2) A play, first performed at Drury Lane 
on June 12, 1820, with Kean as the" hero, 
a character in which he gave imitations 
■of celebrated actors and exhibitions of 
singing, dancing, and fencing, etc. He was 
supported by Mrs. Robinson, Oxberry, 
Holland, and Penley. (3) An adaptation of 
Harrison Ainsworth's story, ' Cri^chton ' 
(1837), performed at the Adelphi Theatre, 
London. (4) A "fantasy" in four acts, by 
J. M. Barrie, Duke of York's Theatre, 
London, November 4, 1902, with H. B. 
Irving in the title-part, and other roles by 
Miss Irene Vanbrugh, Miss Sybil Carlisle, 
H. Kemble, etc. 

Adolphe. The page in 'Falsacappa' 

Adolphine. A character in MON- 
crieff's ' Monsieur Tonson' (qv.). 

Adolphus, John. Author of ' Memoirs 
of John Bannister, Comedian' (1839). 

Adolphus and Clara ; or, The T 
Two Prisoners. A comedy in one act, ■ 

translated by Eleanor H from the French 

of J. B. Marsollier, and printed in the Lady's 
Magazine for 1804. "This," says the ' Bio- 
graphia Dramatica' (1812), "is a translation 
from the drama from which Mr. Kenney 
took his opera of ' Matrimony ' [q.v.]." 

Adonis. The central character in the 
following pieces :—(l) 'Adonis:' a burlesque, 
produced at the Bijou Theatre, New York, 
on September 3, 1884, with H. E. Dixey in 
the title part ; first performed in London at 
the Gaiety Theatre on May 31, 1886, vnth 
Dixey in his original role. (2) ' Adonis II. :' 
an extravaganza produced at New York on 
November 28, 1892, with H. E. Dixey in the 
principal role — that of a statue of Adonis, 
.supposed to be vivified. — Adords also figures 
in C. DiBDiN's 'Poor Vulcan ; or, Gods upon 
Earth' (q.v.), Blanche and Dance's 'Pa- 
phian Bower' (7.1'.), and in F. C. Burnand's 
' Venus and Adonis ' (q.v.). 

Adonis Vanquished. A comedy in 
two acts, adapted from 'Le Dt^gel' by Vin- 
cent Amcotts (q.v.). See Rapid Thaw, A. 

Adopted Child (The). A musical 
piece, words by Samuel Birch (q.v.), music 
by Thomas Attwood (g.i!.); first performed 
at Drury Lane on INlay 1, 1795, with Ban- 
nister, jun., as Michael, Suett as Record, 
and Trueman as Sir Bertrand. The adopted 
child of Michael, a ferryman, claims, on the 
strength of certain papers, to be the heir 
of the estates, held by Sir Bertrand, of which 
Record is the steward. The piece was pro- 
duced at New York in 1796, with Jefiierson 
as Michael. 

Adoption. A 'matrimonial mixture,' 
by Richard Henry (q.v.), first performed at 
Toole's Theatre, London, on ]\Lay 26, 1890, 
with Miss Cicely Richards and Miss M', 
Illington in the cast. 

Adoration of the Shepherds (The)J 
The subject of plays in the Chester, Coventry ' 
and Widkirk series. For analysis and quo' 
tations, see Collier's 'Dramatic Poetry \ 

Adrasta; or, The "Woman's Spleerj 
and Love's Conquest. A tragi-comed:' 
by John Jones, founded on Boccaccio'.i 
' Decameron,' viii. 8 ; unacted, but publishec 
in 1635. 

Adrastus. King of Argos, in Talfourd'; 

• Ion' (q.v.). 

Adrian andOrrila; or, A Mother': 
Vengeance. A play in five acts, by W 
Dimond (q.v.), first performed at Coven; 
Garden on November 15, 1806, with C. Kembl 
and Miss Brunton in the title parts, Mis; 
SmitiJ H5S Matilda (Mdme. Clermont), Cook 
as PriiiCc of Altenburg, and Munden a 
Cnnnt of Rc$eiiheim. Altenburg has seduce 
Matilda and refused to marry her. Shf 



in revenge, steals his legitimate son Adrian, 
and passes him off as her own. By-and- 
by Altcnburg, Adrian's mother being dead, 
is about to wed Orrila, daughter of Rosen- 
heim; but Orrila and Adrian are in love, 
and, Matilda confessing all to Altenburg, 
the youth is released and marries Orrila, 
Altenburg promising to wed Matilda. The 
play included songs by Kelly. It was pro- 
duced in New York in December, 1S07, and 
was revived at the Bowery, there, in January, 
1827, with Mrs. J. R. Duff as Matilda, Bernard 
as Adrian, J. R. Duff as Prince of Altenburg, 
and Mrs. G. Barrett as Orrila. Duff and his 
wife also played the title parts in America. 

Adrian in Syria. An opera, trans- 
lated from Metastasio by John Hoole (g.u.), 
and printed in 1800. 

Adriana. Wife to Antipholus of 
Ephesus, in 'The Comedy of Errors ' (g.u.). 

Adrienne. Daughter of Madeline, in 
Burnand's 'Proof (q.v.). 

Adrienne ; or, The Secret of a 
Life. A drama by H. Leslie {q.v.), first 
performed at the Lyceum Theatre, London, 
on November 12, 1860, with Mdme. Celeste 
as the heroine {Adrienne de Beaiqyre), H. G. 
Neville as Victor Savignie, G. Vining as 
Engine de Grassac, Mrs. Keeley as Gisnetta 
Scarotta, and J. Johnstone and J. Rouse in 
other parts. Adrienne's "secret " is her sup- 
position—unfounded, as it turns out— that 
her mother was not her father's wife. 

Adrienne Lecouvreur. A famous 
French actress (born 1690, died 17G0), upon 
a feigned incident in whose life MM. Scribe 
and Legouve founded the drama produced 
at the Thefitre Frangais on April 14, 1849, 
with Rachel in the title role and Regnier 
as Michonnet. The part of Adrienne became 
a great favourite with Rachel, and was the 
last in which she appeared on the stage 
(at Charleston, U.S.A., December 17, 1S56). 
There have been several versions of the play. 
(1) One, Avritten by JOHN OxENFORD, and 
entitled 'The Reigning Favourite' {q.v.), 
was produced in 1849. (2) In 1853 Miss 
F. Davenport appeared in New York in 
an adaptation by herself, called 'Adrienne 
the Actress,' playing the title rule, and 
supported by Davidge as Michonnet. In 
1858 Mdme. Ristori produced in London 
an Italian arrangement of the drama. 
In 1862 Miss Avonia Jones {q.v.) appeared 
at the Adelphi as Adrienne, with Mrs. 
Billington as the Princess de Bouillon, 
J. Billington as Maurice de Saze, J. L. 
Toole as Michonnet, and D. Fisher as the 
Abbi. (3) Miss Helen Faucit appeared as 
Adrienne at Manchester, for a week, in an 
adaptation made by her husband. Sir (then 
^Ir.) Theodore Martin. This version has 
lately (1892) been used, by permission, by 
a com.pany headed by W. Farren, junior. 
Mdme. Bernhardt represented Adrienne (in 
French) at the Gaiety Theatre, London, in 
May, 1880, supported by Mdlle. Devoyod, 
and MM. Train, Chameroy, Dieudonne, and 
Talbot. (4) In December of the same year 
aidme. INIodjeska— who had already played 

the rdle in America in 1S77— appeared as 
Adrienne (in a version by Henry Herman) 
at the Court Theatre, London, with Miss 
Amy Roselle as the Princesse de Bouillon, 
Miss Winifred Emery as the Duchess 
d'Aumont, Forbes Robertson as Maurice de 
Saxe. J. D. Beveridge as the Prince de 
Bouillon, Lin Rayne as the Abbi, and G. W. 
Anson as Michonnet. The same version was 
used when, in December, 1882, Miss Marie 
de Grey played Adrienne at the Olympic, 
with F. H. INIacklin as Saxe, F. Terry as the 
Abbe, and Miss H. Cresswell as the Princess; 
and when, in April, 1SS3, IMiss Wallis {q.v.) 
represented Adrienne at a matinee at the 
Gaiety, London. The part has also been 
played in England by Miss Achurch {q.v.) 
(at the Royalty, London, 1893), Miss Lingard 
(q.v.), Miss AUeyn {q.v.), etc. 

Adrienne the Actress. SeeAcRiENNE 

Adventurers (The). (I) An anony- 
mious two-act piece, printed in 1777. (2) A 
farce in two acts, by E. Morri.s, first per- 
formed at Drury Lane on INIarch 18, 1790, 
with R. Palmer as Shift {Lord Gleanwell), 
Whitfield as Mar-all {Metaphor), Suett as 
Sir Peregrine Bramble, and Bannister, jun., 
as Peregrine Bramble. Shift and Mar-all 
are the adventurers under assumed names. 
(3) A comedy in three acts, by E. Rose 
{q.v.), founded on Awgier's 'L'Aventnriere,' 
and first performed at the Strand Theatre, 
London, on the afternoon of June 24, 1892, 
with IMiss C. Ivanova and C. W. Somerset in 
the title parts, and A. Elwood and H. 
Eversfield in other rdles. 

Adventures in Madrid. A comedy in 
three acts, by Mrs. Pix (7. r)., produced at the 
Haymarket, London, probably in 1706, with 
Booth as Gaylove, Husband as Bellmour, 
Freeman as Don Gomez, Mrs. Bicknell as 
Lisset, Mrs. Bracegirdle as Laura, and INIrs. 
Barry as Clarinda. 

Adventures of a Billet-Doux (The). 
An adaptation, by Charles Jajmes Mathews 
{q.v.), of Sardou's 'Pattes de Mouche,' first 
performed at Drury Lane on November 19, 
1860, with the adapter and Mrs. Mathews as 
Major Blunt and Catherine Bright, IMrs. F. 
Matthews as Mrs. Wagstaff, and H. J. JMon- 
tagu and Miss Fanny Josephs in other parts. 
It has also been played under the title of 
'Adventures of a Love-Letter.' See Scrap 
OF Paper. 

Adventures of a Love-Iietter. See 
Adventures of a Billet-Doux. 

Adventures of a Nigrht (The). (1) 
A farce by W. Hodson, first performed at 
Drury Lane on March 24, 1783, with Parsons 
as Morecraft, Palmer as Hastings, Bannister, 
jun., SiS Sprightly, Baddeley as Diaper, and 
Barrymore as Fairlove. " The bulk " of the 
piece, says Genest, "is taken from 'The 
Coffee-House Politician'" {q.v.). (2) A 
comedy in three acts, founded by Meyrick 
Milton upon the original of Tuke's ' Ad- 
ventures of Five Hours ' {q.v.) and first per- 
formed at the Lyceum Theatre, Edinburgh, 



June 19, 1893 ; performed at the Strand 
Theatre, London, on the afternoon of July 
21, 1893, by the author, W. H. Vernon, L. 
Lablache, F. MelHsh, and Misses M. Whitty, 

A. Ferrar, and C Richards. 

Adventures of a Ventriloctuist 
(The) ; or, The Rog-ueries of Nicho- 
las. A farce in three acts, by Moncreiff 
(q.v.), performed at the Adelphi, London, in 
or about 1823. It was written in order to 
exhibit the powers of Alexandre the ventri- 
loquist, and had to do with the love affairs 
of a Cai)tain Furlough and a Miss Pillburp, 
who are aided by Nicholas, old Pillbury's 

Adventures of Dick Turpin and 
Tom King-. See Dick Turpin. 

Adventures of Five Hours (The). 
A "tragic-comedy" by Sir Samuel Tuke 
(q.v.), adapted, at Charles II. 's suggestion, 
from a Spanish comedy (' Los Empeuos de 
Seis Horas') and produced at the Lincoln's 
Inn Fields Theatre in January, 1663, with 
Betterton as Don Henrique, Harris as 
Antonio, Young as Octavio, Mrs. Betterton 
as Portia, and Mrs. Davenport as Camilla. 
Octavio is in love with Portia, and Antonio 
■with Camilla. For some time all four 
are at cross purposes, o-ning to mistaken 
identity and other misunderstandings ; but 
in the end each pair of lovers is made happy. 
Pepys, who saw the piece played at White- 
hall, not only praised it for be"ing " without 
a word of ribaldry," but protested that, in 
comparison with it, 'Othello' was "a mean 
thing"! Langbaine proclaimed it "one of 
the best plays now extant for o^conomv and 
contrivance," and Echard described the plot 
as "one of the pleasantest stories that ever 
appeared upon our stage." The play, which 
contains the well-knoAvn couplet— 

" He is a fool who thinks by force or skill 
To turn the current of a woman's will "— 

was printed in 1664 and 1671. It was revived 
(compressed) at the Haymarket in 1707, and 
(still more compressed) at Drury Lane in 
1727. See Adventures of a Night (2) 
and Perplexities. 

Adventures of Half an Hour (The). 
AfarcebyCHRisTOPHER Bullock (^.v.), first 
performed at Lincoln's Inn Fields on :March 
19, 1716, with the author as Aminadah, an 
apprentice. The piece deals with the flirta- 
tions of Mrs. Tang and Captain Courtall, and 
the jealousy of Tagg. 

Adventuress (The). (1) A play by 

B. H. Hilton, performed at the Alexandra 
Theatre, Liverpool, in February, 1871. (2) 
A play, adapted by T. S. Amory from 
Delpit's ' Fils de Coralie,' and performed at 
the Theatre Royal, Newcastle, in :May, 1882, 
with Miss Adeline Stanhope as the heroine. 
See Coralie and Id alia. 

"Adversity, Sweet are the uses 
of."— 'As You Like It,' act ii. sc. 1 (the 
Dulce). Shakespeare also has a reference 
to "Adversity's sweet milk, philosophy:" 

' Romeo and Juliet,* act iii. sc. 3 {Friar 

Advertisement (The) ; or, A Bold 
Stroke for a Husband. (1) A comedy by 
Mrs. Gardner {q.v.), first performed at the 
Haymarket Theatre on August 9, 1777, Avith 
Parsons, Edwin, Jackson, Blisset, R. Palmer, 
and the authoress in the cast. (.2) ' The 
Advertisement ' was the title of a farce by 
Fennell, produced in London in 1791, and 
in New York in 1804. 

Advice Gratis. A farce in one act, 
by C. Dance {q.v.), first performed at the 
Olympic Theatre, London, on September 
29, 1837, with ^Y. Farren as Odbody, F. Mat- 
thews as Eventide, and Mrs. Orger as Mrs. 
Eventide; produced in New York in Feb- 
ruary, 1838, with Placide as Odbody. 

Advice to Husbands. A comedietta 
in one act, by Charles Sears Lancaster, 
first performed at the Princess's Theatre, 
London, on October 6, 1846, with J. Vining 
and Mrs. Stirling in the chief parts. 

Advocate (The); or, The Lost 
Cause. A play by H. P. Grattan, per- , 
formed in New York in 1848 and 1858. 

Advocate's Daugrhter (The). This 
play was performed at Edinburgh Theatre: 
Royal in 1856-7, with Henry Irving as 

Adze, Andrew. A character in T. E. 
WiLKS's 'Michael Erie' {q.v.). 

-ffietes. King of Colchis in Planchk's 
' Golden Fleece' {q.v.). 

-^g-eon. A merchant of Syracuse ii 
' The Comedy of Errors ' {q.v.) ; husband o 
jEmilia, and father of the two Antlplwl 
{q.v.). He tells his story in act i. sc. 1. 

-aSg-isthus. King of Mycense, in F 
Talfourd's 'Electra' {q.v.). 

-ffig-lamour. The "sad shepherd" i 
Ben Jonson's dramatic fragment of tha 
name {q.v.). 

-ffilla. "A tragj-cal enterlude or di; 
coorseynge tragedie, wrotenn bie Thoma 
Rowleie," and published in 1777. This ws' 
one of the fabrications of Thomas Chattei ■ 
TON {q.v.). 

-ffimilia. The abbess in ' The Comec 
of Errors' {q.v.); wife of yEgeon {q.v.), a.!,- 
mother of the two Antipholi {q.v.). 

.aEmilius. A character in Home' 
' Siege of Aquileia' (q.v.). 

-SEneas ; or, Dido Done. Aburlesqi 
by H. S. Granville ; Theatre Royal, Cor 
March 2, 1868.— ^/ieas figures also in :\Ia ! 
LOWE and Nash's ' Tra^Tedy of Dido ' {q. r . 
HOARE's 'Dido' (q.v.j, and Burnani : 
'Dido' (q.v.). 

-ffineas's Reveng-e. See Troy's R 


-ffirostation ; or. The Templai,; 
Stratag-em. A farce in two acts, bv ' 
PiLON {q. V. ), first performed at Co vent G ard i 



on October 29, 1784, with Quick as Quarto, 
Mrs. Webb as the Widoiv Grampus, Bonnor 
as Mineall, Wewitzer as Dawson, Davies as 
George Gordon, and Miss Ranoe as Sojjhia 
Harland. Quarto, a bookseller, desires to 
marry the Widoxv, and his nephew and heir, 
George, wishes to prevent his doing so, 
Mineall, a Templar, suggests that Dawson, 
disguised as a German baron, shall make 
love to the lady ; and when he does, she 
favours him. Quarto retires, gives George 
an estate, and George and Sophia are married. 
•"Much," says Genest, "is said about bal- 
loons, for which there was at that time a 

.ffischylus. The complete works of this 
great tragic writer (B.C. 525-456) have been 
translated into English by Potter (1777), an 
anonymous author (1822), Buckley (1849), 
Paley (1864), Plumptre (1868), and Swan- 
wick (1873) ; the ' Lyrica Dramas ' by 
Blackie (1850). See Copleston's ' ^schyius.' 
See also Agamemnon ; Orestes ; Prome- 
theus ViNCTUS ; Septem contra Thebes. 

JEsop, the fabulist, figures in Coyne 
and Talfourd's 'Leo the Terrible' {q.v.). 
See Esop. 

.ffisop. A comedy in two parts, by Sir 
John Vanbrugh {q.v.), founded on the 
'Esope' of Boursault, and produced at Drury 
Lane in 1697, with Gibber in the title part, 
Dogget as Learchus, Harland as Oronces, and 
!\Ivs. Temple as Euphronia. Learchus desires 
his daughter Euphronia to marry uEsop; but 
>;he loves Oronces, to whom JEsop eventually 
transfers her. The fiftli act, and the cha- 
racter of Sir Polidorus Hogstye, are entirely 
Vanbrugh's. The play was printed in 1697, 
and again in 1702, with a new second part, 
consisting of three scenes. It was revived 
at Drury Lane in 1708, with Mrs. Oldfield as 
Euphronia ; at Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1725, 
with Quin as ^sop ; at Drury Lane in 1738, 
with Gibber, jun., as Sir Polidorus, and 
Macklin as Quaint; at Covent Garden in 
1742, "with songs in masonry;" and at 
Drury Lane in 1758, with Mossop, Yates, 
O'Brien, Palmer, Holland, INIrs. Clive, and 
Mrs. Pritchard. Reduced by T. Sheridan 
to the dimensions of a farce, the piece 
was produced at Drury Lane in 1778, with 
Henderson as ^Esop and Farren as Oronces. 
See Light and Shadow. 

-ffisop in the Shades. See Lethe. 

-ffisop's Cro-w. A play, performed at 
Court in the reign of Edward VI., "where- 
in," says a contemporary writer, "the 
moste part of the actors were birds," i.e. 
dressed as such. It is mentioned in 
' Beware the Cat,' 1584 (Fleay). 

-ffisop's Fables. A farcical comedy 
■by J. P. HuRST (g.v.), first performed at the 
Strand Theatre, London, on July 19, 1889, 
with G. Giddens as ^Esop Brooks, whose 
"fables" form the basis of the plot. 

iEthiop (The); or, The Child of 
the Desert. A play in three acts, by W. 
DiMOND iq.v.), first performed at Covent 

Garden on October 6, 1812, with C. Kemble 
as Haroun Alraschid, Young as Almanzor, 
Miss S. Booth as Orasmyn, Mrs. C. Kemble 
as Zoe, Liston as Benmoussaf, Simmons as 
Mustapha, and Egerton, Fawcett, and Mrs. 
Davenport also in the cast ; first seen in 
New York in 1813. Alraschid is the ^thiop, 
that being the assumed character in which 
he unmasks and frustrates the conspiracy of 
Almanzor to place Orasmyn on the throne. 
There is an underjjlot based on the amorous 
pursuit of Zoe by Benmoussaf ^nd Mustapha. 

-ffitius. A character in Beaumont and 

Fletcher's ' Yalentinian' {q.v.). 

-ffitius. An opera translated from Me- 
tastasio by John Hoole (g.r.), and printed 
in 1800. 

Affahle, "Wido-w. A character in ' Call 
again To-Morrow' {q.v.). 

Affair of Honour (An). A farce by 
W. L. Rede {q.v.), first performed at the 
Olympic Theatre, London, with Liston as 
Major Limkey, Keeley as Captain Carnage, 
J. Vining as Dr. Clements, Miss Fitzwalter 
as Mdme. Tourmlle, and Miss Goward (Mrs. 
Keeley) as Martha ; produced in New York 
in 1838, Avith Placide as Limkey. The piece 
turns upon a device by which the doctor 
succeeds in carrying off Mdm£. Tourville 
from her two military suitors. 

Affected Ladies (The). A comedy by 
John Ozell {q.v.), Hterally translated from 
the ' Precieuses Ridicules ' of Moliere {q.v.). 

Affectionate Father (The). A comedy 
by James Nelson, printed, with some essays 
by the same author, in 1786. See ' Biographia 
Dramatica' (1812). 

Affectionate Son (The). A comedy 
"from Engel," printed in Holcroft's 'Thea- 
trical Recorder' {q.v.). 

AflBLnities. A drama in five acts, adapted 
by Mrs. Campbell Praed {q.v.) and Mrs. 
JOPLING, from a novel written by the 
former ; printed in 1885. 

Afrancesado. A play in two acts, by 
T. J. Serle, first performed at Covent 
Garden in 1838-9. 

Africaine (L); or, The Queen of 
the Cannibal Islands. (1) A burles- 
que of Meyerbeer's ' L'Africaine,' written 
by F. C. BURNAND {q.v.), and first per- 
formed at the Strand Theatre, London, on 
November 18, 1865, with D. James as NeUisko, 
T. Thorne as Selika, J. D. Stoyle as Vasco 
di Gama, H. J. Turner as Don Diego, Miss 
Raynham as Don Pedro, Miss Elise Holt as 
Do7i Alva, and Miss A. Swanboroueh as 
Inez. (2) ' L'Africaine ; or, The Belle of 
Madagascar : ' a burlesque in one act, by 
Captain Arbuthnot. 

African Roscius(The). SeeRoscius, 

Africans (The) ; or, "War, Love, 
and Duty. A play in three acts, by 
George Colman, jun. (q.v.), the music by 
Kelly {q-v.) ; founded on a story in ' Les 



Nouvelles du Florian,' and first performed 
at the Haymarket on July 29, ISOS, vrith a 
cast including Young, Listen, Fawcett, J. 
Palmer, Mrs. Gibbs, and ]Mrs. Liston. " This 
play," says Genest, "is a strange mixture of 
tragedy, comedy, and opera."' It was pro- 
duced in America in ISIO. 

After. A drama in one act by Scott 
Battams, first performed at the Vaudeville 
Theatre, London, on the afternoon of May 
27, 1SS7, with a cast including Miss Sophie 
EjTe ; revived at the Vaudeville in February, 
1888, with Miss Helen Barry in the leading 

After All. (1) A comedy in three acts 
by W. 31. Duckworth, first performed at 
the Prince of AN'ales Theatre, Liverpool, 
October 13, 1S73. (2) A vaudeville, words by 
F. Desprez (q.v.), music by A. Cellier ; first 
performed at the Opera Comique Theatre, 
London, on December 16, 1S7S. (3) A play 
in a prologue and three acts, suggested by 
Lord Lytton's ' Eugene Aram," written by 
Freeman Wills and Frederick Lang- 
bridge, and produced at the Theatre 
Royal, Dublin, on October 7, 1901, with 
Martin Harvey as Eugene Aram; pre- 
sented at the" Avenue 'I heatre, London, 
January 15, 1902, with Martin Harvey as 

After Business Hours. A comedy 
adapted by Augustin Daly (g.r.) from the 
German of Blumenthal, and first performed 
at Daly's Theatre, New York, on October 5, 
1SS6, vs-ith a cast including Miss A. Rehan 
{Doris), J. Drew, J, Lewis, etc. 

After Dark : a Tale of Liondon 
Life. A play in four acts, by Dion Bouci- 
CAULT {q.v.), first performed at the Princess's 
Theatre, London, on August 12, 1S6S, with G. 
Vining as Old Tom, Walter Lacy as Chandos 
Bellingham, Dominick Murray as Dlccy 
Morris, H. J. Montague as Sir 'George Med- 
hurst, J. G. Shore as Gordon Chumleii, 'Sliss 
Rose Leclercq as Eliza, and Miss Trissy 
Marston as Rose Egcrton; first performed in 
New York at the Bowery and Niblo's Garden 
in November, 1S6S; re'vived at the Globe 
Theatre, T,ondon, in 3Iay, 1S77, with J. 
Ryder as Old Tom, J. Billington asChnmler/, 
H. H. Vincent as Medhurst, E. Righton as 
Morris, AV. J. Hill as Area Jack, C.Harcourt 
as Bellingham,, Miss E. Ritta as Eose, and 
Miss Lydia Foote as Eliza ; and at the 
Princess's Theatre in June. 1S77, with J. 
Fernandez as Old Tom, W. Terriss as J/e-i- 
hurst, H. Jackson as Morris, H. Russell 
as Bellingham, Miss R. Coghlan as Eliza, 
I\Iiss K. "Pattison as Rose, and ]SIiss Fannie 
Leslie as Jack ; at the Park Theatre, 
London, in March, 1S79. with C. Collette as 
Old Tom, Miss A. Steinberg as Ftose, and 
Miss Stella Brereton as Eliza; and at the 
Princess's Theatre in Noveml)er, 1891, with 
H. Neville as Old Tom, F. Mellish as Sir 
George, W. L. Abingdon as Bellingham, W. 
E. Shine as Dicey, H. Bedford as Area 
Jack, Miss B. Selwyn as Eliza, and Miss 
E. Terriss as Rose. 

After Dinner. (1) A farce by Herbert 
Gardner (q.v.). (2) A farce bv F. Netmore 

After Long- Years. (1) A drama in 
one act, by Sydney Grundy ('7.r.), trans- 
lated from Scribe and Caraille's ' Le Mauvais 
Sujet,' and first performed at the Folly 
Theatre, London, on December 6, ls79, with 
a cast including E. W, Garden. (2) A 
comedy-drama in three acts, by Arthur 
Law (q.v.) and Mrs. Herbert Purves, first 
performed at Torquay in October. 1SS6; pro- 
duced at the Criterion Theatre, London, on 
the afternoon of February 2. 1SS7. (3) A 
comedietta by G. Godfrey, Pavilion Thea- 
tre, London, December, 1SS9. 

After Many Days. A comedietta in 
one act, by A. Elwood (q.v.), produced at 
the Globe Theatre, London, on March 14, 


After Marriag-e. A comedietta by J. 
Wilton Jones (q.v.). Theatre Royal, Leeds, 
April 30, 1S75. 

After the Ball. A farce in three acts, 
bv E. Ferriss, B. p. Matthews, and 
N. DOONE ; Grand Theatre, Margate, Oc- 
tober 29, 1903. 

After the Opera. A play by A. C. 
Gunter (q.v.), performed in the United 

After the Party. A comedietta, 
identical in plot with ' Forty Winks ' (q. v.). 

Aftermath ; or, "Won at Last. A 

play first performed at Wallack"s Theatre, 
New York, in December, 1577, with H. J. 
Montague and John Gilbert in the leading 
parts ; revived at the Madison Square 
Theatre, New York, in April, 1S79, with a 
cast including Steele Mackaye, J. Frankau, 
and C. W. Couldock. (2) 'Aftermath;' a 
play by Dr. Hartmann and S. Strange, 
New York, September 2, 1890. 

After-Thoug-hts. A one-act play by 
Augustus Thomas (q.v.), produced at the 
Madison Square Theatre, New York, in 
November, 1S30, with Mrs. Agnes Booth 
and L. Massen in the leading roles. 

Ag-ainst Momi and Zoili. A play 
bv John Bale, Bishop of Ossorv (circa looCh- 

Ag-ainst those -who Adulterate 
the "Word of God. A play by John 
Bale, Bishop of Ossoiy (circa 1530-40). 

Agamemnon. (1) A tragedy by 
yEsCHYLUS (q.v.) ; translated, separately, 
into Endish bv Bovd (1823), Svmmons (1824), 
Harford (1831), Medwin (1832), Sewell (1846), 
Herbert (1849), Blew (1855), :Milman (1865), 
Davies (1S6S), Kennedy (1878), Cooper (1890), 
and Morshead (1S90) ; performed at Balliol 
Hall, Oxford, with F. R. Benson as Clytem- 
nestra. (2) A tragedy by Seneca (b.c. 58- 
32) ; adapted by John Studley (1566) in Alex- 
andrine verse ; translated by Newton (15S1). 
(3) A plav ascribed to Henry CHETTLE(g.r.) 
and THOMAS Dekker (q.v.) ; acted in 1599. 



(4) A tragedy by James Thomson (q.v.'), first 
performed at Drury Lane on April 6, 1738, 
with Quin in the title part, Gibber, jun., as 
Melisander, Mrs. Porter as Clytemnestm, and 
Mrs. Gibber as Cassandra. The play is 
founded on the tragedies of ^schylus and 
Seneca, with the character of Melisander 
superadded frona Homer (' Odyssey,' bk. 
iii.)- It is said that the piece "struggled 
with such difficulty through the first night 
that Thomson, coming late to his friends 
with whom he was to sup, excused his 
delay by telling them how the sweat of 
his distress had so disordered his wig that 
he could not come till he had been refitted 
by a barber." (5) A tragedy by Alfieri 
(1749-1803); translated by Lloyd (1815) and 
Bo wring (1876); "altered" by R. G. Mac- 
GREGOR in 'Indian Leisure' (1854). 

Agramemnoii and Cassandra; or, 
; The Prophet and Loss of Troy. A 
burlesque by Robert Reece iq.v.), first 
performed at the Prince of Wales's Theatre, 
1 Liverpool, on April 13, 1S6S, with Miss C. 
I Parkes and H. Beckett in the title parts, 
I and Miss Julia Matthews as Clytemnestra. 

Agamemnon and Ulysses. A 'his- 
tory' "presented and enacted before her 
Majesty by the Earl of Oxford his boys," in 
1584. . 

Agatha. (1) A play in three acts, by 
Isaac Henderson, first performed at the 
Criterion Theatre, London, on May 24, 1892, 
with Miss W. Emery as the heroine, and 
Miss O. Nethersole, Miss M. Moore, Miss 
R. Leclercq, Minnie Terry, L. Waller, H. 
Waring, and C. Wyndham in other parts ; 
revived at the same theatre, on December 8, 
1892, under the title of ' The Silent Battle,' 
and with almost the same cast. (2) ' Agatha ; 
or. The Lawful Wife;' drama by Oswald 
Brand, Sadler's Wells, August 15, 1892. 

Ag-atha. (I) A character in H. J. 
Byron's 'Der Ereischiitz' (?.v.). (2) The 
Princess in the Brothers Brough'S 'Frank- 
enstein' iq.v.). 

Agatha Tylden, Merchant and 
Shipowner. A play in four acts, by E. 
Rose, first performed at the Haymarket, 
October 17, 1892, with :Mrs. Langtry in the 
title part, and other roles by L. Waller, C. 
Maude, W. T. Lovell, and Miss M. Linden. 

AgaziL The lover of Almida, in Wills 
and Herman's 'Claudian' {q-v.). 

*'Age, ache, penury, and im- 
prisonment."— '^Measure for Measure,' 
act iii. sc. 1 (Claudio). 

"Age cannot wither her."— 'An- 
tony and Cleopatra,' act ii. sc. 2 (Uno- 

" Nor custom stale 
Her infinite variety." 

The description is applied to Cleopatra. 

"Aare is as a lusty winter, My." 
^'As You Like It,' act ii. sc. 3 (^Adatn). 

Age We Live in (The). See Pickwick 

Aged Forty. A "petite comedy" by 
John Courtney, first performed at the 
Princess's Theatre, London, on February 2, 
1844, with Walter Lacy as Sir Harry Wilder, 
Oxberry as Dapxier, and Miss Fortescue as 
Lady Clifton (also played by Mrs. StirUng). 

Ager, Captain. Son of Lady Ager in 
MiDDLETON's 'Fair Quarrel' (g. v.). "Middle- 
ton," says Swinburne, "has no second hero 
like Captain Ager, but where is there another 
r.o thoroughly noi)le and lovable among all 
the characters of all the dramatists of his 
time but Shakespeare ? " 

Ages Ago. An entertainment, written 
and composed for the German Reeds by W. 
S. Gilbert (q.v.) and Frederick Clay ; pro- 
duced in November, 1869 ; revived in 1874. 

Aggas, Robert. Scenic artist, died: 
1679 ; notable as the first to paint movable 
scenery in England. He " is known," says. 
Button Cook, " to have execiited scenes for 
the theatre in Dorset Garden." "A .specimen 
of his work," ^\Tote E. L. Blanchard in 1S71, 
"may be seen at Paper- Stainers' Hall in 
Little Trinity Lane." See Walpole's ' Anec- 
dotes of Painting,' and Graham's ' School of 
English Painting.' 

Aggravating Sam. A comic drama in 
two acts, adapted by C. J. INLvthews {q.v.) 
from ' Un Drole de Pistolet,' and first per- 
formed at the Lyceum Theatre, London, on 
December 6, 1854, with the adapter as Sam 
Narjgins, R. Roxby as Pereyrine Poppleivig, 
Swan as Simon Sloivboy, B. Baker as old 
Biffin, Mrs. Macnamara as Arabella Biffin, 
Miss H. Gordon as Sophonisba, and Miss M. 
Oliver as Clara Biffin; produced at Burton's 
Theatre, New York, in 1855. Sam (a P.O. 
clerk) is never so happy as when annoying 
somebody, and his machinations set all the- 
rest of the dramatis peisonce at sixes and 

Agib, Prince, figures in ^L G. Lewis's. 
'Timour the Tartar' {q.v.), and in Oxen- 
ford and Brooks's burlesque of that 
drama (q.v.). 

"Agincourt, Agincourt ! Know 
ye not Agincourt ? " First line of a song 
in T. Heywood's 'First Part of King Ed- 
ward IV. '— 

" Where the English slew and hurt 
All the French foemen." 

See Henry Y. 

Agis. (1) A tragedy by John Home 
(q.v.), founded on Plutarch's life of Agis, 
King of Sparta, but mainly fictitiotis in in- 
cident, and first performed at Drury Lano 
on February 21, 1758, with Garrick as Ly- 
Sander, Mossop as Agis, Havard as Am- 
phares, Mrs. Gibber as Buanthe, and Mrs. 
Pritchard, Mrs. Yates, Davies, and Holland 
in other characters. Lysander, the com- 
mander of Agis's army, is in love with and 
beloved by Eua7ithe,\vho is also pursued 
and at one time nearly killed by Amphares. 
Eventually Amphares is killed by Lysander 




Thomas Gray, the poet, described the play 
as "all modern Greek ... an antique statue, 
painted white and red, friezed, and dressed 
in a negligee made bv a Yorkshire mantua- 
maker." (2) A tragedy by Alfieri (17S3) ; 
translated into English by Lloyd (1815) and 
Bo-wring (1S76). 

Agrlaia. One of the 'Three Graces' in 
G. A. A Beckett's burlesque of that 
name {q.v.). 

Agrlaura. A " tragic-comedy " by Sir 
JOHiN Suckling {q.v.), acted at "the private 
house inBlackfriars," probably, Fleay thinks, 
in 1637 ; first printed in 1638, and after- 
wards with Suckling-'s other works (in 1696). 
Aglaura is beloved both by the Ki7ig and 
by his son, the Prince, whom she secretly 
marries, but whom she afterwards kUls, 
thinking him to be the King. She there- 
upon dies. In the original test, most of the 
characters had violent deaths— a fact which 
no doubt led Suckling to vrrite a new fifth 
act, in which Aglaura only wounds the 
Prince, whilst the King repents and dis- 
penses justice all round. The play appears 
to have been performed in both ver>ions. 
Pepys, writing in 1666, called it 'mean- 
nothing of design in it.' Brome, on the 
other hand, wrote verses in its praise. 

Agrminda. A character in Hannah 
Brand's 'Huniades' (q.v.). 

Agrnes. (1) A play by Victorien Sar- 
DOU (q.v.), first performed at the Union 
Square Theatre, New York, in October, 1S72, 
with Miss Agnes Ethel in the title part. 
See Andrea. (2) A play by Robert Bu- 
chanan (q.v.), adapted from Moliere's 
'L'Ecole des Femmes,' and produced at the 
Comedy Theatre, London, on March 21, 
1885, with Miss Adelaide Detchon in the 
title part. Agnes is the name of the heroine 
of Moliere's play. See Pinchwife, Mrs. 
(3) ' Agnes ; or. The Midnight Marriage : ' 
a melodrama, performed at Bath in March, 
1823, -ndth Miss Dance as the heroine. 

Agrnes. A character in Oxenford's 
ver.sion of 'Der Freischiitz ' (g'.r.), and also 
in BurnaND's burlesque of that name (q.v.). 

Ag-nes Bernauer. A play in two acts, 
adapted from the German by T. J. Serle 
(q.v.), and first performed at Covent Garden 
in 1833-9. See Tournament, The. 

Ag-nes de Castro. A tragedy by Mrs. 
Catherine Trotter (afterwards Cock- 
bum, q.v.), founded on a French novel of the 
same name, translated by Mrs. Behn ; and 
performed at Drury Lane, in 1696, with 
3Irs. Rogers as the heroine, Powell as the 
Prince of Portugal, Mrs. Knight as Elvira, 
and Yerbruggen as Alvaro. Agnes is be- 
loved by the Prince, and he in his turn is 
beloved by Elvira, whom, on his marriage, 
he has cast off. Elvira, desiring to kill 
Agnes, kills the Princess by mistake, and 
accuses Agnes of the murder. Agnes' in- 
nocence is established, but in the end she 
is accidentally stabbed by her lover, Alvaro. 

Ag-nes de Vere ; or, The Broken 
Heart. A drama in three acts, by J. B. 
BucKSTONE (q.v.), adapted from the French, 
and first performed at the Adelphi Theatre, 
London, in November, 1834, Mith the author 
and Mrs. Keeley in the cast. 

Agnes Sorel. , An opera, of which 
Gilbert Abbott A Beckett (q.v.) -wrote 
the libretto, the music being by Mrs. A. 
Beckett. It was produced in December, 
1835, at the St. James's Theatre, London, 
with a cast including Braham and Miss P. 

Agnes St. A-ubin, the "Wife of 
T-wo Husbands. A drama by Miss 
Pardoe, produced at the Adelphi Theatre, 
London, in January, 1841, with Mrs. Yates 
as Agnes, Yates as Darcourt, Mrs. Keeley 
as Mdme. Darcourt, and O. Smith and E. 
Wright in other parts. St. Aubin and Mdme. 
Darcourt are jealous of a mysterious under- 
standing between Darcourt and Agnes. 
The truth is, Darcourt is the repository of a 
secret confided to him by Agnes— the exist- 
ence of a former rascally husband of hers, 
thought dead, but not so, and now threat- 
ening the heroine's peace. In the end the 
villain is shot, and the St. Aubins are made 
happy again. 

A-Gra-Ma-Chree ; or, Pulse of my 
Heart. A drama in five acts, by Edmund 
Falconer (q.v.), first produced at the 
Theatre Royal, Manchester, in March, 1875, 
with the author as Derrnot. 

Agreeable Surprise (The). (1) A 
one-act comedy, translated from Marivaux, 
performed by schoolboys at Islington, and 
printed in 'Poetical Blossoms' (1766). 
(2) A musical piece in two acts, by John 
O'Keefe (q.v.), first performed at 'Dublin 
under the title of ' The Secret Enlarged,' 
and produced in London, at the Haymarket 
Theatre, on September 3, 1781, Avith Edwin 
as Lingo, Bannister as Compton, Mrs. Webb 
as Mrs. Cheshire, and Mrs. Wells as Cowslip. 
It was produced in New York in 1787, and 
again in 1796, -with an actor named Lee in 
the part of the widow Cheshire. 

Agrippa, King of Alba ; or. The 
False Tiberinus. A tragedy, translated 
from the French of Quinault by John Dan- 
cer (q.v.) ; first performed at Dublin, and 
printed in 1675. "It is," says Genest, "a 
dull play in rhyme. The plot is intricate 
and very improbable," being based on the 
resemblance of one Agrippa to Tiberinus 
King of Alba, -whom he is persuaded to 

Agrippina. (1) A tragedy in rhjTne, 
by John, Lord Hervey ; not printed. See 
Walpole's ' Anecdotes.' (2) An unfinished 
tragedy by Thomas Gray (1716-1771), con- 
sisting of one scene and a portion of another. 
Besides the heroine, Nero, Seneca, and 
Demetrius the cynic were intended to be 
among the dramatis piersonce. 

Ag-rippina, Julia. See Julia Agrip- 



Ag-ripyna. A princess in Dekker's 
*01d Fortunatus' {q.v.), beloved by the son 
of the King of Cyprus and by Orleans. 

AgTOvaine of the Bueful Phiz, 
Sir, figures in E. L. Blanchard's ' Three 
Perils of Man.' 

Ag-uecheek, Sir Andrew, in 'Twelfth 
Night' (g. v.), is "a straight-haired country 
squire," in love with Olivia (q.v.). He 
appears first in act i. sc. 3, where he says : 
" I'm a great eater of beef, and I believe 
that does harm to my wit. ... I can cut 
a caper . . . and I think I have the back 
trick simply as strong as any man in Illyria." 
In act ii. sc. 3 he tells us that life " consists 
•of eating and drinking." " He is stupid," 
says Gervinus, " even to sUliness." Among 
representatives of the character may be 
named O'Brien (q.v.), Woodward (q.v.), and 
Doddiq.v.). Of O'Brien it is recorded that 
he once played the part so comically as to 
make one of the sentinels (whom it was 
customary then to post on each side of the 
stage) fall down upon the boards, overcome 
■with laughter. Woodward, Boaden says, 
always sustained Sir Andrew " with infinite 
drollery." Of Dodd, Charles Lamb writes : 
*' My merry friend, Jem White, had seen him 
one evening in Aguecheek, and, recognizing 
Dodd the next day in Fleet Street, was 
irresistibly impelled to take off his hat, and 
salute him as the identical knight of the 
preceding evening, with a 'Save you. Sir 
Andre'v.' Dodd, not at all disconcerted at 
this unusual address from a stranger, with 
a courteous, half-rebuking wave of the 
hand, put him off with an 'Away, Fool.' " 

I Ahasucrus. The King, in Elijah 

PoLACK's ' Esther, the Royal Jewess.' See 
[ King Ahasuerls. 

"Ah, ChlorisI that I now coirld 
sit." First line of a song in Sedlev's 
; ■* JNIulberry Garden ' (q.v.). 

i ','A^' fading; joy! how quickly 

Emperor' {q.v.). 

"Ah, how sweet it is to love!" 
First line of a song in Dryden's ' Tyrannic 
Love' {q.v.)— 

" Pains of love be sweeter far 
Than all other pleasures are." 

Ah Sin. A play by Bret Harte (q.v.) 
and Mark Twain (q.v.), performed in Ame- 
rica, with Parsloe in the title part. Brander 
Matthews commends "the spirited and 
characteristic trial before Judge Lynch in 
the last act." 

"Ah, sure a pair were never 
seen." First line of a song in Sheridan's 
' Duenna' (g.r.); adapted by Linley to an 
air by Michael Arne (q.v.). 

Ahmed al Kamel, the Pilgrrim of 
liOve. An opera, music by C. E. Horn 
(g.r.) (the libretto founded on Irving's ' Tales 
of the Alhambra '), produced in New York 
with Miss J. Wallack as Aldegonda. —Ahmed 

art thou past ! " Song sung by an Indian 
•woman in act iv. sc. 3 of Dryben's ' Indian 

is the hero, also, of H. J. Byron's 'Pilgrim 
of Love ' (q.v.). 

Ahmedoolah. Agent to the INIaharajab 
in Tom Taylor and A. W. Dubourg's 
' Sister's Penance ' iq.v.). 

Aholibamah. One of the two women 
in Lord Byron's ' Heaven and Earth ' {q.v.) ; 
in love with Samiasa the angol. 

Aickin, Elinor. Actress ; has played 
in London the following rdles : Mrs. Rumbe- 
loiv in 'Garrick,' Mrs. Malaprop in 'The 
Rivals,' Mrs. Candour in ' The School for 
Scandal,' and Mrs. Hardcastle in ' She Stoops 
to Conquer,' at the Strand Theatre in 1886-7 ; 
also. Miss Grantham in 'The Liar,' and 
Elizaheth Jones in Frankfort Moore's ' 'The 
Mayflower,' at the Opera Comique Theatre 
in 1891-2. 

Aickin, Francis. Actor, bom in 
Dublin ; died 1805 ; brother of James Aickin 
{q.v.) ; gained his early experience in Ire- 
land ; appeared at Drury Lane in 1765, and 
remained there till 1774, when he went to 
Covent Garden, from which he retired in 
1792. He was at one time manager of the 
Liverpool Theatre (1793), and at another 
time part-manager of the theatre at Edin- 
burgh. Wo read that " he had a good 
person, no inconsiderable share of judgment, 
a sonorous, distinct voice. He succeeded in 
the impassioned and declamatory parts of 
tragedy, insomuch that from his being so 
often cast in that line, his intimates in the 
green-room nicknamed him ' Tyrant Aickin.' 
N"or did all his merit lie in tragedy. In 
serious parts of comedy, such as Sir John 
Flowerdale, StocJcwell, etc., he had a pleasing 
harmony in his tones, and a precision of 
expression which gave force to those cha- 
racters." Genest, in his History, gives a list 
of over eighty characters assumed by Aickin, 
including the Ghost in ' Hamlet,' Jacques in 
' As You Like It,' Stulcely in ' The "Game- 
ster,' Aboan in ' Oroonoko,' etc. See also 
' Secret History of the Green-Rooms' (1790), 
Hitchcock's ' History of the Irish Stage ' 
(1794), ' Thespian Dictionary ' (1805), and the 
' Dictionary of National Biography ' (1885). 

Aickin, James. Actor, born in Ireland ; 
died 1803 ; brother of Francis Aickin {q.v.); 
first played in the Irish provinces, and after- 
wards accepted an engagement at the 
Edinburgh Theatre, where he remained till 
1767, latterly performing most of the leading 
parts in tragedy and comedy. In the year 
named he became a member of the Drury 
Lane company, to which he continued to be 
attached (with occasional appearances at 
the Haymarket) till 1800. He was for some 
years one of the deputy managers of Drury 
Lane. He was "considered," says Ger est, 
"a respectable and useful actor," having 
"an ease and manner which were very 
agreeable and natural." "He generally 
pleased, and never disgusted. His forte lay 
in the representation of an honest steward 
or an affectionate parent." For an account 
of his duel with J. P. Kemble, see Boatden's 
' Life ' of that actor (1825). See also ' Secret 



History of the Green-Rooms ' (1790), Jack- 
son's ' "llistory of the Scottish Stage ' (1793), 
Genest's 'English Stage' (1S32), and the 
' Dictionary of National Biography ' (1SS5). 

Alda. An opera by Verdi, produced, 
with an English libretto by Henry Hersee 
(q.v.), at Her :Majesty's Theatre, London, in 
February, 18S0. 

Aide, Hamilton. Dramatic writer, 
poet, and novelist, born 1830 ; author of the 
following plays :-' Philip (1S74), ' A Nine 
Days' Wonder' (1S75), 'Die Fledermaus, 
adapted (1876), 'All or Nothing' (ISSO), 
'Cousins' (1882), 'A Great Catch' (1883), 
'Not at Home,' libretto (18S6), 'Incognito' 
(1888), and ' Dr. Bill,' adapted (1890)— all of 
which see ; also, some pieces performed 

Ai'eule (L'). See Hidden Hand, The. 

Aika. A character in ' The Black Crook ' 

Aiken, Georgre L.. American play- 
wright ; adapter of ' Uncle Tom's Cabin ' 
(g.v.) ; author of ' The Old Homestead ' {q.v.), 
' The Emerald Ring,' etc. 

Aimee, Marie (real name, Marie 
Trochon). French actress and vocalist, born 
1852, died 1887 ; made her first appearance 
in America at the Grand Opera House, New 
York, on December 21, 1870. From that 
date till 1887 she was frequently heard in 
America in opera-bouffe and comedy. In 
1887 she produced in New York ' La Belle 
Poule ' and 'La Marjolaine ;' in 1878, 'Les 
Cloches de Corneville ; ' and in 1883, ' La 
Princesse de Canaries ' In 1884 she figured 
in New York as the heroine of Jessop and 
Gill's ' ^NLam'zelle ' {q.v.), playing the part 
in French-Enghsh. 

Aim"well. One of the beaux in Far- 
quhar's 'Beaux' Stratagem' (q.v.); suitor 
to Dorinda (daughter of Lady BountifuV), 
by whom he is beloved in return. See 

Aimworth, Lord. A character in 
BiCKERSTAFFS 'Maid of the Mill' {q.v.). 

Ainswortli, "W. Harrison. See 
Admirable Crichton, The ; Jack Shep- 
PARD, etc. 

"Air, a charter'd libertine, is still 
(The),"— 'King Henry V.,' act i. sc. 1 
{Archbishop of Cantcrbui-y). 

"Air, into thin air, Are melted 
into."—' Tempest,' act iv. sc. 1 (Prospero). 

Air-halloon (The). A musical drama, 
printed in 1784. 

Air castle. (1) A rambling talker in 
FooTE's 'Cozeners' (g.t'.); drawn from life, 
Gahagan (author of a ' Life of Mrs. Siddons') 
having sat for the portrait. (2) Uncle of 
Bell and Clarissa in Oxenford's 'Billing 
and Cooing' {q.v.). 

Airey , Mrs. A widow in A. C. Trough- 
ton's ' ahameful Behaviour.' 

Airey Annie. A burlesque by F. C, 
Burn AND {q.v.), written in travesty of Mrs. 
Campbell Praed's 'Ariane' {q.v.), and first 
performed at the Strand Theatre, London, 
on April 4, 1SS8, with Miss IM. Ayrton in 
the title part, and other roles by xMiss A. 
Atherton, A. Chevalier, and W. Edouin. 

"Airy tongrues that syllable 
men's names." See " Syllable thy 

Airy, Sir Georg-e, in Mrs. Cent- 
LiVRE's 'Busybody' (g.tJ.), is in love with 

Miranda {q.v.). 

Ajax. A tragedy by Sophocles {q.v.) ; 
translated, separately, into English by 
Theobald (1714), Jackson and RoAve (1714), 
Surges (1849), anonymously (1871), and 
Mongan (1881) ; played at Oxford before 
James I. in 1605. (2) ' Ajax and Ulysses : ' 
a play performed at court " by the children 
of Wynsor" in 1572. — Ajax is a character in 
R. Brough's 'Siege of Troy' {q.v.). 

Alabama. A play of American life and 
character, by AUGUSTUS Thomas {q.v.), first 
performed at the Madison Square Theatre, 
New York, on April 1, 1891, with a cast in- 
cluding J. H. Stoddart, M. Barrymore, 
E. I\I. Holland, Walden Ramsay, Miss May 
Brookyn, and Miss Agnes Miller. C. W. 
Couldock and E. J. Henley afterwards 
replaced the two first-named actors. 

"Alabama" (The). See Spitfire, 

Alabaster, "William. Dramatic poet 
and divine, born at Hadleigh, Suftolk, in 
1567, died 1640 ; claims a place in this 
volume as the author of a tragedy in 
Latin verse called 'Roxana' {q.v.). His 
poetry was hyperbolically praised by Fuller 
and Wood. See Fuller's ' Worthies ' (1662), 
Wood's ' Athenfe Oxonienses ' (1691), ' Bio- 
graphia Dramatica' (1812), W. C. Hazlitt's 
'Early English Literature' (1867), Collier's 
'English Dramatic Poetry' (1879), and the 
' Dictionary of National Biography ' (1885). 

"Alacrity in sinking-; I have a 
kind of."—' Merry Wives of Windsor,' 
act iv. sc. 5 {Falstaff). 

Aladdin. The hero of a famous nursery 
tale, and the central figure of a large number 
of di-amatic pieces. Among these may be 
named: (1) 'Aladdin; or, The Wonderful 
Lamp : ' a pantomime, music by Shield, 
produced at Covent Garden on December 
26, 1788. (2) 'Aladdin; or. The Wonderful 
Lamp:' a melodramatic romance, first per- 
formed at Covent Garden on April 9, 1813, 
with Mrs. C. Kemble in tlie title part, 
Farley as Ahanazar, Grimaldi as Kasrac, 
Miss Bolton as the Princess, and Mrs. 
Davenport as the widow of Ching Mustapha ; 
produced in New York in 1815. (3) 'Alad- 
din :' a romantic opera in three acts, libretto 
by George Soane {q.v.), music by Sir H. 
R'. Bishop ; produced at Drury Lane Theatre, 
London, on April 29, 1826, with a cast in- 
cludmg Horn, Sinclair, Harley, Browne, 



ISIrs. Davison, and Miss Stephens (Aladdin). 
" It was not very favourably received," says 
Planche, " and the delicious warbling of Miss 
Stephens could not secure for it more than 
a lingering existence of a few nights. Tom 
Cooke, the leader of the orchestra at Drury 
Lane, met Braham in Bow Street, and 
asked him how his opera (' Oberon ') was 
going. ' Magnificently ! ' replied the great 
tenor ; and added, in a fit of what he used 
to call enthoosemusy, ' Xot to speak it 
profanely, it will run to the Day of Judg- 
ment ! ' "' My dear fellow,' rejoined Cooke, 
' that's nothing ! Ours has run five nights 
afterwards ! ' " (4) ' The Wonderful Lamp 
in a New Light' (.q.v.) : a burlesque by 
Gilbert Abbott a Beckett (1844). (5) 
♦ Aladdin ; or, The Wonderful Lamp : ' a 
burlesque by ALBERT SMITH (q.v.) and 
Charles Kenney (q.v.), produced at the 
Lyceum Theatre, London, on August 5, 
1844. On this occasion, says Edmund Yates, 
" Keeley played the magician, and imparted 
such pecadiar emphasis to the line, ' Yes, 
here's the place, and there's the blasted 
cedar !' as to bring down the house." Mrs. 
Keeley Avas Aladdin and Miss Woolgar 
Badroulhadour, and A. Wigan and Widdi- 
comb were also in the cast. (6) ' A-lad-in the 
Wonderful Lamp : ' a burlesque produced at 
New York in October, 1844. (7) * Aladdin : ' 
a pantomime by J. Maddison Morton 
(q-v.), first performed at the Princess's 
Theatre, London, on December 26, 1856, with 
H. Saker as the hero. (8) ' Aladdin ; or, 
The Wonderful Scamp : ' a burlesque by H. 
J. Byron (q.v.), first performed at the Strand 
Theatre, London, on Easter Monday in April, 
1861, with Miss Marie Wilton in the title 
part, IMiss Charlotte Saunders as the Sultan, 
Miss E. Bufton as Badroulhadour, Miss F. 
Josephs as Pekoe, J. Clarke as Abanazar, J. 
Rogers as the Widotv Twankay, and Miss 
Kate Carson, E. Danvers, and H. J. Turner 
in other parts ; revived at the Strand (revised 
by A. Chevalier) in September, 1888, with W. 
Edouin as the Widou: A. Chevalier as Aba- 
nazar, Miss A. Atherton as Aladdin, IMiss 
G. Huntley as Pekoe, and Miss S. Vaughan 
as the Sultan. (9) 'Aladdin; or, Harle- 
quin and the Bronze Horse : ' a pantomime 
by R. SOUTAR (q.v.), New East London 
Theatre. December 24, 1868. (10) 'Aladdin ; 
or, Harlequin Shoeblack : ' a pantomime by 
F. W. Green (q.v.), Marylebone Theatre, 
London, December 23, 1872. (11) ' Aladdin ; 
or, The Wonderful Lamp : ' a burlesque by 
F. W. Green (q.v.). Charing Cross Theatre, 
London, December 24, 1S74. (12) 'Aladdin ; 
or, The Wonderful Lamp :' a pantomime by 
E. L. Blanchard, Drury Lane, December, 
1874. (13) ' Aladdin, and the Wonderful 
Lamp : ' a pantomime by H. Spry, Astley's 
Theatre, London, December, 1S74. (14) 
Same title ; pantomime by J. JNI'Ardle, 
Surrey Theatre, London, December 24, 1879. 
(15) A burlesque drama in three acts, by 
KOBERT Reece (q.v.), first performed at the 
Gaiety Theatre, London, on December 24, 
1881, with Miss E. Farren as Aladdin, Miss 
K. Vaughan as Badroidbadour, E. Terry as 
Abanazar, E. W. Royce as So-Sli, and J. J. 

Dallas as Wee-Piny. (16) ' Aladdin and the 
Flying Genius:' burlesque extravaganza, 
Philharmonic Theatre, London, December 
26, 1S81. (17) ' Aladdin ;' a pantomime by 
J. Douglass, Standard Theatre, London, 
December, 1SS6. (18) ' A-ladd-in and Well 
Out of It : ' extravaganza by B. Smith, 
Folkestone, January, "l889. (19) 'Aladdin 
and Wonderful Lamp : ' a pantomime by H. 
Lennard, Crystal Palace, December, 1889. 

(20) 'Aladdin; or. The Saucy Young Scamp 
vdio Collared the Lamp :' pantomime by G. 
Thorn, Grand, Islington, December, 1889. 

(21) ' Aladdin ; or, The Wonderful Lamp : ' 
a pantomime by F. Locke, Marylebone, 
December, 1889. To this list may be added 
pantomimes on the subject of ' Aladdin' bv 
J. T. Douglass, at the Standard Theatre 
(1871) ; G. H. George, at the Albion (1873) ; 
E. L. Blanchard, at the Imperial (1878) ; 
H. Spry, at Sanger's (1879) ; the Brothers 
Grinn, at the Crystal Palace (1880); F. 
W. Green, at the Marylebone (1882) ; L. 
Clarence, at Blackpool (1883) ; G. Con- 
quest and H. Spry, at the Surrey (1884) ; 
E. L. Blanchard, at Drury Lane (1885) ; 
R. Reece, at Sanger's (1885) ; G. Thorn, at 
the Pavilion (1890) ; T. Ramsdale, at Alder- 
shot (1892) ; and T. Craven, at Holloway 

Aladdin at Sea. An extravaganza by 
I. Zangwill (q.v.), first performed at the 
Public Rooms, Camborne, January 25, 1893. 

Aladdin II. An operetta, words by 
Alfred Thompson (q.v.), music by Herve ; 
first performed at the Gaiety Theatre, Lon- 
don, on December 24, 1870, with INIiss E. 
Farren in the title part. Miss Constance 
Loseby as the Princess Veloutine, J. L. 
Toole as Ko-Kli-Ko, Stoyle as Ozokerit, and 
C. Lyall as the Remembrancer. 

Aladin. A character in Brown's ' Bar- 
barossa' (q.v.). 

Alaham. A tragedy by Fulke Gre- 
VILLE, Lord Brooke, printed in 1633. "The 
plot is taken from some incidents in 
Herbert's ' Travels.' The author has followed 
the model of the ancients ; the prologue is 
spoken by a ghost, who gives an account of 
every character " (' Biographia Dramatica '). 

Alan's "Wife. A study in three scenes, 
founded on a story by Elin Ameen ; per- 
formed (under the auspices of the Indepen- 
dent Theatre Society) at Terry's Tlieatre, 
London, on Friday evening, April 28, 1893, 
with Miss E. Robins as the heroine, Jean 

Alarbas. A " dramatic opera " by " a 
gentleman of quality," printed in 1709. 

Alarcos, The Tragedy of Count. 
A play written bv Benjamin Disraeli, 
Earl of Beaconsfield (1S05-1SS1). and pub- 
lished in book form in 1839. " Years have 
flown away," wrote the author in his dedica- 
tory epistle to Lord Francis Egerton, "since, 
rambling in the sierras of Andalusia, . . . 
I first listened to the chant of that strange 
and terrible tale [the Count Alarcos]. It 



seemed to me rife with all the materials 
of the tragic drama, and I planned, as I 
rode along, the scenes and characters of 
which it seemed to me susceptible." The 
play, however, was not placed upon the 
stage till August 1, 1S68, when it was repre- 
sented at Astley's Tlieatre, London, with 
Charles Verner as the hero. Miss Agnes 
Cameron as the heroine, and Emery as 
the King. Button Cook then -v^Tote of it as 
follows : "The tragedy is founded upon the 
old thirteenth-century ballad of the ' Conde 
Alarcos,' ... of which admirable English 
versions have been published by Mr. Lock- 
hart and Sir John Bowring. . . . The play is 
not absolutely without passages of genuine 
dramatic value. The story is indeed an im- 
pressive one. . . . From an actor's point of 
view Alarcos is a showy kind of part, with 
plenty to say and to do in it, and a suffi- 
ciency of those opportunities for personal 
parade M-hich are so fondly regarded by 
the players." The scene is laid in Spain, 
and the Count Alarcos is in love with Solisa, 
the Infanta. He is, however, loved in turn 
by the Queen Mother, to escape whose 
attentions he leaves the court. After her 
death he returns. In the interval he has 
married — 

"As men do oft from very wantonness ; " 

but he still loves Solisa. He causes the 
Couyit Sido7iia to make love to his wife ; but 
that lady is impregnable, and the king 
now suggests she should be murdered. A 
^Moorish servant is hired to do the deed, but 
relents at the last moment, and Alarcos has 
himself to play the assassin. Unhappily 
for him, the Infanta has just been killed by 
lightning, and, overwhelmed by the news, 
the Count commits suicide, remarking that 
he had 

" Lived 
To find a hell on earth, yet thus he sought 
A deeper and a darker." 

In the course of the play a man-at-arms 
thus describes a storm :— 

" The lightnings play 
Upon our tun-ets that no human step 
Can keep tlie watch. Each forky flash seems missiou'd 
To scath our roof, and the whole platform flows 
With a blue tea of flame." 

* Alarcos ' was revived at the Crystal 
Palace in June, 1879, with E. H. Brooke as 
Alarcos, Howard Russell as the King, J. H. 
Barnes as Sidonia, W. ]M'Intyre as Oran, 
and Jliss L. Moodie in the principal female 

Alarming- Sacrifice (An). A farce 
by J. B. BUCKSTONE iq.v.), first performed 
at the Haymarket Theatre, London, on July 
11,1849, wi'th the author as Bob Ticket— 2i part 
which has also been played by W. E. Burton 
{q.v.) and the fourth Jefferson (g.r.)— and 
Mrs. Fitzwilliam as Susan Sweeiapple. Bob 
believes himself heir, as next of kin, to a rich 
old gentleman, who is supposed to have died 
without making a will ; but, discovering 
afterwards that such a document exists, and 
is in favour of Susan, the old gentleman's 
servant, Boh surrenders the property to her. 

She, however, destroys the will, and, in the 
end, she and Boh agree to marry. 

Alarum for London ; or, Tlie Sieg-e 
of Antwerp, "with the venturous Acts 
and valorous Deeds of the Lame Soldier.' 
A tragi-comedy, not divided into acts, 
" acted probably in 1599 " (Fleay), and 
printed in 1602. It has been attributed, 
conjecturally, to Lodge {q.v.). The plot is 
taken from ' A Tragical History of the City 
of Antwerp' (1586). 

"Alarums, Excursions." A stage 
direction very frequent in the historical 
plays of Shakespeare. It applies to the 
sound of fighting behind the scenes, and to 
the passage of soldiers across the stage. 
See Button Cook's ' Book of the Play ' (1876). 

Alasco. A tragedy by Sir Martin 
Archer Shee {q.v.), performed in New 
York in 1824, with Cooper as Alasco and 
Mrs. Barnes as Arnantha. It had been 
put in rehearsal at Covent Garden, but the 
licenser (George Colman the younger) in- 
sisted upon so many excisions and alterations 
that the author refused to allow it to be 
performed, preferring to publish it as it 
stood. The following is a specimen of the 
lines condemned :— 

" Tyrant?, proud lord, are never safe, nor should be ; 
The ground is mined beneath them as they tread • 
Haunted by plots, cabals, conspiracies. 
Their lives are long convulsions, and they shake, 
Surrounded by their guards and garrisons." j 

The licenser also objected to the sentiment 

" Whate'er the colour of his creed, 
The man of honour's orthodox." 

Alasco is a young Polish nobleman, who 
puts himself at the head of an insurrection, 
and, being captured, is condemned to death, 
in spite of the entreaties of Colonel Wal- 
singham, to whose daughter, Arnantha, 
Alasco has been privately married. Arnan- 
tha stabs herself ; Alasco is pardoned, and 
commits suicide over the body of his wife. 
The piece was eventually played at the 
Surrey Theatre. 

Alasco. A character in Sheridan 
Knowles's ' Rose of Arragon' (q.v.). 

Alba. A Latin play performed in Christ 
Church Hall, Oxford, in J605, before King 
James. Warton records that "five men, 
almost naked, appearing on the stage, gave 
great offence to the queen and maids of • 
honour." The king, it is related, was so 
wearied by the performance, that he would I 
fain have retired before it was halfway i; 
through. ': 

Albanius, in Drtden's 'Albion and. i: 
Albanius' {q.v.), is intended for James, , 
Duke of York (afterwards James II.). 

Albany, U.S.A. The first professional 
performance ever given in this town took 
place on July 3, 1769, the entertainment 
being provided by a company from Nev/ i 
York, including Lewis Hallam, jun., John 
Henry, and Miss Cheer. The first theatre ; 
was opened in Green Street in 1S13, under ] 



the management of John Bernard ; the 
.second in South Pearl Street in 1825, by 
(iilfert. Both were eventually transformed 
into churches. In 1840 and 1841 respectively, 
the Dallius Street Amphitheatre and the 
Museum were utilized for performances. 
The Odeon (afterwards the Broadway) was 
opened in 1847, and in the following year 
the ^luseum was enlarged. In 1852 the 
Great Street Theatre was reopened as a 
theatre, and, becoming a concert haU, was 
succeeded in 1859 by the Gaiety. The 
Academy of Music, opened in 1863, was 
burnt down in 1868, and, in 1876, a similar 
fate overtook the Division Street Theatre, 
which dated from 1869— the year in which 
the Thrimble (now the Leland) Opera House 
was " inaugiirated." All the leading actors 
of the last hundred years have performed 
in Albany— for example, J. B. Booth, For- 
rest, and Edmund Kean, in 1825 ; Macready, 
1827 ; Mdme. Celeste, 1828 ; Charles Kean, 
1831 ; Charles and Fanny Kemble, 1833 ; 
Miss Cushman, 1836 ; etc., etc. See H. P. 
Phelps's ' Players of a Century ' (1880). 

Albaug-h, Jolin W. Actor and mana- 
ger, born at Baltimore in 1837 ; made his 
debut there in 1855, and afterwards acted in 
all the chief cities of America. In 1866 lie 
married Miss Mary jNIitchell (q.v.), and in 
1863 was in management at St. Louis. In 
1873 he became manager of the Leland 
Opera House, Albany, to which post he after- 
wards added tliat of manager of the National, 
Washington, and the Holiday Street, Balti- 

Albert. (1) A character in Peake's 
' Bottle Imp ' ((J.V.). (2) Son of William Tell 
in J. Sheiudan Knowles's play of that 
name iq.v.). The latter reappears in the bur- 
lesques of Knowles's ' William Tell ' by F. 
Talfourd, H. J. Byron, and L. Buckingham. 

Albert and Adelaide ; or, The Vic- 
tim of Constancy. A romantic drama 
in three acts, founded by Samuel Birch (q.v.) 
on a story by Mdme. de Genlis, and first 
performed at Covent Garden on December 
22, 1798, with a cast including Incledon, 
Emery, and Mrs. Johnson. See Captive 
OF Spillsburg. 

Alberta. An unacted tragedy by J. 
Carter, printed in 1787. 

Albertazzi, Emma (ne'e Howson). 
Contralto vocalist, born 1814, died in Lon- 
don, 1847 ; sang at the King's Theatre, 
London, in 1830 ; at Her Majesty's Theatre 
in 1837 ; and at Drury Lane in 1840. She 
appeared in London again in 1846. See 
Grove's 'Dictionary of Music' (1879), the 
'Dictionary of National Biogi-aphy' (1885), 
and ' Men of the Reign ' (1885). 

Alberte Galles. A play by Thomas 
Heywood (q.v.) and Wentworth Smith 
(q.v.), mentioned by Henslowe as being 
acted in 1602. See Fleay's 'Chronicle of 
the English Drama ' (1891). 

Alberti. A tragedy in five acts, by 
Isaac Harby, performed at Charleston, 
U.S.A., in 1818. 

Alberto. Son of Alonzo and Ormisinda 
in Home's ' Alonzo ' (q.v.). 

Albertus "Wallenstein, late Duke 
of Fridland, and General to the 
Emperor Ferdinand II. A tragedy 
by Henry Glapthorne (q.v.), acted at the 
Globe " on the Bank Side " probably in 1639, 
and printed in 1640. "The plot is merely 
historical ; the diction is good " (' Biographia 
Dramatica,' 1812). 

Albery, James. Dramatic writer, 
died August, 1889 ; wrote the following origi- 
nal plays :— ' Two Roses ' (1870), ' Coquettes ' 
('Two Thorns') (1871\ 'Apple Blossoms' 
(1871), ' Tweedie's Rights' (1871), ' Forgiven ' 
(1872), ' Oriana ' (1873), 'Will of Wise King 
Kino' (1873), 'Married' (1873), 'Fortune' 
(1873), 'Wig and Gown' (1874), 'Pride' 
(1874), • The Spendthrift ' (1875), ' The Man 
in Possession' (1876), 'Jacks and Jills' 
(1880) ; also, the following adaptations : — 
'Pickwick' ('Jingle') (1871), 'Pink Domi- 
nos ' (1877), 'The Crisis' (1878), 'Duty' (1879), 
'Where's the Cat?' (1880), 'Little Miss 
Mutfet' (1882), 'Featherbrain' (1884), and 
' Welcome, Little Stranger ' (1890) ; all of 
which see. He was the author of the libretto 
of 'The Spectre Knight' (q.v.); and part 
author (with Joseph Hatton ((j.i'.)) of 'No. 
20 ' (q.v.) and ' The Vicar ' (q.v.), (with Bron- 
son Howard) of 'The Old Love and The 
New' (q.v.), and (with J. J. Dilley (q.v.)) of 
' Chiselling ' (q.v.) and ' Doctor Davy' (q.v.). 
"It is in his heroines," says one of his 
critics, "that Mr. Albery's insight into life 
is best shown. Lottie and Ida in 'Two 
Roses,' Hose Cudlip in 'Forgiven,' Lillian 
in 'Coquettes,' Laura in 'Pride,' are all 
ably-drawn portraits of warm-hearted Eng- 
lish girls, not pretending to any sort of per- 
fection, but genuine, pure, and true. Many 
of his male characters, too, are consistent 
studies, admirably worked out [Die/by Grant, 
Paul Cudlip, Tiveedie, etc.]. ... In thesa 
the main idea is steadily preserved, and the 
result is valuable as a study of character.. 
It is, however, less for the main interest of 
a plot than for the charm of isolated scenes, 
and the happy fancies Avhich speck the dia- 
logue, that Mr. Albery's plays are most 
remarkable" ('London Society,' vol. xxvi ). 
See, also, Archer's ' Dramatists of To-Day 

Albina. (1) A character in Reynolds's 
' Will' (^. v.). (2) The heroine of Douglas- 
Jerrold's 'White Milliner' (q.v.). 

AJbina, Countess Raimond. A 
tragedy in three acts, by Mrs. Cowley (17.1;.), 
first performed at the Haymarket Theatre- 
on July 31, 1779, with Jlrs. ^Massey as the> 
heroine, ^Irs. Montague as Editha, Dimond 
as Edward of Soinerset, and Palmer as Gon- 
dibert. Edward and Gondibert are in love 
with Albina, and Editha is in love with 
Edivard. To prevent the marriage of Edioard 
and Albina, Gondibert and Editha pretend 
that Albina is unchaste. Edivard accuses- 
her to her father, and the two are about to 
fight, when Gondibert confesses, kills Editha 
(by mistake), and then stabs himself. The- 
play was printeil in 1779. 



Albion. An interlude mentioned by 
Kirkman, and probably identical ■with 
' Albion Knight ' {q.v.). 

Albion ; or, The Court of Neptune. 
A masque by T. Cooke, the scene of which 
is laid "on the British seas." It was 
printed in 1724. 

Albion and Albanius. An opera in 
three acts, words by John Dryden {q.v.), 
music by Lewis Grabut ; first performed at 
Dorset Garden on June 3, 1685, and printed in 
that year. It was produced, Downes says, 
" on a very unlucky day, being the day the 
Duke of Monmouth landed in the West. The 
nation being in agxeat consternation, it was 
performed but six times." " It was meant," 
says Genest, "as a satire on the Whigs and 
Republicans, and as a panegyrick on Charles 
the 2nd and his brother, who are repre- 
sented under the characters of Albion and 
Albanius." Archon is General Monk, and 
London is personified under the name of 
Augusta. See Langbaine's 'Dramatic Poets' 

Albion Knig-lit. "A mery Playe 
bothe pythy and plesaunt," entered on the 
Stationers' books in 1565-6. It is supposed 
to have been the play performed before 
Queen Elizabeth at Christmas, 1558-9, and 
described as of " such matter that the 
players were commanded to leave off." It 
seems to have been intended "to illustrate 
and enforce the right rules of government 
for a state," and is, says Payne Collier, " the 
only specimen of the kind in our language." 
Albyon Knight is a personification of Eng- 
land, and among the other personce are 
Temporalty, Sjnrttiialt)/, Princijmlity, Com- 
'Monalty, Sovereignty, Peace, and Plenty. 
Only a fragmentary copy of the play is in 

Albion Q,ueens ; or, The Death of 
Mary Q,ueen of Scots. A play by John 
Banks {q.v), first performed at Drury Lane 
on March 6, 1704 ; produced in New York in 
1754. See Island Queens. 

Albion Theatre. See London The- 

Albion's Triumph. AmasquebyAURE- 
LIAN TowNSEND {q.v.), performed at Court, 
"by the King's Majesty and his Lords," on 
"the Sunday after Twelfth Night," 1631-2. 
Inigo Jones " had a share in the invention " 
of this masque. 

Albovine, King" of the Lombards. 
A prose tragedy by Sir William Dave- 
>'ANT (.q.v.), printed in 1629. The story is 
to be found in Caxton's ' Golden Legend,' 
Lydgate's ' Bocchas,' Belleforest's ' Histoires 
Tragiques,' Heylin's ' Cosmographie,' and 
Machiavelli's 'History of Florence,' and 
has been made the basis of an Italian 
tragedy. Albovine has married Rhodolinda, 
but shocks her, on the wedding day, by 
drinking out of the skull of her dead father. 
She intrigues witli Paradine, and tries to 
persuade him to kill Albovine ; but Paradins 
betrays her to the king, who, finding her 
false, fights with Paradine, and allows him- 

self to be slain. Paradine then kills Rhodo- 

Albu, Annie. Vocalist and actress; 
played the title r6le in Clay's 'Princess 
Toto ' when that opera was revived in Lon- 
don in 1881, and "created" the name part 
in Cellier's 'Doris' (q.v.) in 1889. She was 
for some time a member of the Carl Rosa 

Albumazar. A comedy by Thomas 
TOMKis, founded (says Fleay) on 'L'Astro- 
logo ' of G. B. Delia Porta (1606), and acted 
by the gentlemen of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, before James I. during his visit to 
that university on March 9, 1614-5. Albu- 
mazar is an astrologer, who has the power 
of transforming one man into another. He 
has turned Trincalo into Antonio, and this 
act is the cause of sundry misunderstand- 
ings, which form the basis of the play. The 
play was revived at Lincoln's Inn Fields in 
February, 1668, with (Pepys says) Angel 
(q.v.) as Trincalo. Dryden wrote the pro- 
logue on this occasion, and in the course of 
it accused Ben Jonson of having been in- 
debted to 'Albumazar' for his 'Alchemist' 
(q.v.). The comedy was afterwards altered 
by Ralph, "no very material change" being 
made in the plot, but the language being 
" altered vastly for the worse." ' The 
Astrologer,' as Ralph called his production, 
was produced for the first and only time at 
Drury Lane on April 3, 1744, with Mills, 
Yates, Mrs. Woffington, Mrs. Giffard, and 
Mrs. Bennett in the cast, and the names of 
the characters transformed into Motley, 
Stargaze, Brains, Sly, Siftem, Faimvou'd, 
etc. 'Albumazar' was revived at Drury 
Lane in October, 1747, in April, 1748, and, 
altered by Garrick, in 1773. — Albumazar was 
the name of a famous Persian astronomer. 

Alcaid (The); or, The Secrets of 
OflB.ce. An opera in three acts, by James 
Kenney (q.v.), first performed at the Hay- 
market on August 10, 1824, with W. Farren 
as Don Christopher Toxado, the Alcaid, and 
Liston, Harley, Mdme. Vestris, Mrs. Garrick, 
^Miss Paton, Mrs. Gibbs, and Mrs. Glover in 
other roles. 

Alcamenes and Menalippa. A tra- 
gedy, ascribed by Mears to William Phi 
LIPS. Chetwood gives 1G68 as the date of it. 

Alcanor, in Cumberland's 'The Arab' 
(q.v.), "is represented as a man of simple 
manners, of noble principles, but of strong 

Alcantara. A comic opera in two acts, 
words by E. B. WoOLF, music by Julius 
Eichberg, performed at the Connaught 
Theatre, London, on November 1, 1879. 

Alcazar, The Battle of. See Battle 
OF Alcazar, The. 

Alceste. An opera written by Tobtas 
George Smollett (q.v.) for Rich, then 
patentee of Covent Garden ; but, owing to a 
diypute between the parties, never per- 
formed (nor published). This quarrel ob- 
tained for Rich the disagi-eeable distinction 



of beins: attacked by Smollett in his satire 
called 'The Reproof' (1747). 

Alcestis. (1) A tragedy by Euripides 
(q.v.) ; translated, separately, into English 
by Edwards (1824). Banks (1849), Xevins 
(1870), Williams (1871), Browning (1871), 
Mongan (1879). Lawton (1889), Arnold (1892), 
Reynolds (1893), and anonymously in 1834, 
1836, 1870, and 1884. The tragedy, it may 
be recorded, was performed in the original 
Greek for the first time in England at St. 
Andresv's College, Bradford, on February 18, 
1882. (2) A burlesque of the • Alcestis,' in 
verse, by Issachar Styrke, was published 
in 1816. (3) A burlesque of the above, by 
Francis TALFOURD(g.v.), entitled 'Alcestis, 
the Original Strong-Minded Woman,' was 
first performed at the Strand Theatre, Lon- 
don, on July 4, 1850, with Mrs. Leigh Murray 
in the title part, H. Farren as Orcus, W. 
Farrenas //erci<?es,and Compton pi^Admetus; 
played at New York in the same year, and 
revived at the Marylebone Theatre, London, 
in 1853. (4) A lyrical play, entitled 'Al- 
cestis,' and adapted by Henry Spicer from 
the French of Hippolyte Lucas, who had in 
his turn adapted from Euripides, was first 

Eerfornicd at the St. James's Theatre, 
lOndon, in Janiiary, 185."), with Miss Yan- 
denhoff in the title part, Stuart as Hercules, 
and Barry Sullivan as Ad met us. The musi- 
cal accompaniments consisted of selections 
from Gliick's choruses, arranged by Sir 
Henry Bishop. 

Alcestis II. A tragedy by Alfieri, 
translated by Bowring (1876). 

Alchemist (The). A comedy in five 
acts, by Ben Jonson (q.v.), first acted in 1610, 
and printed in quarto two years afterwards. 
Among the members of the original cast 
were Lowin, who, according to the author of 
' Historia Histrionica,' "played Mammon 
with mighty applause ; " Burljage, Armin, 
and Cooke, who probably -were Face (q.v.), 
Drugr/er (q.v.), and Dol Common (q.v.); Con- 
del, Hemings, Ostler, Underwood, Tooly, 
and Eggiestone. The characters, in addition 
to those already named, include Ananias, 
Dapper, Kastrill, Love-ivit, Sir Epicure 
Mammon, Dame Pliant, Subtle, Pertinax 
Surly, and Tribxdation Wholesome, all of 
which see. Dryden accused Jonson of taking 
' Albumazar' (r/.v.) as the "best model" of 
'The Alchemist,' declaring— 

Subtle was got by our .\ Ihi 

That Alchemist by tliis .\strologer," 

and so on. But as 'The Alchemist' -was 
produced four years before ' Albumazar,' 
that accusation falls to the gTound. Jon- 
son's "masterpiece" (as Dryden called it) 
"continued," says Cunningham, "to be 
represented with success till the theatres 
were shut up ; it was one of the first plays 
revived at the Restoration, and, with ' The 
Fox' and 'Silent Woman,' as DowTies in- 
forms us, constituted the delight of the 
town." Pepys saw a performance of the 
comedy on August 3, 1664, when, probably, 
Mohun was Face, Wintershall Subtle, Lacy 
Ananias, CartMright Mammon, Burt Surly, 

Mrs. Corey Dol, and ISIrs. Rutter Dam^ 
Pliant. The piece was revived at Drury 
Lane in February, 1709, with Dol omitted, 
Pinkethman as Drugger, Cibber as Subtle, 
Estcourt as Mammoii, Mills as Surly, Powell 
as Face, etc. ; at Covent Garden in December, 
1740, with Cibber, jun., as Drugger ; at 
Drury Lane in March, 1743, with Garrick 
as Drugger, Macklin as Face, and Mrs. 
Macklin as Dol ; at Drury Lane in March, 
1753, with several characters omitted ; and at 
Drury Lane in October, 1774, with Jefferson 
as Mammon. The comedy was played at 
Drury Lane on April 10, 1787, as a farce, with 
DoddsiS Drugger, Palmer asi^ace, J. Aickin as 
Subtle, and Mrs. Hopkins as Do^; but Genest 
records that the play had become " so obso- 
lete that it was hissed by some persons in the 
gallery." It was performed by the Eliza- 
bethan Stage Society at the Apothecaries' 
Hall, London, in February, 1899. F. Gen- 
tleman founded on ' The Alchemist ' a farce 
called ' The Tobacconist ' (q.v.). ' ' ' The Al- 
chemist,' " says Hazlitt, "is the most famous 
of this author's comedies, though I think it 
does not deserve its reputation. It contains 
all that is quaint, dreary, obsolete, and 
hopeless in this once-famed art, but not the 
golden dreams and disappointments. . . . 
There is, however, one glorious scene be- 
tween Surhj and Sir Epicure Mammon, 
which is the finest example I know of dra- 
matic sophistry " (' English Comic Writers '). 

Alcibiades. (1) A tragedy in heroic 
verse, by Thomas Otway (q.v.), produced at 
Dorset Garden in 1675, with Betterton as the 
hero, Mrs. Betterton as Timandra, Mrs. 
JNIaryLee as Deidamia, and Sandford, Hams, 
INIedbourne, and Mrs. Barry in otlier parts. 
Alcibiades is beloved both by Deidamia, 
Queen of Sparta, and by Timandra. He 
loves the last-named, and when Deidamia 
discovers the fact she poisons her rival. 
Alcibiades then commits suicide. The story 
of the play is taken from Plutarch and 
Cornelius Nepos. (2) A tragedy by William 
Shirley (q.v.), not printed. 

Alcmaeon or Alcmeon. A play per- 
formed at Court by St. Paul's choir boys 
in December, 1573 ; * Euripides restored ' 

Alcmena, in Dryden's 'Amphitryon' 
(q.v.), is the wife of Amphitryon (q.v.). 

Aldahella, in Milman's ' Fazio ' (q.v.), 
is a lady of whom Bianca (q. v.), wife of Fazio, 
is jealous. 

Aldeg"onda. Princess of Toledo, in 
Horn's • Ahmed al Kamelard,' H. J. Byron's 
' Pilgi'im of Love ' (q.v.). 

Alderman (The). A comedy in three 
acts, adapted by J. Mortimer from the 
French of Barriere and Capendu, and first 
performed at the Criterion Theatre, London, 
on the afternoon of April 29, 1887, with G. 
Barrett in the title part ; revived at the 
Novelty Theatre, London, in November, 
18SS, with H. Ashley as the Alderman; 
performed in America, in 1894, as ' Worth 



Alderman's Go-wm (The); or, A 
Trip to Paris. A farce in one act, by 
Henry Abrahams, first performed at the 
Strand Theatre, London, on October 6, 1851, 
Avith Tilbury as the Alderman. 

Aldershot (Surrey). The present The- 
atre Royal was built in 1860. It was for- 
merly called "The Victory." 

Aldgrate, Mr., Mrs,, and Amelia. 
Characters in R. B. Peake's ' blaster's 
Rival' (q.v.). 

Aldgrate Pump. ' A monumental and 
obeliskal farce,' by J. F. Sayille (q.i:), first 
performed at the Strand Theatre, June 7, 
18il, with J. W. Ray as Old Tontine. 

Aldg-ate Pum.p, Sir. The father of 
Beauty, in Pla.nche's * Beauty and the 
Beast' (q.v.). 

Aldis, Mrs. See Stanley, Mrs. 

Aldiborontiphoscophornio. A cour- 
tier in Carey's ' Chrononhotonthologos ' 


Aldridg-e, Ira, tragedian, was, accord- 
ing to Dutton Cook, "a veritable negro born 
on the west coast of Africa, the son of a 
native minister of the gospel." According 
to Brown and Drake, he was born in 180i 
at Bellair, near Baltimore, and in 1816 
entered the service of Edmund Kean, whom 
he accompanied to England. There he 
studied for the stage, making his debut, 
however, at the iNIud Theatre, Baltimore. 
He first appeared in London, in 1826, at the 
Royalty Theatre and as Othello. He was next 
seen at the Coburg and other metropolitan 
theatres, afterwards touring in the English 
and Irish provinces. At Belfast Charles 
Kean played I ago to his Othello, and Aboan 
to his Oroonoko. Returning to London, 
he appeared at Covent Garden (1833), the 
Lyceum, and the Surrey, and, still later, 
adventured on a Continental tour. His last 
London engagements were in 1858 and 1865. 
Among his parts, besides those mentioned, 
were Lear, Macbeth, Aaron ('Titus Andro- 
nicus'), Aboan ('Oroonoko'), Zanga ('The 
Revenge '), Gambia (' The Slave"'), Rolla 
('Pizarro'), and Mungo ('The Padlock'). 
He died in Poland in 1867. " It always 
struck me," writes Mrs. Kendal, "that he 
had got some species of— well, I will not say 
'genius,' but gleams of great intelligence" 
(' Dramatic Opinions,' 1890). See ' Memoir 
and Theati'ical Career of Ira Aldridge, the 
African Roscius' (1849 or 1850), and the 
Athenceumior 185S ; also Brown's ' American 
Stage' (1870), Drake's ' American Biography ' 
(1872), and Dutton Cook's 'On the Stage' 

Aldridg-e, Mrs. See Slixgsby, Lady'. 

Alessio. The "merry Swiss boy," in 
H. J. Byron's 'La I Sonnambula' {q.v.) and 
' II Sonnambulo ' {q.v.). 

Alexander, Georg-e. Actor and thea- 
trical manager, born 1858 ; made his pro- 

fessional debut at Nottingham in 1879, and 
his London debut at the Lyceum Theatre in 
December, 1881, as Caleb Deecie in 'Two 
Roses' {q.v.). At the Lvceum between 
1882 and 1888 he enacted Macduff, Laertes^ 
Bassanio, Claudio, Ulric in ' Werner,' Squire 
Thornhill, and Sylvio in ' The Amber Heart,' 
besides "creating" Valentine in Wills's 
'Faust,' in which he subsequently played 
the title part. Within the same period' he 
appeared at other London theatres in the 
original casts of ' Won by Honours.' ' Bond- 
age,' 'Rank and Riches,' 'A Case for 
Eviction,' 'Young Folks' Ways,' Gilbert's 
'Comedy and Tragedy' {UAulnay), 'The 
Ironmaster' {Octave), etc. In 1884-5 he 
played in America as a member of the 
Lyceum company. In 1889, at Terry's, he 
was Jacquemin in 'The Grandsire.' From 
February, 1890, to January, 1891, he was lessee 
of the Avenue Theatre, Avhere he produced 
and figured in 'Dr. Bill,' 'The Struggle for 
Life,' and ' Sunlight and Shadow.' In Janu- 
ary, 1891, he became lessee of the St. James's 
Theatre, Avhere lie has produced the follow- 
ing plays, enacting the principal male part 
in each:— 'A Gay Lothario' (1891), 'The 
Idler ' (1891), ' Moliere ' (1891), ' Lord Aner- 
ley ' (1891), ' Forgiveness ' (1891), ' Lady 
Windermere's Fan ' (1892), ' Kit JNIarlowe ' 
(1892), 'Liberty Hall' (1892), 'The Second 
Mrs. Tanqueray ' (1893), ' The Masqueraders " 
(1894), ' Guy Domville ' (1895), ' The Import- 
ance of being Earnest ' (1895), ' The Triumph 
of the Philistines' (1895), 'The Divided 
Way ' (1895), ' The Misogynist ' (1895), ' The 
Prisoner of Zenda' (1896), 'The Princess 
and the Butterfly' (1897), 'The Tree of 
Knowledge ' (1897), ' The Conquerors ' (1898), 
'The Ambassador' (1898), 'A Repentance'' 
(1899), 'In Days of Old' (1899), 'Rupert 
of Hentzau' (1900), 'The Man of Forty' 
(1900), 'A Debt of Honour' (1900), 'The 
Wisdom of the AVise ' (1900), ' The Awaken- 
ing' (1901), 'The Wilderness ' (1901), 'Paolo 
and Francesca ' (1902), ' If I were King ' 
(1902), 'Old Heidelberg' (ID^JS), 'Love's 
Carnival ' (1904), and ' Saturday to Monday ' 
(1904), all of which see. He has also re- 
vived at the St. James's ' As You Like It *" 
{Orlando, 1896), and ' Much Ado About 
Nothing ' {Benedick, 1898). He has appeared 
in the course of his career as Romeo, Post- 
humus, Don Ccesar de Bazan, Armand 
Duval, Maurice de Saxe, Nemours ('Louis 
XI.'), De Neuville ('Plot and Passion'), 
Ethais ('The Wicked World'), Freddy 
Butterscotch (' The Guv'nor ';, Glynne (' The 
Parvenu '), etc. 

Alexander, John Henry. Actor and 
manager, born at Dunbar in July, 1796, died 
1851 ; made his first appearance on the 
stage at Ayr. He was afterwards engaged 
successively at the Queen's, Glasgow, under 
the elder Macready ; at Newcastle ; and at 
Edinburgh, under W. H. Murray. At the 
last-named place he Avas accounted specially 
good as Dandle Dinmont in ' Guy ISIanner- 
ing ' {q.v.), and Batcliffe in ' The Heart of 
Midlothian ' {q.v.). In"l822 he became man- 
ager of theDunlop Street Theatre, Glasgow, 



■nhich he carried on for seven years, along 
-with the Adelphi, Edinburgh, and the the- 
atres at Dumfries and Carlisle. In 1S29 he 
obtained the patent for Glasgow, built a 
theatre for himself, and, says Peter Pater- 
son, "continued from that period until 
within a few months of his death a course 
of profitable management, which enabled 
him to leave his family in a position of com- 
parative affluence." The same writer says 
of Alexander's performances in Edinburgh 
that "his powerful mind, free from the 
cares of management, enabled him to per- 
form an extensive range of characters with 
great ability ; but what contributed as much 
:as any other element to his success, was an 
"excellent taste in dress and invariable cor- 
rectness in reading." See Jefferson's ' Auto- 
biography ' (1S89-90). 

Alexander, Sir "William (Earl of 
Stirling). Poet and statesman, born 1567 or 
1568, died in London, 1640 ; was the author 
of the following tragedies :— ' Darius ' (1603), 

* Croesus ' (1604), ' Julius Caesar ' (1604), and 

* The Alexandr.-ean ' (1605) ; all of which see. 
They were published together, under the 
title of ' Monarchicke Tragedies,' in 1607. 
Alexander's collected ' Works ' appeared in 
1637. " His tragedies," says Grosart, " have 
*'brave sublunary things,' if laboured and 
dull as a whole." See Rogers' 'Memorials 
cf the Earl of Stirling ' (1877). 

Alexander, Campaspe, and Dio- 
genes. See Alexander the Gkeat. 

Alexander and Lodowick. A play 
founded on an old tale, and first acted in 
January, 1597. 

Alexander and Statira. See Alex- 
ander the Great. 

Alexander and the King: of Eg-ypt. 
See Alexander the Great. 

Alexander the Great. The famous 
conqueror of antiquity is the chief person- 
«,ge in many dramatic pieces ; notably (1) 

* Alexander, Campaspe, and Diogenes : ' a 
comedy bv John Lyly (q.v.), "played before 
Queen Elizabeth, on Twelfth-night (15S1), 
by the children of Paul's," and printed in 
1584. The plot is from Pliny's ' Natural 
History,' bk. xxxv. chap. 10. Lyly was 
perhaps indebted to "a ballet, entituled 
An History of Alexander, Campaspe, and 
ApeUes, and of the faythful fryndshippe 
betweene theym," printed for Colwell in 
1565. "This play," says Hazlitt, "is a very 
pleasing transcript of old manners and senti- 
ment. It is fuU of sweetness and point, of 
Attic salt and the honey of Hymettus." 
Collier describes the play "as "certainly one 
of the best of Lyly's productions," prais- 
ing " the force and distinction with which 
Diogenes is drawn." "Some interest is also 
felt for Apelles, who had fallen in love with 
Campaspe while employed hy Alexander to 
paint her portrait. . . ' Campaspe also be- 
comes enamoured of ApeUes. . . . The main 
plot is varied by the introduction of some 
of the Grecian sages and philosophers." 
"Apelles and Campaspe," says Fleay, "seem 

to shadow forth Leicester and the Countes.s 
of Essex. . . . Alexander, of course, means 
the queen, and Hephtestion, 1 think, Bur- 
leigh. . . , Diogenes, I think, means Lyly 
himself." See Warton's 'English Poetry' 
(1871), CoUier's ' Dramatic Poetry ' (1879), and 
Dodsley's 'Old Plays.' See, also, Apelles. 
(2) ' The Rival Queens ' (q.v.), bv N.\thaniel 
Lee; (3) 'The Amazon Queeii' iq.r.)\ (4) 
A play by T. Ozell (g.r.), translated from 
the French of Racine, and printed in 1714. 
(5) An opera, performed at Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, and printed in 1715. (6) ' Alexander 
and the King of Egypt:' a "mock play," 
"as it is acted by the Mummers every 
Xmas;" printed in 1788. (7) 'Alexander 
the Little:' plaved at Covent Garden on 
May 2, 1791, with Quick, Munden, Mrs. 
Webb, Mrs. Martyr, and :Mr3. Pitt in the 
cast. (8) ' Alexander the Great ; or. The 
Conquest of Persia:' "a grand pantomime 
ballet," " composed" by J. d'Egville (music 
by Krazinski Miller), and performed at 
Drury Lane on February 12, 1795. " The 
scenery surpassed everything before exhi- 
bited on the English stage." (9) ' Alexander 
the Great in Little:' a "grand tragi-comic 
operatic burlesque spectacle " in one act by 
T. Dibdin (q.v.), first performed at the 
Strand Theatre, London, on August 7, 1837, 
with Mrs. Stirling as Roxana, Miss Daly as 
Statira, and W. J. Hammond as Alexander. 
(10)' Alexander and Statira ; or, The Death 
of Bucephalus : ' a tragedy " for warm 
weather," written by Dr.^GEORGE Wallis, 
and acted at York, Leeds, and Edinburgh. 

Alexander the Great in Little. 
See Alexander the Great. 

Alexander the Little. See Alex- 
ander the 

Alexandra. A play from the German 
of Dr. Richard Voss, first performed at the 
Royalty Theatre, London, on March 4, 1893, 
with Miss Achurch in the title part. 

Alexandra Theatre. See London 

Alexandraean Tragedy (The). A 
play by William Alexander (q.v.). Earl of 
Stirling, printed in 1605. " The groundwork 
of this play is laid on the differences which 
arose among Alexander's captains, after his 
decease, about the succession. . . . The scene 
lies in Babylon, and the plot is to be found 
in Quintus Curtius, Diodorus Siculus, Oro- 
sius, etc." (' Biographia Dramatica'). This 
tragedy drew from Dr. Andrew Johnston 
the'folioAving epigram : — 

" Confer Alexrindros : Macedo victricibiis .arniis 
IkLignus erat, Scotus carmine major uter ? " 

Alexina. (1) Wife of the hero, in Theo- 
dore Hook's 'Tekeli' (q.v.). (2) A cha- 
racter in Reynolds's ' Exile' (q.v.). 

Alexina ; or, True unto Death. A 
two-act drama, by J. Sheridan Knowles 
(q.v.), performed at the Strand Theatre, 
London, in 1866. Avith IMiss A. Swanborough 
in the title role, and Miss SI. Simpson, 





Thome, Parselle, Turner, etc., in other 

Alexis. (1) A shepherd in Fletcher's 
' Faithful Shepherdess ' {<[. v. ). (2) A charac- 
ter in Dryden'S ' All for Love ' (q.v.). (3) 
A character in 'The Shepherd Boy' (q.v.). 
(4) Son of Sir Marmaduke in GILBERT and 
Sullivan's ' Sorcerer ' {q.v.). 

Alexis' Paradise. (1) A " dramatic 
opera," dated l(jSO. (2) ' Alexis' Paradise ; 
or, A Trip to the Garden of Love at Vaux- 
hall:' a comedy -m-itten by James New- 
ton, and "privately acted by the ladies of 
honour." It was printed in 1722. 

Alexius ; or, The Chaste Lover. 
A play by Philip Massinger iq.v.), licensed 
on September 25, 1639, but not now in exist- 
ence. "In the Warburton list it is called 
'Alexias ; or, The Chaste Gallant' " (Fleay). 

Alfavourite, King-. A character in 
Planche's ' Fortunio ' {q.v.). 

Alfleri. The works of this dramatist 
were translated from the Italian by Charles 
Lloyd in 1815, and E. A. Bowring in 1876. 
English versions of Alfieri's Autobiogi-aphy 
appeared in 1810 and 1845. See, also, 
Agamemnon ; Alcestis II. ; Antigone ; 
Merope ; Orestes ; Philip II. ; Rosa- 
MUNDA ; Saul. 

Alfonso. The Duke, in W. Young's 
' Lucrezia Borgia' {q.v.), and in L. Bucking- 
ham and H. J. Byron's burlesque on that 
subject {q.v.). 

Alfonso, King- of Castile. A tragedy 
in five acts, by M. G. Lewis {q.v.), first per- 
formed at Covent Garden on January 15, 1S02, 
Avith a cast including H. Johnston, Cooke, 
Murray, Mrs. Litchfield, and Mrs. Johnston. 
Orsino, accused of treason, has been im- 
prisoned by Alfonso; and Orsiyio's son, 
Ccesario, secretly married to Amclrosa, 
daughter of Alfonso, vows vengeance. He 
is about to kUl the King, when he is himself 
stabbed by Orsino, who also dies. The 
tragedy was first played at New York in 
March, 1803. 

Alfred. See Alfred the Great. 

Alfred and Emma. An unacted play, 
dated 1806, and founded on the ' Red Cross 
Knights ' of Kotzebue {q.v. ). A If red is a knight 
who falls into the hands of the Saracens. 
His wife, Emma, believing him dead, turns 
nun ; and Alfred, being wounded, is taken 
to the convent and recognizes her. The 
abbess will not give her up, but an emir 
whom Alfred has befriended besieges the 
convent, and rescues both knight and wife. 

Alfred the Great has been the central 
figure of a number of dramatic works : — (1) 
' Aluredus sive Alfredus : ' a Latin tragi- 
comedy, by W. Drury, performed in 1619, 
and printed in 1620 ; dealing with Alfred's 
retreat to the Isle of Athelney. (2) ' Alfred : ' 
a masque written by James Thomson {q.v.) 
and David MALLET"(g.r.), and set to music by 
Dr. Avne {q.v.); performed for the first time in 
a temporary theatre in the garden of Cleif den, 

Bucks (the residence of the Prince of Wales), 
on August 14, 1740, and printed in the same 
year. The occasion was the celebration of 
the anniversary of the Hanoverian succes- 
sion. "The work contains some tine songs, 
but is more especially distinguished by its 
finale, the famous patriotic song ' Rule Bri- 
tannia,"* of which Southey said it would be 
" the political hymn of this country as long 
as she maintains her political power." An 
opera, called ' Alfred,' and founded on 
Thomson and Mallet's work, was performed 
at Covent Garden in 1745, with Mrs. Arne 
and other vocalists in the cast. The masque 
was afterwards dramatized by INIallet, and 
produced at Drury Lane in 1751, with Garrick 
in the title role. This version, altered by 
Garrick, was reproduced in 1773. (3) 
' Alfred the Great : ' a musical drama, first 
performed at Drury Lane in 1745. (4) 
' Alfred the Great, Deliverer of his Country : ' 
a tragedy by the author of 'The Friendly 
Rivals' {q.v.), printed in 1753. (5) ' Alfred ; 
or, The Magic Banner : ' a drama in three 
acts, by John O'Keefe {q.v.), first performed 
at the Haymarket in 1776. See reference, 
below, to Pocock's drama. (6) 'Alfred:' a 
tragedy by John Home {q.v.), first performed 
at Covent Garden on January 21, 1778, with 
Lewis as Alfred (King of England), Aickin 
as Hinguar (King of the Danes), Mrs. Barry 
as Ethelsivida (betrothed to Alfred), and 
Mrs. Jackson as -Rojjcx (consort to Ilinguar). 
Ethelsivida is a prisoner in the camp of Hin- 
guar, who loves her. Alfred, disguised as a 
bard, penetrates through the lines, and make.s 
himself known to Ethelsivida. JRonex, jealous 
of Ethelsivida, seeks to kill her, and Alfred, 
returning by-and-by with an army, thinks 
her dead, and is in despair ; but the lovers 
eventually are reunited. (7) ' Alfred the 
Great : ' a play in three acts, by ^Mrs. Faucit, 
performed at Norwich in May, ISll. (8) 
' Alfred the Great ; or. The Enchanted 
Standard : ' a musical drama in two acts, by 
Isaac Pocock, founded on the 'Alfred ' {q.v.) 
of O'Keefe, and first performed at Covent 
Garden on November 3, 1827, with Warde as 
Alfred, 'Serle as GutJirum, FaAvcett as Gog, 
]Miss Goward as Elsicitha, Mrs. Davenport 
as Bertha,?Lnd Blanchard and Miss Kelly in 
other parts. Alfred, disguised as a minstrel, 
visits Guthrum's camp. He is discovered ; 
Elsu'itha, who loves him, sets fire to the En- 
chanted Standard ; the Saxons rush in, and 
the Danes are subdued. Gog and Bertha are 
a neatherd and his wife, in whose cottage 
Alfred burns the historical cakes. The 
play was first performed at New Yoi'k in 
Februarv, 1828. (9) ' Alfred the Great ; or. 
The Patriot King:' a play by J. Sheridan 
Knowles {q.v.), produced at Drury Lane in 
1831, with Macready in the title part, INIiss 
Huddart as Elsiriih, Cooper as Guthrum, 
INIiss Phillips as Ina, and :Miss Faucit as 
Edith. (10) ' Harlequin Alfred the Great : ' 
a pantomime by G. H. Rodwell, Maryle- 
bone Theatre, 1850. (11) ' Alfred the Great ; 
or, The ^Minstrel King : ' an extravaganza by 
Robert B. Brough {q.v.), first performed at 
the Olympic Theatre, London, on December 
26, 1859, with F. Robson in the title part. 



Horace AVigan as Dunulf, F. Vining as 
Oddune, Miss Herbert as Oswith, Miss E. 
Nelson as Elswith, Miss Hughes as Ina, and 
Miss Stephens as Maude. (12) 'Alfred :' a 
play by JMartin Farquhar Tupper {q.v.), 
performed at Jlanchester, with Walter 
Montgomery in the title part, and Miss 
Henrietta Hodson as Bertha. (13) ' Alfred 
the Great in Athelnay : ' a play in live acts, 
by Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, printed 
In 1876. See BATTLE OF EDDlNGTOTf, and 
Christian King. 

Algrerine Slaves (The). See Stran- 
gers at Home, The. 

Alg-onah.. See Cherokee, The. 

Alhadra. The heroine of Coleridge's 
'Remorse ' {q.v.). 

Alhambra (The); or, The Three 
Beautiful Princesses. A "burlesque 
extravaganza" by Albert Smith {q.v.), 
first performed at the Princess's Theatre, 
London, on April 21, 1S51, -with :\Irs. Keeley 
as Sir Rupert tJte Heady, Miss Vivash as 
WUl-o'-the- Wiftp, Flexmore as Asrnodeus and 
Al Djaco, Harley as Hussein Baha, Alfred 
Wigan as Sir Desperado the Dauntless, 
Keeley as Sir Toby the Timorous, Miss Car- 
lotta Leclercq as Zorayda, and J. F. Cath- 
cart, Miss Murray, and Miss M. Keeley in 
other parts. 

Alhambra Theatre (The). See Lon- 
don Theatres. 

All Baha. The hero of a well-known 
nursery tale and of the folloAving dramatic 
pieces :— (1) ' Ali Baba ; or. The Thirty-nine 
Thieves (in accordance with the author's 
habit of "taking one off")': an extrava- 
ganza by H. J. Byron {q.v.), first performed 
at the Strand Theatre, London, on April 6, 
1863, with H. J. Turner in the title part, 
Miss Polly ^larshall as Ganem, F. Seymour 
as Cassim Baba, Miss Ada Swanborough as 
Abdalla, G. Honey as Hassarac, E. Danvers 
as Hassan, Miss E. Bufton as Cogia Baba, 
Miss F. Hughes as Zaide, and Miss C. 
Saunders as Morgiana. (2) ' Ali Baba ; or, 
The Forty Thieves : ' a comic opera in four 
acts, written by Signer Taddei, composed 
by Signor Bettesini, and produced at the Ly- 
ceum Theatre, London, on January 17, 1871. 
(3) ' Ali Baba, and the Forty Thieves ' : a 
burlesque by Gilbert Arthur 1 Beckett, 
Crystal Palace, December 21, 1S71. (4) 
' Ali Baba h. la Mode : ' an extravaganza by 
R. Reece {q.v.), first performed at the Gaiety 
Theatre, London, on September 14, 1872. 
(5) 'Ali Baba and The Forty Thieves:' 
pantomime by John Douglas, Park Theatre, 
London, December 24, 1878. (6) ' Ali Baba 
and the Forty Thieves : ' pantomime by J. 
B. Chatterton and H. P. Grattan, Sadler's 
Wells, December 26, ISSl. (7) ' Ali Baba ; 
or. The Forty Naughty Thieves,' bui-lesque. 
Theatre Royal, Birkenhead, May 14, 1SS3. 
(8) ' Ali Baba ; or, A Night with the Forty 
Thieves,' by J. R. O'Neill. See Cumber- 
land's plays.— ^4Zi Baba is also a prominent 
personage in various other pieces, for which 

see Baba, Ali ; Forty Thieves ; Open, 

Ali Pacha; or, The Sig-net King-. A 
play by J. Howard Payne {q.v.), produced 
at Covent Garden, October 19, 1822, with 
Farren in the title part, and Miss Foote as 
the heroine. Charles Lamb wrote of the 
piece that it "would do," adding that 
Farren's manner was "even grand," whilst 
Miss Foote "greatly helped" the drama. 
'Ali Pacha' was first performed at New 
York in May, 1823. 

Alibi. A character in O'Keefe's ' Toy * 


Alice. (1) Sister of Valentine, in Beau- 
mont and Fletcher's ' Monsieur Thomas " 
{q.v.). {2) Alice, in the anonymous 'Arden 
of Feversham' {q.v.), is the wife of Arden. 
In LiLLO'S play she is called Alicia. Alice 
is a leading character in (3) Lewis's ' Castle 
Spectre' ((7.r.) and (4) Oxenford's 'Porter's 
Knot' {q.v.). She is (5) the fiancee of 
Arnaud, in R. Lacy's 'Robert the DevU' 
{q.v.), and (6) daughter of Rip Van Winkle- 
in the plays and operas on that subject. 

Alice Grey, the Suspected One ; 
or, The Moral Brand. A domestic 
drama in three acts, by JohnT. Haines(5'.v.), 
first performed at the Surrey Theatre, Lon- 
don, on April 1, 1839, with Mrs. H. Vining 
in the title part, and E. F. Saville as Cadger 

Alice in Wonderland. A "musical 
dream-play" in two acts, adapted by H. 
Savile Clarke (with music by Walter 
Slaughter) from Lewis Carroll's 'Alice's 
Adventures in Wonderland ' and ' Through 
the Looking-Glass ;' first performed at the 
Prince of W^ales's Theatre, London, on 
December 23, 1SS6, with Phoebe Carlo as 
Alice, S.-Harcourt as the Hatter and Tweedle- 
dum, W. Cheesman as the Mock Turtle and 
Humpty Dumpty, etc.; revived at the Globe 
Theatre, London, in December, 1888 ; at the 
Vaudeville in ISOO ; at the Camberwell 
Theatre in 1902. 

Alice May. A drama by Edward 
FiTZBALL {q.v.), played at the Surrey 
Theatre in 1852. 

Alice Pierce. See Alls Perce. 

Alicia, in Rowe's 'Jane Shore' {q.v.)^ 
is the mistress of Lord Hastings. It is 
related of the King of Denmark, who, in 
1768, went to see a representation of 'Jane 
Shore,' that "during the performance he 
fell asleep, and remained so, to the amuse- 
ment of the audience and the annoyance 
of Mrs. Bellamy [q.v.], who played Alicia. 
That haughty and hapless beauty was not 
likely to let the wearied king sleep on ; 
and accordingly, having to pronounce the 
words, 'O thou'false lord !' she approached 
the royal box, and uttered them expressly 
in such a piercing tone, that the king awoke 
in sudden amazement." See Alice (2). 

Alidor. A shepherd in Planch]^'2 
' Young and Handsome ' (if. v.)- 



Alidoro. The tutor in H. J. Byron's 

' Cinderella' {.q.v.). 

Alienated Manor (The). A comedy 
in live acts, by Joanna Baillie {q.v.), 
forming one of lier ' Plays on the Passions,' 
and published in 1798-1S12. Among the cha- 
racters are Smitchenstault, a German philo- 
sopher ; Sir Level Clumj), an improver ; and 
Mrs. Smoothly. 

Alinda. (1) Daughter of Alphonso, in 
Beaumont and Fletcher's ' Pilgrim ' (q.v.). 
(2) A character in Jephson'S ' Law of Lom- 
bardy' (5.1-.). See Archas. 

Aline. The heroine of Gilbert and 
Sullivan's 'Sorcerer' (q.v.). 

Aline; or, The Rose of Killarney. 

A drama in two acts, by Edward Stirling 
(q.v.), first performed at the Strand Theatre, 
Julv 10, 1S43, with Mrs. Stirling in the title 
part ; and revived at the Marylebone The- 
atre, London, in 1859. 

Alithea. A character in Wycherly's 
'Country Wife' (q.v.), and in the adap- 
tation of that piece called 'The Country 
Girl' (q.v.). 

Alive and Merry. (1) A farce in two 
acts, bv "— Brown," first performed at 
Drury Lane on May 17, 1796, with a cast in- 
cluding Bannister, jun., Suett, :Miss de Camp, 
and Mrs. Bland. " It opened," says Oulton, 
" with mutes at a door." (2) A farce in two 
acts, by Charles Dance (g.v.), first per- 
formed at Covent Garden on September 30, 
1839, with Farren, Bartley, C. ^Mathews, 
Brougham, W. H. Payne, Mrs. Orger, and 
:Mrs. Humby in the cast. See All Alive 
AND Merry ; Sharp, Luke. 

Alive or Dead. A play adapted by R. 
Hall from the 'Edwin Drood' of Charles 
Dickens, and first performed at St. George's 
Hall, London, in May, 1876 ; revived at the 
Park Theatre, London, in Mav, ISSO, with 
W. Howell as Edwin, Miss Bella Cuthbert 
as Ojnum Sal, ]Miss Alice Rayner as Helena 
Landless, and Miss Stella Brereton as Eosa 

Alixe. A drama, adapted by Augustin 
Daly (q.v.) from the ' Comtesse de Som- 
merive ' of Mdme. de Prebois and Theodore 
Barriere, and first performed at the Fifth 
Avenue Theatre, New York, on January 21, 
1873, with Miss Clara Morris as the heroine 
(represented in Paris by Mdlle. Pierson), 
supported by Miss L. Dietz, Miss F. Daven- 
port, and L.'James, J. Lewis, G, Clarke, and 
C. Fisher. 

Alkalomb. Sister of Ganem, in F. 
Talfourd's ' Ganem, the Slave of Love ' 


Aiken. The sage shepherd in Jonson's 
* Sad Shepherd ' (q^v.). 
Alkmeon. See Alcm.eon. 

All a Mistake. (1) A farce performed at 
Covent Garden on July 2, 1825, with Keeley, 
Jleadows, Mrs. Chatterley, Mrs. Gibbs, and 
Mrs. Davenport in the cast. See Q. E. D. 

(2) A comedietta by Mrs. Xewton Phillips, 
Ladbroke Hall, London, January, 1S90. 

All abont the Battle of Dorking- ; 
or, My Grandmother. An extrava- 
ganza by F. C. Burnand (q.v.) and A. 
Sketchley (q.v.), first performed at the 
Alhambra Theatre, London, on August 7, 
1871, with Dewar as Sergeant Blower and 
F. W. Irish as Cheeks the marine. 

All Abroad. An operetta, written by 
Arthur Law, composed by A. J. Caldicott, 
and first performed at the Prince of ^\'ales's 
Theatre, London, on February 21, 1890, with 
F. Wood, T. Saxe, A. James, etc., in the 

All Alive and Merry. A comedy by 
S. Johnson, first acted at Lincoln's Inn 
Fields on January 10, 1737. See Alive and 

All at C ; or, The Captive, the 
Coffee, and the Cocoatina. A musical 
melodrama by Major Millett and Lieu- 
tenant Wilcox, performed on board H.M.S. 
Tamar on December 29, 1873. 

All at Coventry; or, liove and 
Laug-h. A musical farce in one act, by 
W. T. MONCRIEFF (q.v.), first performed at 
the Olympic Theatre, London, on January 
8, 1816", with Russell as Timothy; revived 
at the Adelphi in 1825, ■nith Wrench as 
Timothy. Among the characters are Bram- 
ble, Ramble, Lively, Gahhlewig, and Eedtail. 
The piece was first played at New York in 
1842, with John Fisher as Timothy. 

All at Sea. (1) A comedietta by Sydney 
Grundy (g.r.), first performed at the Theatre 
Royal, ^Manchester, on August 8, 1873, with 
W."H. Kendal and Mrs. Kendal in the prin- 
cipal parts. (2) A musical sketch, words by 
Arthur Law (q.v.), music by Corney Grain, 
produced at St. George's Hall, London, on 
February 28, ISSl. 

All at Sixes and Sevens. A farce 
played at Drury Lane on ]\Iarch 21, 1S29, 
with Gattie, Jones, Liston, Harley, Mrs. 
Orger, and Miss Love in the cast. 

All Bedevilled ; or. The House in ' 
an Uproar. A farce by MosES Browne • 
(q.v.), printed in 1723. 

All Fools. A comedy by George 
Chapman (q.v.), founded on Terence's 
' Heautontimorumenos,' "most likely written 
in 1603' (Fleay), played at Blackfriars and. 
before the king, and printed in 1605. It is, 
"of course," says Fleay, "a remodelled 
form of • The World runs on Wheels ' [as 
Chapman first entitled his play] of July, 
1599." "The style," says Swinburne, "is 
limpid and luminous as running water ; the 
verse pure, simple, smooth, and strong ; the 
dialogue always bright, fluent, lively, and at, 
times" relieved with delicate touches of high 
moral and intellectual beauty ; the plot and 
characters excellently fitted to each other.' 
with just enough intricacy and fulness oi 
incident to sustain, without relaxation 01 
confusion, the ready interest of readers oi 
spectators." The story turns mairdy upor 




the device by -nhich Gostanzo, a knight, is 
led to approve of the marriage of his son 
Valeria with Gratiana, on the supposition 
that the union is only imaginary, and is 
feigned but to blind another knight named 
Marc Antonio. In the end, Gostanzo is un- 
deceived, and is reconciled to his son ; For- 
tunio, the son of Marc Antonio, being 
permitted to wed Gostanzo's daughter Bel- 
lonora. " In the course of the play, most of 
the principal characters are made Fools." 

All for Fame : or, A Peep at the 
Times. A comic sketch in one act, by A. 
Cherry (q.v.), Drury Lane, May 15, 1805 ; 
described by Oulton as " a temporary satire 
on the prevailing rage for infantile actors." 

All for Gold; or, Fifty Millions 
of Money. An adaptation, by Francis 
Hopkins, of Eugene Sue's ' Juif Errant,' 
originally produced in Australia, and first 
performed in England at the Theatre Royal, 
Birmingham, July, 1878 ; produced at the 
Surrey Theatre, London, in 1881. (2) ' All 
for Gold : ' a drama in three acts, by 
Cherry Griffiths, Britannia Theatre, 
London, September 9, 1878. 

All for Her. A drama by J. Pal- 
grave Simpson (q.v.) and H. Merivale 
iq.v.), first performed at the Mirror Theatre, 
London, on Octol)er 18, 1875, with J. Clay- 
ton as Iluf/h Trevor, Crauford as Lord 
Edendale, Aliss R. Coghlan as Lady Mars- 
den, Miss Caroline Hill as Mary Rivers, and 
Horace Wigan as Radford. Jhijh Trevor 
believes he is an illegitimate son, but dis- 
covers afterwards that he is mistaken, and 
that to him, and not to his brother, Lord 
Edendale, belong the title and estates. But 
Hugh loves Lady Ma rsden, and Lady Marsden 
loves Lord Edendale ; so, in order that the 
lady shall be happy, Uuyh burns the proofs 
of his birth, and, by means of a stratagem, 
goes to the scaffold for his bi-other, who is 
implicated in some treasonable plans. Mary 
Rivers is in love with Hugh. Radford is 
the villain of the piece. ' All for Her ' was 
played in the English provinces in 1876, 
with John Clayton as Trevor, IMiss Annie 
Baldwin as Lady Marsden, Miss Cavalier as 
Mary Rivers, A. Elwood as Lord Edendale, 
and H. JMoxon as Radford; and again in 
1877, with Clayton as 'Trevor and W. H. 
Brougham as Edendale. At Glasgow jMiss 
Louise Moodie was the Lady Ma7-sden, and 
W. Mackintosh was Radford. The piece 
was afterwards performed in the country 
with Fred Gould as Trevor. In 1891 it 
was revived in the English provinces and 
America, with Mrs. Kendal as Lady Marsden, 
W. H. Kendal as Trevor, J. E. Dodson as 
Radford, J. Carne as Edendale, and A. M. 
Denison as Col. Darner. The rule of Trevor 
was in the repertory of Lester Wallack. 

All for Himself. A drama in three 
acts, by Charles Wills (q.v.), fii-st per- 
formed at the Alexandra Theatre, Liverpool, 
on June 5, 1871. 

All for Love ; or, Tlie World "Well 
Lost. A tragedy by John Dryden (q.v.), 
first acted and printed in 1678. The original 

cast included Hart as Antony, IMohun as 
Ventidius, Clarke as Dolabella, Goodman as 
Alexas, Griffin as Serapion, Mrs. Boutell 
as Cleopatra, ISIrs. Corey as Octavia. The 
play was revived at Lincoln's Inn Fields in 
February, 1704, with Betterton as Antony, 
Mrs. Barry as CleojMtra, Wilks as Dola- 
bella, and Mrs. Bracegirdle as Octavia; at 
Drury Lane in December, 1718, with Booth 
as Antony, Mrs. Oldfield as Cleopatra, and 
Mi\s. Porter as Octavia (see Davies' account 
of this performance) ; at Dublin in 1745-6, 
with Barry as Antony and Miss Bellamy as 
Cleopatra ; at Drury Lane in February, 1747, 
with Mrs. Woffington as Cleopatra ; at Drury 
Lane in March, 1766, with Powell as Antony 
and Mrs. Yates as Cleopatra ; at Drury Lane 
in December, 1772, with Miss Younge 
as Cleopatra, Mrs. Barry as Octavia, and 
Palmer as Dolabella; at Drury Lane in 
March, 1776, with ]\Irs. Yates as Octavia; 
at Covent Garden in January, 1779, with 
Farren as Dolabella ; at Drury Lane in May, 
1788, with Kemble as Antony, Barrymore 
as Dolabella, and Mrs. Siddons as Cleopatra; 
and at Covent Garden in May, 1790, with 
Holman as Antony, Miss Brunton as Cleo- 
patra, and Mrs. Pope as Octavia. The tra- 
gedy was played at New York in April, 
1768, with Hallam in the cast. Dryden 
deals in this play with the same subject as 
that of Shakespeare's 'Antony and Cleo- 
patra.' "Whilst, however, the elder poet 
" diffused the action of his play over Italy, 
Greece, and Egypt," Dryden laid every 
scene in the city of Alexandria. More- 
over, he " contents himself with the con- 
cluding scene of Antony's history, instead 
of introducing the incidents of the war with 
Cneius Pompey, the negotiation with Le- 
pidus, death of his first wife, and other 
circumstances which, in Shakespeare, only 
tend to distract our attention from the 
main interest of the drama" (Sir Walter 
Scott). Dryden, says Saintsbury, "omits 
whatever in the original story is .shocking 
and repulsive from the romantic point of 
view. . . . The best pieces of ' All for Love' 
cannot, of course, challenge comparison 
with the best pieces of Shakespeare . . . 
but the best passages of this play, and, 
what is more, its general facture and style, 
equal, with a certain time-allowance, the 
best things of Beaumont and Fletcher, and 
therefore the best things of almost any 
English tragedian save Shakespeare." (2) 
' All for Love ; or, The Lost Pleiad : ' a 
romantic drama in three acts, by J. Stir- 
ling Coyne (q.v.), founded on ' Une Fille 
de I'Air,' and first performed at the Adelphi 
Theatre, London, on January 16, 1838, with 
Yates as Flutter, H. Beverley as Boreas, Mrs. 
Nisbett as Asteria, Mrs. Cooke as Urania, 
and Miss A. Taylor as Iris. " Six pleiads" 
and " phantoms" are introduced. 

All for Money. (1) A " moral and 
pitiful" comedy, "compiled" by Thomas 
LUPTON (q.v.), and printed in 1578. The 
characters introduced include Theology, 
Science, Art, Money, Pleasure, Pressed-for- 
pleasure, Sin, Sivift-to- sin, Damnation, 



Satan, Pride, Gluttony, Adulation, Mischie- 
vo7is-help, Learninrj-with-money, Learning- 
^vithout - money. Money ■ tvithout - learning, 
Neither - money - nor - learning. All -for - 
money, Gregory Graceless, Moneyless, Money- 
less-and- friendless, William - with - the - tu'o_ - 
wives, Aichol • never - out - of- the - law, Sir 
Lawrence Livingless, Mother Crook, Judas, 
Dives, Godly Admonition, Virtue, Humility, 
and Charity. It has been described as " one 
of the most elaborate and involved of onr 
later Morals. The characters engaged in it," 
savs Collier, "are no less than thirty-two in 
number. ... It professes to represent ' the 
manners of men and fashion of the world ' 
at the date when it was produced ; but it is 
anything but a picture of manners, and the 
author directs his attack in various ways 
against avarice. On the title-page he terms 
his work a 'pitiful comedy,' and in the 
prologue he tells us that it is almost a 
'pleasant tragedy;' but it has no preten- 
sions to be considered one or the other" 
('Dramatic Poetry'). (2) A comedy by 
Roma Guillon le ThiiSre {q.v.), first per- 
formed at the Haymarket in July 13, 1869, 
with Miss Amy Sedgwick as Ida, Henry 
Irving as Captain Robert Fitzherbert, W. H. 
Vernon as Gerald Lyle, and Mrs. Stephens 
as Miss Eglantina White. Ida is the wife 
of one Guy Mortimer, M.P., and her life is 
made miserable by the peculations of lier 
father, the Captain, and the dishonourable 
proposals of her old lover, Gerald. Event- 
tially, Gerald is unmasked ; the Captain is 
able" to refund his thefts by marrying the 
rich spinster, Miss White ; and Ida regains 

All for the Better ; or, The In- 
fallible Cure. A comedy by F. Manning, 
acted at Drury Lane in 1703, and printed in 
the same year. The original cast included 
Husband, "Wilks, Mills, and Mrs. Rogers. 

All Guilty. A play first performed at 
Burton's Theatre, New York, on October 22, 


All Hallow Eve. A play produced at 
Niblo's Theatre, New York, in 1859. 

All in a Bustle. (1) An unacted play 
by Francis Lathom, printed in 1795 and 
ISOO. (2) A "prelude," played in America 
in 179S. 

All in a Fog. See Who's Who ? 

All in Good Humour. A " triile " in 
one act, written by W. C. OuLTOX (7.1-.), and 
first performed at the Haymarket Theatre on 
July 7, 1792, with Baddeley as Chagrin and 
R. i?almer as Squire Hairbrain. 

All in the Dark ; or, The Banks of 
the Elbe. A farcical comedy, by J. R. 
l^LANCHE, first performed at the Lyceum, 
London, in July, 1S22, with a cast including 
Bartley, Bland, etc. 

All in the Downs ; or, Black-ey'd 
Susan. A comic operetta, founded on 
Douglas Jerrold's play, with lyrics by TOM 
Jerrold, and music by Meyer Lutz iq.v.). 

produced at the Gaiety Theatre, London, on 
November 5, 1881, with Miss Alice Cooke as 
Dolly Mayflower. 

All in the Dumps. See Black-eyed 


All in the Rig-ht. (1) A farce printed 
in 1762. (2) A farce adapted from Destouches 
by Thomas Hull {q.v.), and first performed 
at Covent Garden on April 26, 1766, with 
Lewis, Shuter, Mrs. Green, and others in 
the cast. 

All in the "Wrong". A comedy by 
Arthur Murphy {q.v.), o^ving something to 
the ' Cocu Imaginaire ' of Moliere, and first 
produced at Drary Lane on June 15, 1761, 
Mith Yates as Sir' John Restless and Mrs. 
Yates as Belinda. Foote wrote and spoke the 
prologue. "The intention of it," says the 
' Biogi-aphia Dramatica,' " is to bring to- 
gether into one piece, and represent at one 
view, the various effects of the passion of 
jealousy in domestic life, acting on different 
dispositions and different tempers, and under 
different circumstances of husband and wife, 
lover and mistress." The comedy was first 
played at New York in 1768. 

All is Pair in Liove and "War. A 

comedy in one act, adapted from 'L'Ane 
et le Ruisseau' of Alfred De :Musset, and 
printed in 1868. See All's Fair in Love. 

" All is not g-old that g-listeneth." 
See "All that Glisters," etc. 

All is not Gold that Glisters. A 
play by Henry Chettle {q.v.), acted by the 
Admiral's men at the Fortune in 1601. See 
"All th.\t Glisters," etc.; All that 
Glitters, etc. 

All is True. On July 6, 1613, Sir Henry 
Wotton wrote to his nephew : " I will enter- 
tain you . . . with what hath happened this 
week at [the Globe Theatre on] the Bank- 
side. The king's players had a new play, 
called All is True, representing some princi- 
pal pieces of the reign of Henry the Eighth, 
which was set forth with many extraordinary 
circumstances of pomp and majesty, even to 
the matting of the stage; the Knights of 
the Order, with their Georges and Garter, 
the guards with their embroidered coats, 
and the like : sufficient, in truth, within a 
while, to make greatness very familiar, if 
not ridiculous. Now King Henry, making 
a mask at the Cardinal Wolsey's house, and 
certain cannons being shot off at his entry, 
some of the paper or other stuff where^^-ith 
one of these was stopped, did light on the 
thatch, where, being thought at first but an 
idle smoke, and their eyes more attentive 
to the show, it kindled inwardly and ran 
round like a train, consuming, within an 
hour, the whole house to the very ground." 
This 'AH is True' has been thought by 
some to be identical with the ' Henry VIII.' 
ascribed to Shakespeare, or with the 'When 
you see me you know me ' of Samuel 
Rowley. It may, however, as Collier sug- 
gests, "have been " a quite different ])iece 
founded on history." See the ' Biogi-apliia 
Dramatica' (1812) ; also, Henry Vll'l. 



AU is Vanity. See Cymc's Defeat, 

All Mistaken ; or, TheMad Couple. 

A comedy by the Hon. James Howard (q.v.), 
first performed at the Theatre Royal on 
December 28, 1667, with Nell Gwynne and 
Hart as Mirida and Philidor— the mad couple . 
Philidor and Mirida "are in love with 
each other, but protest against marriage." 
The former has promised marriage to six 
ladies, but, having managed to lock them up 
in a vault, he declines to let them out till 
they each relieve him from his vow. " Mi- 
rida has two lovers — Pinguister and a lean 
man. She refuses to marry Pinguister till 
he has made himself lean, and the other 
till he has made himself fat." The piece was 
printed in 1672 and 1710.— William Shirley 
gave the title of ' All Mistaken ' to his 
alteration of the ' Comedy of Errors' {q.v.). 

All on a Summer's Day. A comedy 
by Mrs. Inchbald {q.v.), first performed at 
Covent Garden Theatre, London, on Decem- 
ber 15, 1787, with a cast including Lewis, 
Quick, Aickin, Farren, Mrs. Mattocks, Mis.s 
Brunton, and Mrs. Webb. 

All Pleas'd at Last. An anonymous 
comedy, acted and printed in Dublin in 1783. 

All Plot ; or, The Disg-uises. A play 
by W. Strode, performed at Lincoln's Inn 
Fields between 1662 and 1671. See Downes' 
* Eoscius Anglicanus ' (1708). 

All Puzzled. An anonymons farce, 
dated 1702. See ' Biographia Dramatica.' 

*' All that g-listers is not gold."— 
'Merchant of Venice,' act ii. .sc. 6. Mid- 
dleton, in his ' Fair Quarrel,' act ii. sc. 1, has 
the line — 

" All is not gold that glisteneth." 

See All is not Gold and All that 
All that Glitters is not Gold. A 

comedy adapted from the French by Thomas 
and J.M. Morton ((/.r.), and tirst performed 
at the Olympic Theatre, London, on January 
13, 1S51, with W. Farren as Jasper Plum, 
Leigh Murray as Stephen Plum, W. Farren, 
jun., as Frederick Plum, Mrs. Stirling as 
Martha Gibb.9, Miss Louisa Howard as Ladij 
Valeria Westendleir/h, and Compton as Toby 
Twinkle. Lady Valeria, married to Frede- 
rick, is pursued by a " wicked baronet," and 
is in danger of falling a victim to his wUes, 
when Martha, a pretty factory girl, beloved 
by Stephen, succeeds in opening the lady's 
eyes to her lover's falsity — only, however, 
by compromising her own good name. Her 
innocence being established, she marries 
Stephen. This piece is sometimes called 
' The Factory Girl.' It was first played at 
New York in March, 1851, with Miss Gou- 
genheim as Lady Valeria and Davidge as 
Toby Tivinkle. Miss Ada Eehan has played 
Lady Valeria in America. See All IS ^OT 
Gold and All that Glisters. 

All the Comforts of Home. A 
farcical comedy founded by W. Gillette 

and H. Duckworth upon Carl Lanfe's 
' Ein Toller Einfal,' and first performed at 
New York on September 8, 18^0 ; at the 
Globe Theatre, London, on January 24, 1891, 
with H. Paulton in the leading part ; at 
the Elephant and Castle Theatre in 1892, 
with L. Rignold as chief comedian. 

" All the souls that -were, were 
forfeit once."— ' Measure for Measure,' 
act ii. sc. 2 {Isabella) — 

"And He that mi?ht the vantage best have took 
Found out the remedy." 

"All the world's a stag-e." — 'As 
You Like It,' act ii. sc. 7 {Jaques}— 

" And all the men and women merely players . , , 
And one man in his time plays many parts." 

The reflection is as old as Petronius Arbiter, 
who wrote that " Totus mundus agit his- 
trionem " — a sentence which, it is said, 
was placed over the portal of Shakespeare's 
theatre, the Glol)e. In the old play of 
' Damon and Pythias ' (1592), a character 
observes — 

" Pythagoras said that this world was like a stage. 
Whereon many pUvy their parts." 

In Sir Thomas Chaloner's translation of 
Erasmus's ' Praise of Folly' (1594) we read : 
" All this life of mortall man, what is it else 
but a certain kynde of stage plaie ? whereas 
men come foorthe, disguised one in one 
arraie, an other in an other, eche playinge 
his parte." Hey wood, in his ' Apology for 
Actors ' (1612) writes— 

" The world's a Theatre, the earth a Stas:e. 
Which God and Nature do with actors fill . . . 
All men have parts, and each man acts his own . . . 

Our play's begun 
When we are born, and to the world first enter. 
And all find £xUs when their parts are done." 

All the "World's a Stag-e. A farce 
by Isaac Jackmax, first performed at Dmry 
Lane on April 7, 1777, with a cast including 
Parsons {Diggery), Baddeley, Palmer, 
Farren, :Miss P. Hopkins {Kitty Sprightly), 
and Mrs. Hopkins. The humour appears 
to have been derived from the proceedings 
of Diggery and Kitty, who are stage-struck. 
The farce was first played in New York in 

All Vows Kept. A play by Captain 
Downes, "printed and probably acted,' 
says Genest, "in 1733," at Smock Alley, 
Dublin. Four of the characters vow ap- 
parently impossible things, but favourable 
circumstances at last admit of "all vows" 
being " kept," and all ends happUy. Among 
the personce are Hercules (J. Elrington) 
and Parthenia (Mrs. Bellamy), Trivoltio 
(R. Elrington) and Ariomana (Mrs. Neale). 

All without Money. The title of the 
second act of Moiteux' 'Novelty' {q.v.). 
This composition, says Dutton Cook, was 
" certainly derived from the French." See 
Lying Valet, The. 

"All ye woods, and trees, and 
bowers." First Hue of the song to Pan in 
Fletcher's ' Faithful Shepherdess' {q.v.). 

All's Fair in Love ; or, A Match 



for the Lawyer. (1) A farce in two acts, 
by J. TOBIN iq.v.), first performed at Covent 
Garden on April 29, 1803, with a cast in- 
cluding Munden, Fawcett, Brunton, Mrs. 
St. Leger, and Mrs. Mills. The chief part 
is that of Sheepskin, probably played by 
Munden. (2) ' All's Fair in Love : ' a five- 
act play by John Brougham iq.v.), altered 
from ' The Page,' and produced in 1853 at 
Burton's Theatre. New York. (3) 'All's 
Fair in Love : ' a charade by HENRY Hersee 
(q.v.). See All is Fair. 

All's Lost by Lust. A tragedy by 
William Rowley (?.^^), founded partly on 

• The Unfortunate Lovers ' (novel 3) ; acted, 
says Fleay, at the Cockpit circa 1622, at the 
Phoenix circa 1633, and printed'in the latter 
year. Pepys saw it played at the Red Bull 
in March, 1661. The main plot is taken from 
history, the sub-plot (Langbaine says) from a 
novel. The chief character, Rodorique, King 
of Spain, seduces Jacinta, the daughter of 
his general, Julianus ; and the last-named, 
in revenge, joins Mulymicmen, King of the 
Moors, and puts him on the Spanish throne. 
Mulymumen desires to marry Jacinta, is 
rejected, puts out Julianus' eyes, and cuts 
off Jacinta's tongue. Jacinta is afterwards 
accidentally killed by her father. Jaques, 
a comic character, was played originally by 
the author. On this play Mrs. Pix founded 
one called 'The Conquest of Spain' (q.v.). 

All's One; or, One of the Foure 
Plaies in One, called A Yorkshire 
Trag-edy. See Yorkshire Tragedy. 

All's Rig-ht ; or, The Old School- 
fellow. A comic interlude, first performed 
at the Haymarket on June 15, 1827, Avith 
Laporte as 3[r. Cool, Miss P. Glover as 
Harriet Steady, and Mrs. Tayleure as Mrs. 

All's Well that Ends Well. A 
comedy by William Shakespeare (g.v.), 
first printed in the folio of 1623, and pro- 
bably identical with the comedy called 

* Love's Labours Wonne ' which IMeres, 
in his ' Palladis Tamia ' (1598), mentions 
among the plays of Shakespeare then po- 
pular. " ' All's Well,'" .says Furnivall, " is, 
I doubt not, ' Love's Labours Won ' recast. 
Both have the name Dumaine in common, 
in both is the Labour of Love : that which is 
the growth of a life is won here, that which is 
the growth of a day being lost in the earlier 
play. Moreover, no intelligent person can 
read the play without being struck by the 
contrast of early and late work in it. The 
stiff formality of the rhymed talk between 
Helena and the Kiiig is due, not to etiquette, 
but to Shakespeare's early time : so also the 
end of the play" ('Leopold Shakspere '). 
Fleay ('New Shakspere Society Transactions,' 
1874) believes that the play was the work of 
two widely parted periods, and that it took 
its present form in 1602. Gervinus (' Shake- 
speare Commentaries') and Von Friesen 
('Shakespeare Jahrbuch') are also of opinion 
that it is an early work re-handled. On the 
other hand, Delius and Hertzberg attribute 
it to Shake.speare's later years, the latter 

assigning it to 1603. The main outline of the 
plot was taken by the poet from Painter'^ 
'Palace of Pleasure* (vol. i. novel 38), 
Painter having himself taken the story from 
Boccaccio's ' Decamerone ' (day iii. novel 
9). We read that "GUetta, a phisition » 
daughter of Narbon, healed the French 
king of a fistula, for reward whereof she 
demanded Beltramo, Count of Rossiglione, 
to husband. The counte, being married 
against his will, for despite fled to Florence 
and loved another. Giletta, his wife, by 
poUicie founde meanes to lye with her 
husband in place of his lover, and was 
begotten with childe of two sonnes, which 
knowen to her husband, he received her 
againe, and afterwards he lived in great 
honour and felicitie." This story, it may 
be mentioned, has of late years formed the 
basis of a comic opera called ' Gillette ' (q.v.). 
In ' All's Well ' the Countess of Rousillon, 
Parolles, and the Clown are wholly Shake- 
speare's invention. " ' All's Well that 
Ends Well' is," says Schlegel, " the old story 
of a young maiden whose love looked 
much higher than her station. . . . Love ap- 
pears here in humble guise : the wooing 
is on the woman's side ; it is striving, un- 
aided by a reciprocal inclination, to over- 
come the prejudices of birth. ... In this piece 
old age is painted with rare favour : the 
plain honesty of the king, the good-natured 
impetuosity of old Lafeu, the maternal 
indulgence of the Countess to Helena's 
passion for her son, seem all as it were 
to vie with each other in endeavours to 
overcome the arrogance of the young count. 
The style of the whole is more sententious 
than imaghiative : the glowing colours of 
fancy could not with propriety have been 
employed on such a subject. In the pas- 
sages where the humiliating rejection of the 
poor Helena is most painfully affecting, the 
cowardly Parolles steps in to the relief of 
the spectator. The mystification by which 
his pretended valour and his shameful slan- 
ders are unmasked must be ranked among 
the most comic scenes that ever were in- 
vented. They contain matter enough for 
an excellent comedy, if Shakespeare were 
not always rich even to profusion." The- 
comedy was revived at Goodman's Field, 
London, in INIarch, 1741, with Giffard as 
Bertram, Peterson as Parolles, Yates as 
Cloion, Blakes as Dumain, Mrs. Giffard 
as Helena, Mrs. Steel as the Countess, 
INIrs. Dunstall as Mariana ; at Drury Lane- 
in January, 1742, with Mills as Bertram, 
Gibber, jun., as Parolles, Macklin as Clowiiy 
and Mrs. Woffington [announced] as Helena 
[see Davies' account of the performance] ; at 
Covent Garden in April, 1746, with Woodward 
as Parolles, and Mrs. Pritchard as Helena ; 
at Drury Lane in October, 1762, with Palmer 
as Bertram, King as Parolles, Mrs. Palmer as 
Helena, and the Clown omitted ; at Covent 
Garden in November, 1762, -n-ith Shuter as the 
Cloum, and Miss Macklin as Helena; at Covent 
Garden in December, 1772, with Lewes as- 
Bertram ; at the Haymarket (altered by F. 
Pilon) in July, 1785, with Bannister, jun., as 
Parolles, EdAvin as Clown, Miss Farren as 




Helena, and Mrs. Inchbald as the Countess ; 
at Drury Lane in December, 1794, with 
Kemble as Bertram, Bannister, jun., as 
Cloion, and Mrs. Jordan as Helena; at 
Corent Garden (adapted by J. P. Kemble) 
in May, 1811, with C. Kemble as Bertram, 
Fawcett as Parolles, Munden as Lafeu, 
Blanchard as Clown, and Mrs. H. John- 
ston as Helena [Fawcett is said to have 
been hissed, and to have desired to resign 
his part] ; at Sadler's Wells in 1852, with 
Samuel Phelps as Parolles. See the ' Shake- 
speare Jahrbuch ' (vol.,vii.) and ' Shakspere's 
Library ' (pt. i.). See, also, BERTRAM ; 
Helena ; Lafeu ; Parolles. 

Allan, Charles. Actor ; has played, 
among original parts, Mr. CraJre in 'The 
Dancing Girl' (1891) and Mr. Plowden in 
'The Plowdens' (1892); Morten Kiil in 
Ibsen's ' Enemy of the People' (1893) ; also 
in the following revivals : ' The Merry 
Wives of Windsor ' (Pistol, 1889), ' Beau 
Austin' (Menteith, 1890), and 'Peril* (Dr. 
Thornton, 1892). 

AUan-a-dale, the Sherwood forester, 
figures in Fitzball'S 'Robin Hood' (q.v.). 

Allbut, John, Fanny, and Emily. 
Characters in Spencer and James's ' Return 
Ticket ' (q.v.). 

AUcash, Lord and Lady, are cha- 
racters not only in Auber's ' Fra Diavolo * 
and its English versions, but also in the bur- 
lesques of ' Fra Diavolo ' by H. J. Byron. 

Allclack, Captain. A character in 
'The Invisible Girl' (g.i'.). 

Allcraft. See Solomons, Mordie. 

AUdove, Mrs. A widow in Bayly's 
'Comfortable Service' (q.v.). 

Alldross, Roscius. An actor-manager 
in G. Colman jun.'s ' X Y Z ' (q.v.). 

" Alleg-ory on the hanks of the 
Nile, Headstrong- as an."— Siieridan, 
' The Rivals,' act iii. sc. 2 (J/rs. Malaprop). 

AUeg-re. The devoted servant of Philip 
Chabot, in Chapman and Shirley's tragedy 
of that name (q.v.). 

Allen. The name of the v^Titer to whom 
dramatic pieces entitled ' Hymen ' (1764) and 
' Hezekiah ' (1798) are ascribed. 

Allen, Andrew (Jackson). American 
actor, born 1776, died 1853 ; made his debut 
at New York in 1786, as a page in ' Romeo 
and JuUet ' ; was a member of the Chatham 
Garden Theatre Company, New York, circa 
1824, Mrs. AUen beuig also in the troupe ; 
took the name of Jackson from that of 
President Jackson, and latterly assumed 
the title of ' Facher of the American stagb ; ' 
"was more famous as a cook than as a 
player," says Laurence Hutton. See Ab^l- 
lino and Phelps's 'Players of a Century' 

Allen, Barbara. See Barbara Allen. 

Allen, Parmer. A character in Reade's 
dramatization of Tennyson's 'Dora' (q.v.). 

Allen, J. H. American actor ; member 
of the company at the National Theatre, 
New York ; in 1856 appeared as Harry 
Gordon in ' Dred.' Mrs. Allen was a member 
of the company at tlie Winter Garden 
Theatre, New York, circa 1860, playing such 
parts as that of May Fielding in ' Dot ' (q.v.). 
See Jefferson's ' Autobiography ' (1889-90). 

Allen, Mrs. Clarissa (Mrs. Lacombe 
or La Coomb). American actress, died 1851 ; 
made her debut at New York, in 1816, as 
Rosina in the opera of that name. 

Allen, "William. An actor described 
in Wright's 'Historia Histrionica' (1699) 
as " eminent," and as among those " of prin- 
cipal note at the Cockpit." He was at one 
time a major in Charles I.'s army. 

Allendale. A comedy in three acts, by 
Eden Phillpotts and G. B. Burgin, per- 
formed at the Strand Theatre on the after- 
noon of February 14, 1893. 

Allesm, Annie. Actress, born at Brad- 
ford, 1860 ; made her d^but in Glasgow in 
1874, and her first appearance in London on 
July 13, 1882. She was the original repre- 
sentative of the heroines in HamLlton'"s 

• Shadow Sceptre' (5-. I'.), Coleman's ' Wedded, 
not Wived '(5. i\), and Bernard's 'Primroses' 
(q.v.). Among her other assumptions are 
Rosaline ('Love's Labour's Lost'), Isabella 
(' Measure for Measure '), and the chief 
"legitimate " rdles. 

Alleyn, Edward. Actor, born in 
London, 1566 ; died 1626 ; appears first in 
theatrical records under the date of 1586, 
when he figures as one of the Earl of 
Worcester's players. Six years later, 
Thomas Nash is found writing of him, in 

* Pierce Penilesse,' that " not Roscius nor 
Esope, those tragedians admyred before 
Christ was borne, could ever performe more 
in action than famous Ned Allen." In 
1592 he married a stepdaughter of PhUip 
Henslowe (q.v.), whose partner he became. 
In the following year he joined Lord 
Strange's actors in a provincial tour, re- 
turning to London in 1594, and performing 
there till 1597, when he "left playing for 
a time." In 1600 he buUt, in conjunction 
with Henslowe, the Fortune Theatre (q.v.), 
which was thereupon occupied by the Lord 
Admiral's company, headed by Alleyn him- 
self. In 1605 he purchased the estate of 
Dulwich, and eight years later began the 
erection of the ^"College of God's Gift," 
which has done so much to hand his name 
down to posterity, and which was formally 
incorporated in 1619. The charity thus 
founded consisted of a master, warden, four 
fellows, six poor brothers, six poor sisters, 
and twelve poor scholars ; the endowment 
comprising, in addition to the Dulwich 
estate, property in Lambeth and Bishops- 
gate, and the Fortune Theatre, of which 
Alleyn had obtained the freehold in 1610. 
In 1623 Allevn married again, the lady 
being a daughter of the poet Donne. Of 
the last few years of his life little is known. 




It is certain that he played Baralas, Tam- 
hurlaine, and Faustus in :\Iarlo^ve's famous 
dramas, and it is thought that he played Or- 
lando in the ' Orlando Furioso ' of Greene. 
T. Heywood wTote of him, in his ' Apology 
for Actors,' as "in his time the most 
•svorthy, famous ISIaister Edward Allen." 
He also described him as " Proteus for 
shapes, and Eoscius for a tongue." Fuller 
says: "He was the Roscius of our age, so 
acting to the life that he made any part 
(especially a majestick one) to become him." 
Baker wrote of him and Eurbage as " two 
such actors as no age must ever look to 
see the like." Ben Jonson's tribute to 
AUeyn is well known : — 

" If Rome so great, and in her wisest age, 
Fear'd not to boast the glories of her stage, 
As skilful Roscius, and grave ^sop, men. 
Yet crown'd with honours, as with riches, then ; 
"Who had no less a trumpet of their n.ime 
Than Cicero, whose every breath was fame ; 
How can so great example die in me. 
That, AUe)Ti, I should pause to publish thee ? 
Who both their graces in thyself hast more 
Outstript than they did all that went before ; 
And present worth in aU dost so contract, 
As others speak, but only tliou dost act. 
Wear this renown, 'lis just, that who did give 
So many poet5 life, by one sbould live." 

See Fuller's ' Worthies ' (1662), ' Biographia 
Britannica ' (1747), Collier's ' Dramatic 
Poetry ' (1831), Collier's ' Memoirs of Edward 
Allevn ' (1841), CoUier's ' Alleyn Papers ' 
(1843), and Henslowe's ' Diary,' edit. 1845. 

Alley ne, Miss, opened the Globe 
Theatre, London, in October, 1870, with a 
revival of ' The Taming of the Shrew' (g. v.), 
in which she played Katherine. This was 
followed by the production of ' ]^cartd ' 
(g.u.), in which she enacted the heroine. 
See London Theatres (Globe). 

Allfair, Princess. A character in 
Planchi^'S 'Yellow Dwarf {q.v.). 

Ailing-ham, John Till. Dramatic 

^vriter, born about 1799-1810, the son of a wine- 
merchant, and brought up to the law ; was 
the author of the following pieces (q.v.): — 

• Fortune's Frohc ' (1799), ''Tis All a Farce ' 
(1800), ' The Marriage Promise ' (1803), ' ]\Irs. 
AYiggins' (1803), 'Hearts of Oak (1804), 

♦ The Weathercock ' (1S06), ' The Romantic 
Lover' (ISOG), and 'Who Wins?' (1808);— 
also the reputed author of ' Independence ' 
(1809) and ' Transformation ' (ISIO), both of 
which see. There is a reference to AUing- 
ham in Boaden's ' Life of John Kemble ' 
(1825). See also the ' Biographia Drama- 
tica ' (1812) and Genest's ' English Stage ' 

Ailing-ham, "William. Poet, bom 
1828, died 1SS9 ; author of ' Ashby Manor,' a 
play (q.v.). 

Allison, Miss. See Seymour, Mrs. 

Allnut. (1) Abel Allnut is the " gipsy 
farmer " in J. B. Johnstone's drama of that 
name. (2) Will Allnut is landlord of the 
Swan, in Stirling's 'John Felton' {g.v.). 
His wife is named Grace; his son, Oliver. 

Allow me to Apologize. A farce 
in one act, by J. P. Wooler {q.v.), first 
performed at the Olympic Theatre, London, 
on October 28, 1850, with G. Cooke as Sir 
Peter Pedigree, Compton as Goliah Goth, 
Mrs. Murray as Fanny Fairlove, and Miss 
Adams as Mary Myrtle. 

Allo-w me to Explain. A farce by W. 
S. Gilbert (q.v.), altered from the French, 
and first performed at the Prince of Wales's 
Theatre, London, on November 4, 1867, with 
a cast including George Honey (Cadderhy), 
S. B. Bancroft (John Smith), Miss Rose 
Massey, Miss Augusta WUton, and Miss 
Blanche Wilton. The plot turns upon Cad- 
derby's annuity of £300 a year being de- 
Eendent on the life of John Smith, whom he 
as never seen. 

Alls Perce (Alice Pierce) is mentioned 
by Henslowe as one of the stock pieces at 
the Rose Theatre, near Bankside. 

Allsides, Sir Andre-w. A character 
in J. R. Planche's ' Court Favour ' (q.v.). 

AUsorts, Alexander and Rachel. 
Characters in J. B. JOHNSTONE'S 'Gale 
Breezely ' (q.v.). 

Allspice. (1) Abigail Allspice is servant 
to Constance in Prest's ' Miser of Shore- 
ditch.' (2) Toby and Clementina Allspice are 
characters in T. Morton's ' Way to get 
Married ' (q.v.). 

Allthere, Lady, figures in Her^ian 
and Jones's 'Fay o' Fire ' (q.v.). 

All-will, Lady Amaranthe. A cha- 
racter in Palgrave Simpson's ' School for 
Coquettes ' (q.v.). 

All-worth, Lady, in Massinger's 
'New Way to pay Old Debts' (q.v.), is step- 
mother of Tom Allicorth, and eventually 
marries Lord Lovel. 

Alma Mater; or, A Cure for Co- 
quettes. A play in three acts, by DiON 
BouciCAULT (q.v.), first performed at the 
Haymarket on September 19, 1842, with 
Farren as Sir Samuel Sarcasm, H. HoU 
as Wildfire, F. Vinin^ as Gradus, Mrs. 
Glover as the Widow \ enture. Miss Charles 
as Lilly Venture, Webster as Pliant, and 
Brindal as Count Pav6. Sir Samuel pairs 
off with the Widow, and Lilly gives her hand 
to Wildfire, Sir Samuel's scapegrace son, in 
preference to Gradus, the pedantic. Pliant 
is a student, and Count Pave a swindling 
man about to-wn. The comedy was first 
played at New York in December, 1842, with 
J. Brougham as Coic7it Pav4 and Mrs. 
Brougham as Lilly. Count Pav4 was in the 
repertory of Lester Wallack. 

Almachilde; or. The Lombards. 
A play first performed at New York in 
August, 1829. 

Almacks. A female character in 
* Novelty Fair ' (q.v.). 

Almag-ro. (1) A Spanish captain in ' Pi- 
zarro' (q.v.). (2) Friend of Alasco, in She- 
ridan KnO'R'XES'S 'Rose of Arragon' (q.v.). 




Almahide. Queen of Granada, in Dry- 
DEN's ' Conquest of Granada' (,q.v.). 

Almahide and Hamet. An unacted 
tragedy by Benjamin Heath Malkin, 
printed in 1804, and founded on Dryden's 
Almanzor and Almahide ' (q.v.). 

Almanac (The). A play performed at 
Court in 1612. 

Alm^anza. A female character in Mrs. 
INCHBALD'S ' Child of Nature ' (q-V.). 

Almanzor. (1) A caliph in Mrs. 
Man LEV'S ' Alrayna ' (q.v.). (2) The hero of 
Drvden's ' Conquest of Granada ' (q.v.), in 
love with Almahide (q.v.), and the original 
of Drawcansir (q.v.) in Buckingham's ' Re- 
hearsal ' (q.v.). Sir Walter Scott says of 
him : " It is not only the actual effects of 
Almanzor' s valour which appear to us un- 
natural, but also the extraordinary prin- 
ciples and motives by which those exertions 
are giiided. . . . The extravagance of sen- 
timent is no less necessary than the ex- 
travagance of achievement to constitute a 
true knight-errant ; and such is Almanzor." 

Almanzor and Almahide ; or, The 
Conquest of Granada. See Conquest 
OF GuANADA and Almahide and Hamet. 

Almar, Georgre. Dramatic writer ; 
manager of Sadler's Wells Theatre (1833-5) ; 
author of the following, among other pieces 
for the stage :— ' Atar Gull,' ' The Battle of 
Sedgmoor,' ' Belvidere,' ' The Black Kagle,' 

♦ The Bull-Fighter,' ' The Cedar Chest,' ' The 
Charcoal-Burner,' * Cinderella,' ' Clerk of 
Clerkenwell,' ' Crossing the Line,' ' The 
Death-Light,' ' Don Quixote,' ' The Earl 
of Poverty,' 'The Evil Eye,' 'The False 
Key,' ' The Fire-Raiser,' ' Gaspardo the Gon- 
dolier,' ' The Headsman of Vienna,' ' The 
CJood-looking Fellow,' 'Jane of the Hatchet,' 

* The Knights of St. John,' ' Lucrece Borgia,' 
'The Mountain King,' ' Oliver Twist,' ' Peer- 
less Pool,' ' Pedlar's Acre,' ' Perinet Leclerc,' 
*The Robber of the Rhine,' 'The Rover's 
Bride,' ' The Shadow,' ' The Seven Sisters,' 
and 'The Tower of Nesle.' 

Almaviva, The Count and Coun- 
tess, figure in Colman's 'Spanish Barber' 
iq.v.), Holcroft's ' Folhes of the Day ' 
(q.v.), Fawcett and Terry's ' Barber of 
Seville ' (q v.), Planche's ' Two Figaros ' 
iq.v.), and jNIortimer's ' School of Intrigue' 

Almeida. A character in ' Black Beard,' 
played by Mrs. Duff. 

Almena. An opera, the words by 
Richard Rolt, the music by INIichael Arne 
and Battishill, acted at Drury Lane in 


Almeria. Daughter of the King of 
Granada in Congreve's ' ISIourning Bride ' 


Almeric, Sir. A character in Phipps'S 
' King Rene's Daughter' (q.v.). 

Alm.evda. The deposed empress in 
Reynolds's ' Renegade ' (q.v.). 

Almeyda ; or. The Rival King-s. 
A ti-agedy by Gorges Edmond Howard ; 
founded on Dr. Hawkesworth's ' Almoran 
and Hamet,' and printed 1769. 

Almeyda, Q,ueen of Granada. A 

tragedy in tive acts, by SOPHIA Lee (q.v.), 
first performed at Drury Lane on April 
20, 1790, with Mrs. Siddons as the heroine, 
Kemble as Alonzo, Wroughton as Orasmyn, 
and Palmer as Abdallah. Miss Lee borrowed 
the catastrophe from Shirley's ' Cardmal ' 

Almida. A tragedy by JIdme. Celisia, 
suggested by Voltaire's ' Tancrede,' and 
first performed at Drury Lane on January 
12, 1771, with Mrs. Barry as the heroine, 
Barry as Tancred, Reddish as ArnolpJi, and 
Aikin as Orbassan. Garrick produced this 
play because the authoress had been civil 
to him du'.'ing his Italian tour; "by the 
inimitable acting of Mrs. Barry it had a 
run of ten nights" (Genest). Doran calls 
it "perhaps the most insufferable of the 
tragedies of this time." 

Almida, the heroine of Wills and 
Herman's ' Claudian ' (q.v.), appears in 
BURNAND's burlesque, ' Paw Claudian' (q.v.), 
as Almi-i-da. 

Almidor. A character in A Beckett 
and Lemon's ' St. George and the Dragon ' 

Almig-hty Dollar (The). A melo- 
drama by W. Wood, produced at Barnsley 
on December 13, 1888. See Mighty Dollar, 

Almira. A character in Phillips's 
'Belisarius' (q.v.). 

Almirina. A mock tragedy by Arthur 
Murphy (q.v.), first performed at the Royalty 
Theatre, London, on September 10, 1787. 
"This piece was acted by one person (Mr. 
John Palmer), with the aid of wooden or 
pasteboard figures" ('Biogi'aphiaDramatica,' 
1812). The idea, however, had been used by 
Foote in his ' Tragedy-ii-la-Mode ' (q.v.). 

Almond, Mrs- Georg:e(EmmaRomer). 

English opera singer, born 1S14, died 1868 ; 
made her first appearance at Covent (warden 
in October, 1830, as Donna Clara in '. The 
Duenna' (q.v.) ; was the original representa- 
tive of Zerlina in Braham's English version 
of 'Era Diavolo' (1S31), of Eolia in Barnett's 
' Mountain Sylph ' (1834), and of Fair 
Rosamond in Barnett's opera of that name 
(1837). She married in 1636, and left the 
stage in 1852. 

Almond, Prince. Son of King Phil- 
bert, in Planche's ' Good Woman in the 
Wood' (^.r.). 

Almost a Life. A drama in six acts, 
adapted by Ettie Henderson from a novel 
by Gaboriau ; performed at the Standard 
Theatre, New York, in 1878, with Charles 
Leclercq as Ji(?t's de Bonneval; produced at 
the Court Theatre, Liverpool, on November 
6, 1882, with Eben Plympton as Jnles ; 
revived in 1889 at the People's Theatre, 



New York, with Miss Maud Granger as the 
heroine, Avisie. The life which is ahnost 
sacrificed is that of Julea, who is falsely- 
accused of murder. 

Almyna; or, The Arabian Vow. 
A tragedy by Mrs. Manley {q.v.), first per- 
formed at the Havmarket on December 16, 
1706, with Mrs. Barry as Abmjna, Mrs. 
Bracegirdle as Zoradia, Betterton as the 
Caliph Almanzor, and Wilks as Abdalla. 
The storv is taken from 'The Life of the 
Caliph Almanzor' and 'Arabian Nights.' 
The vow is that which has been made by 
Almanzor on account of the infidelity of his 
first wife— namely, that whomsoever he shall 
marry in future shall be executed on the 
morning after the espousals. 

Alone. A drama in three acts, by J. 
Palgrave Simpson (q.v.) and H. C. Meri- 
VALE (q.v.), first performed at the Court 
Theatre, London, on October 25, 1873, with 
George Rignold as Colonel Challice, andMiss 
Litton, Miss O'Berne, Chfford Cooper, Edgar 
Bruce, and Alfred Bishop in other parts. 
" A father has been estranged from his only 
daughter under a false belief in her miscon- 
duct, and has afterwards become blind. 
The daughter introduces herself under an 
assumed name into his house, as reader 
and housekeeper, and ultimately succeeds 
in convincing him of her innocence." 

Alone in London. A drama in a pro- 
logue and four acts, by Robert Buchanan 
(q.v.) and Harriett Jay (q.v.), first per- 
formed at Philadelphia, and afterwards at 
the Opera House, New York, in September, 
1885 ; first produced in London at the 
Olympic Theatre, on November 2, 1885, with 
Miss Amy Roselle as Annie Meadotvs, Miss 
Jay as Tom Chickiveed, Leonard Boyne as 
John Biddlecomb, and Herbert Standing as 
Richard RedcUffe [:\Iiss Jay afterwards 
played Annie, and Miss L. Gourlay Tom] ; 
performed in the English provinces and at 
the Surrey Theatre, London, in 1887 ; revived 
at the Princess's, London, in December, 
1891, with H. Neville as Biddlecomb, W. L. 
Abingdon as RedcUffe, Miss E. Terriss as 
Tom, and Miss M. Elmore as Annie. 

Alonso. King of Naples in ' The Tem- 
pest' (q.v.); brother of Sebastian and father 
of Ferdinand (q.v.). He figui-es also in the 
Broughs' ' Enchanted Isle' (q.v.). 

Alonzo. (1) A tragedy by John Home (q.v.), 
first performed at Drury Lane on February 27, 
1773, with Reddish in the title part, Chnch 
as Alberto, and Mrs. Barry as Ormisinda. 
Velasco, a minor character, was jjlayed by 
Jefferson " the first " (q.v.). Alonzo is secretly 
married to Ormisinda, and Alberto is (un- 
known to Alonzo) their son. Alonzo is led 
to believe his wife is unfaithful to him, and 

{)ublicly accuses her. Alberto challenges 
lim to fight ; Ormisinda rushes between the 
combatants, and then stabs herself. She 
explains everything to her husband's satis- 
faction, and then dies. Horace Walpole 
■^-•ote : " The language is as poor as the 
plot." Doran says : " Although Alonzo is 

the hero, he does not appear till the play 
is half over, and when the piece came to 
nearly that point on [March 9] Reddish was 
missing ; a riot ensued, and his part wa.s 
read by one of the Aickins. Just before the 
curtain fell the truant appeared, declaring 
that he had only just remembered that it 
was not an oratorio night. His comrades 
believed him, and for fear the public should 
be less credulous he ran from the theatre 
to Bow Street office, and there, in presence 
of Sir Sampson Wright, made oath to that 
effect. The affidavit was published the 
next day, and he thereto adds, ' that this 
unhappy mistake may not be misconstrued 
into a wilful neglect of his duty, he most 
humbly begs pardon of the public for the 
disappointment.' The public forgave him, 
and received him kindly on his next appear- 
ance." (2) A play by William Charles 
"White, performed in America. 

Alonzo. (1) A Portuguese gentleman in 
Beaumont and Fletcher's ' Custom of the 
Country ' (q.v.). A character in (2) Flet- 
cher's ' Rule a Wife, and Have a Wife ' 
(q.v.), (3) Miss Lee's 'Almeyda' (q.v.), 
and (4) Young's 'Revenge' (q.v.). (5) A 
Peruvian knight in Sheridan's ' Pizarro ' 
(q.v.) The part Avas originally represented 
by Charles Kemble, and it is recorded of 
that actor that "Sheridan ahvays thought 
well of him, particularly after his perform- 
ance of Alonzo in ' Pizarro ; ' the grateful 
author used to address him as ' my Alonzo.' " 
(6) Son of the King of Arragon, and husband 
of Olivia, in Sheridan Knowles's 'Rose 
of Arragon' (q.v.). 

Alonzo the Brave and the Fair 
Imogine. A ballad in M. G. Lewis's 
romance of 'The Monk' (1795), on which 
have been founded several dramatic pieces : 
(1) ' Alonzo and Imogine ; or. The Bridal 
Spectre : ' a pantomimic romance by T. 
DiBDiN (q.v.), performed at Covent Garden 
on June 10, 1801. (2) ' Alonzo the Brave : ' 
a play performed at the Coburg in 1826. 

(3) ' Alonzo the Brave : ' a pantomime pro- 
duced at the Princess's at Christmas, 1850. 

(4) ' Alonzo the Brave :' a pantomime pro- 
duced at the City of London Theatre in 
1861. (5) ' Alonzo the Brave and the Fair 
Imogine ; or, The Spectre Bride : ' a 
"legendary romantic melodrama" by H. 
M. MiLNER (q.v.). (6) ' Alonzo the Brave ; 
or, Faust and the Fair Imogine : ' a bur- 
lesque by F, C. BURNAND (q.v.), first per- 
formed by the A. D. C, Cambridge, in 1857. 
Among the characters, besides those men- 
tioned in the title, are Mephistopheles 
(originally played by the author), Sybel, 
Barco, Byto, Pipo de Clayo, and Dame. 
Martha. In this travesty Imogine takes 
the place of Marguerite in the affections of 
Faust. " For a while, in the absence of 
Alonzo, she yields to the snares of the 
tempter ; but in the end her first sweetheart 
appears to her as his own ghost, her incon- 
stancy is forgiven, and Faust retires." (7) 
' Alonzo and Imogene ; or. The Dad, the Lad, 
the Lord, and the Lass : ' a burlesque by W. 
W. Bird, Her Majesty's Theatre, Rich- 




fmond, April 17, 1SG9. (8) ' Alonzo ye Brave, 
and ye Fayre Imogene : ' burlesque by S. M. 
IIaRRISOX. Alexandra, Liverpool, April 2, 
1S76. (9) ' Alonzo the Brave : ' a burJesque 
by H. T. Craven (q.v.}. 

Alp. The " dumb brigand " in the play 
of that name (q.v.). 

Alpenkonig-, Der. See King of the 

Alphabet. A bookseller in Miller's 

* Art and Nature ' (q.v.). 

Alpheus. A river deity in W. Brough's 

• Endymion ' (q.v.). 

Alphonse, Monsieur. See Mon- 
sieur Alpho.nse. 

Alphonse. (1) King of Naples in Beau- 
mont and Fletcher's ' A Wife for a IMonth ' 
(q.v.). (2) Father of Alinda (q.v.) in Beau- 
mont and Fletcher's ' Pilgrim ' (q.v.). (3) 
A prince in Congreve's ' Mourning Bride' 
(q.v.), married to Almeria (q.v.). 

Alphonso, King- of Naples. A tra- 
gedy by G. Powell, performed at the Theatre 
Koyal in 1691, with Bowman as Alphonso^ 
Mrs. Bracegirdle as Urania, Powell as Fer- 
dinand, and Mountfort as Cesario. Alphonso 
desires his daughter, Urania, to marry Fer- 
dinand, Prince of Thessaly. But Urania 
is already privately contracted to Cesario, 
general of Naples. The lovers escape, but are 
captured. Ferdinand and Cc.<!ario fight, and 
are mortally wounded; and Urania kills 
lierself. Powell was indebted in a few de- 
tails to Shirley's ' Young Admiral' (q.v.). 

Alphonsus, Emperor of Germany. 
A tragedy ascribed to George Chapman 
(q.v.), acted at Blackfriars in 1636, and 
printed in 1654. " This play," says an 
authority, ''seems to have been WTitten in 
honour of the English nation, in the person 
of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, son to King 
John, and brother to Henry III., who was 
chosen King of the Romans in 1257, at the 
.same time that Alphonsus, the tenth King 
of Castile, was chosen by other electors." 
"May not this," says Fleay, "be the play 
called by Henslow ' Harry of Cornwell ' ? . . . 
The attribution of its authorship by Moseley 
to Chapman in 1654, has not the slightest 
x'alue. . . . Wood and Winstanley, with 
much greater probability, assign it to Peele. 
Jt is a Machiavellian revenge-play, and has 
much German in it." 

Alphonsus, King- of Arrag-on, The 
Comical History of. A comedv by 
Robert Greene (q.v.), printed in 1599. 
Alphonsus, Pi-ince of Arragon, is in exile, 
but, while assisting the Kinfj of Naples 
against the usurper of his father's crown, 
so distinguishes himself that the Einr/ pro- 
mises to grant him anything. He asks for 
and obtains the throne of Arragon, but 
afterwards resigns it in order to fight with 
Sultan Amiirack for the sovereignty of the 
Mahometan empire. He defeats Amurack, 
and, marrying his daughter lp)higina, after- 
wards becomes Sultan. Among the cha- 

racters introduced is Medea, who works 
enchantments, raising the ghost of Homer's 
Calchas. That this was one of Greene's 
earliest plays is, says Fleay, evident. "A 
second part was intended, but not pro- 

Alpine Maid (The). A vaudeville by 
Benjamin Webster (q.v), music by Lee, 
first performed at New York in February, 
1841, with Chippendale as Swig and Mrs. 
Maeder as Rosette. 

Alpine Roses. A romantic play by 
Hjalmar H. Boyesen, first performed at 
the Madison Square Theatre, New York, on 
January 31, 1SS4, with a cast including 
Miss G. Cayvan. Miss M. Burroughs, Mrs. 
T. Whiffen, G. Clarke, T. Whiffen, W. J. Le 
Moyne, and R. Mansfield. 

Alps (The). See Loyal Loaers. 

AJraschid, Haroun, is the " aethiop " 
in DiMOND's play of that name (q.v.). 
Alraschid is also one of the per.wnce in 
W. Brough's 'Caliph of Bagdad' (q.v.), 
H. M. MiLNER's 'Barmecide' (q.v.), and R. 
Reece's ' Perfect Love ' (q.v.). See Haroun 

Alsatia. See Squire of Alsatia, The. 

AlsatTce. A cook in J. Poole's 'My 
Wife !— What Wife ?' (q.v.). 

Alscrip, Miss. " The heiress " in Bur- 
GOYNE's comedy of that name (q.v.). 

Alsop, Mrs. Actress ; eldest daughter 
of Mrs. Jordan (q.v.) ; christened Frances ; 
and maiTied to a Mr. Alsop, of the Ordnance 
Office. Eventually she went on the stage, 
and in 1815 appeared at Covent Garden as 
Rosalind. Hazlitt then AATote of her : "Mrs. 
Alsop is a very nice little woman, who acts 
her part very sensibly and cleverly, and 
with a certain degree of arch humour, but 
' no more like her mother than we to Her- 
cules.' When we say this, we mean no dis- 
paragement to this lady's talents, who is a 
real acquisition to the stage in correct and 
chaste acting. . . . Her voice is clear and 
articulate, but not rich or flowing. In per- 
son she is small, and her face is not prepos- 
sessing. Her delivery of the speeches was 
correct and excellent as far as it went, but 
vrithout much richness or power. Lively 
good sense is Avhat she really possesses" 
(' A View of the p]nglish Stage '). Mrs. 
Alsop made her first appearance in America 
at New York in November, 1820, as Donna 
Violante in 'The Wonder' (q.v.) and Maria 
in 'The Actress of AU Work' (q.v.). She 
died in 1821. 

Altamira. A tragedy by Benjamin 
Victor (q.v.), intended for representation in 
1753 ; revised in 1766, and printed in 1776. It 
was founded mainly on an episode in Italian 
history, with hints from the ' Philander and 
Silvia' of Mrs. Manley. 

Altamont. (1) A young Genoese lord in 
RowE's 'Fair Penitent' (q.v.), married to 
Calista (q.v.). (2) A character in ' Forty and 
Yilty' (q.v.). 




Altar of Reveng-e (The). See Nick 
OF THE Woods. 

Altemast. See Altemira. 

Altemira. Atragedvinrliyme.byROGEU, 
Boyle, Earl of Orrery, acted in Lincoln's 
Inn Fields in 1702, witli Betterton as Clori- 
mon, Booth as Lycidor, Mrs. Bowman as 
Candace (Altemast), and Mrs. Barry as the 
heroine, with whom the other three are in 
love. Eventually Clorlmon kills Altemast, 
anfrl resigns Altemira to Lycidor. In the 
course of the play one of the characters 

" Whatever crimes are acted for a crown. 
The gods forgive, when once that crown's put on." 

We have also the following couplet :— 

"Let 'em disguise their weakness .is the.v can, 
No woman yet e'er doated on one man." 

Altemire, aueen. A character in 
Gilbert's 'Palace of Truth ' (^.r.). 
Altenterg-, The Harp of. See Harp 


Altenburg-, Prince of. Father of 
Adrian in Dimond's 'Adrian and Orilla' 

Alternative (The). A comedy acted 
in Dublin in 1706. 

Alterville, Captain. A character in 
G. A. A Beckett's ' Pascal Bruno ' {q.v.). 

Altophil, Duke. A character in ' The 
Unfortunate Lovers' iq.v.). 

Altorf . A tragedy by Frances Wright 
{q.v.), first performed at New York in Feb- 
ruary, 1819, with Wallack in the title part. 
Rosina, in this piece, was one of the roles of 
Mrs. J. R. DufC. 

Altrades, Jack. A character in E. 
Fitzball's ' Negro of Wapphig ' (q.v.'). 

Alucius. A "history ""shewed at White- 
hall" in 1579 "by the children of Her 
Majestie's Chappell." 

Alnredus sive Alfredus. See Alfred 
the Great, 

Alvar. A character in Coleridge's 
'Remorse' (q-v.). Sir G. Beaumont is said 
to have been the " original " of it. 

Alvar o. The lover of Agnes in Mrs. 
Cockburn's 'Agnes de Castro' (q.v.). 

Alvimar, Bertrand. A character in 
OxENFORD and H. Wiga.n's ' A Life Chase' 


Always Intended. A comedy in one 
act, by Horace Wigan (q.v.), first performed 
at the' Olympic Theatre, London, on April 3, 
1865, with the author as Mr. Project, Mac- 
lean as Muddle, E. F. Edgar as Charles 
Constant, and Miss Sheridan as Mrs. Mark- 
ivtll ; revived at the Lyceum Theatre, 
London, in October, 18SS, with Frankau as 
Project and ZNIiss Sheridan as Mrs. Markicell. 

Alyface, Annot. One of the work- 
girls in 'Ralph Roister Doister' (q.v.). 

Alzira; or, The Spanish Insult 

Resented. A tragedy by Aaron Hill (7. r.), 
adapted from Voltaire, and acted at Lin- 
coin's Inn Fields on June 18, 1736, with Mrs. 
Giffard in the title part, Wright as Don 
Carlos, and Johnson as Zamnr. Alzira is an 
Indian girl, converted to Christianity, and 
married to Don Carlos, governor of Peru. 
But she has been in love with Zamor, an 
Indian sovereign, and, when he appears as a 
captive, procures his freedom. He stabs 
Don Carlos, who, however, pardons him, and 
resigns Alzira to him. Zamor thereupon 
becomes a Christian. Voltaire's ' Alzire ' 
was also translated by Dr. Franklin and 
William SomervUle. 

Alzuma . A tragedy by Arthur Murphy 
(q.v.), first performed at Covent Garden on 
February 23, 1773, with Smith in the title 
part, Bensley as Don Carlos, Hull as Pizarro, 
Mrs. Hartley as Orellana, and Miss Miller 
as Orazia. Alzuma and Orellana are the 
children of Orazia by the last inca of Peru. 
Orazia is now the wife of Pizarro, the 
conqueror of Peru, who, ignorant of Al- 
zinna's identity, sentences him to death. 
Alzuma stabs Pizarro, unintentionally kill- 
ing Orazia at the same time. He is, how- 
ever, pardoned by the conqueror's son, Don 
Carlos, who is in love with Orellana. The 
tragedy was played at New York in ISOO, 
under the title of ' Peru Revenged.' 

Amabel, Prince. See Prince Amabel. 

Amadan (The). A drama in three acts, 
by Dion Boucicault (q.v.), produced at 
the Theatre Royal, Richmond, Surrey, on 
January 29, 1SS3 ; and in New York, at the 
Star Theatre, in April, 1883, with a cast 
including the author, D. G. Boucicault, W. 
Herbert, and iliss Sadie Martinot. 

Amadi, Madame [Annie Tremaine]. 
Actress and vocalist; was in the original 
casts of Gilberts ' Robert the Devil ' (1868), 
Thompson's ' Columbus' (1869), Sala's 'Wat 
Tyler ^ (1869), Gilbert's 'Thespis' (1871), 
etc. Of late years she has sustained in 
London the following original parts : — 
Mdme. Dubois in 'Our Diva' (18S6), Donna 
Tralara in ' Mynheer Jan ' (1887), La Cha- 
noinesse in 'Captain Therese' (1890), Dame 
Durden in ' Maid Marian' (1891), Mrs. Tun- 
nard in 'The Planter' (1891), and Pamela 
Patch in 'The Golden Web' (1893). She 
also played Lady Alicia in 'Marjorie* in 
1890, and Lady Allcash in ' Era Diavolo ' in 

Amalasont, Q,ueen of the G-oths. 
An unpublished tragedy by John Hughes 
(q.v.), -written in 1696. 

Amalia, Miss. Actress ; made her 
London debut at the Surrey Theatre in 1869 ; 
was in the original casts of Byron's ' Little 
Dr. Faust' (1877), Byron's ' II Sonnambulo ' 
(1878), Merivale's 'Lady of Lvons Married 
and Settled' (1S7S), Byron's 'Uncle' (1878), 
Bvron's ' Handsome Hernani' (1879), Byron's 
'Pretty Esmeralda' (1879), Burnand's'' Bal- 
loonacy ' (1879), ' Cupid' (1880), Reece's ' Half- 
Crown' Diamonds ' (ISSO). Clarke's ' Adam- 
less Eden (1882), Herve's 'La Cosaque* 




(1884), C. R.^ Turner's ' Handsome is that 
Handsome does ' (1888), etc. ; was in the 
revivals of ' Brighton ' and ' Dombey and 
Son ' in 1880 ; appeared in Drury Lane 
pantomime in 1873, 1874, ISSl. 

Amana. A dramatic poem by Mrs. 
Elizabeth Griffith, printed in 1764. 

Amanda. (1) A character in Gibber's 
•Love's Last Shift' (q.v.). She appears 
again (2) in Vanbrugh's 'Relapse' (q.v.), 
and is "interesting," says Hazlitt, "espe- 
cially in the momentary wavering and quick 
recovery of her virtue." See Worthy. She 
figures also (3) in Sheridan's 'Trip to 
Scarborough ' (q.v.). (4) A character in 
Robertson's ' Play' (q.v.). See Amandus. 

Araandus and Amanda are characters 
in Desprez and Cellier's ' Carp ' (q.v.). 

Amantha. Daughter of Colonel Wal- 
iinghaiii in Shee's ' Alasco ' (q.v.). A character in (1) Mrs. 
Inchbald's ' Child of Nature ' (q.v.), and 
(2) C. J. Mathews' 'Little Toddlekins' 
iq.v.). (3) The Lady Amanthis figures in 
Gilbert's 'Broken Hearts' (q.v.). 

Amanuensis (The). A play by John 
Lynd, performed in New York in 1888. 

Amaranta. Wife of Bavtolus (q.v.), and 
beloved by Leandro (q.v.), in Beauiniont and 
Fletcher's ' Spanish Curate' (7. •«.). 

Amaranth, Iiady. The Quaker 
heroine of O'Keefe's ' Wild Oats' (q.v.). 

Amaranthe. A character in the Eng- 
lish versions of ' La Fille de Madame Angot ' 

Amarillis. A shepherdess in Flet- 
cher's 'Faithful Shepherd' (q.v.), in love 
with Perigot (q.v.), whom she endeavours in 
vain to lure from Amoret (q.v.). 

Amaryllis. A character in Bucking- 
ham's ' Rehearsal' (q.v.). 

Amasis, King- of Eg-ypt. A tragedy 
by Charles Marsh (q.v.), first performed 
(Genest says) at Covent Garden on August 
22, 1738. The plot is wholly fictitious, being 
in no way indebted to the narrative of 

Amateur Acting-. It would be diffi- 
cult, if not impos.sible, to indicate the origin 
of amateur acting. In England, certainly, 
the first actors — i.e. the monks who per- 
formed in the ' mysteries' (q.v.) and ' miracle- 
plays ' (q.v.)— were, in every sense, amateurs. 
And the example tlaus set in the church 
was by-and-by followed in the schools, at 
the universities, and at Court. It is Avell 
known that the first English comedy, ' Ralph 
Roister Doister' (q.v.), was written by 
Nicholas Udall, a master at Eton, for 
representation, in private, by his scholars. 
An early amateur performance at Cam- 
bridge—about 1616— has quite an historical 
interest, owing to the presence among the 
actors of no less a personage than voung 
Oliver Cromwell. (See Tactus.) Under 

Elizabeth and the two first Stuarts, the 
masque (q.v.) came into vogue among 
royalty and the aristocracy, and to the 
fondness for this sort of work we owe 
Milton's 'Comus' (q.v), written for pro- 
duction at Ludlow Castle in 1634, the 
" cast " including the sons and daughter of 
the Earl of Bridgewater. Queen Henrietta 
Maria promoted many entertainments of 
the kind, and we read later of the Princess 
(afterwards Queen) Anne being " coached" 
for a performance of Lee's ' Mithridates ' 
(q.v.) by Joseph Ashbury (q.v.), the manager 
and actor. It is also recorded of the princess 
that she took part, in 1675, in a representa- 
tion of Crowne's ' Calisto ' (q.v.). In 174& 
' Cato ' (q.v.) was played at Leicester House 
by the children of the Prince of Wales, 
assisted by young members of the nobHity. 
Prince Georjge, afterwards George III., was 
Fortius ; Prince Edward, Julia ; the Prin- 
cess Augusta, Marcia ; and the Princes.? 
Elizabeth, Lucia. Two years later ' Othello ' 
was given at Drury Lane Theatre by a 
company of amateurs, including Sir Francis 
Delaval (q.v.) and certain of his relatives. 
This was a highly " fashionable " affair, the 
patronage being very distinguished, and 
the expenses running to about £1000. In 
1773 ' Venice Preserved ' was performed at 
Kelmarsh, the seat of Mr. Hanbury, and 
among those who appeared was Mr. David 
Garrick, the nephew of the famous actor, as 
well as Mr. Cradock (q.v.), a noted amateur 
of the time. But surely the most magnificent 
amateur of those days was the Earl of Barry- 
more (q.v.), who, be.sides being an actor of 
apparently varied ability, built himself a 
tiieatre at his seat in Berkshire, and there 
superintended a succession of dramatic 
representations. In these cases the profes- 
sional was mingled Avith the amateur ele- 
ment, some of the leading actors of the day 
beinij engaged by his lordship. There was 
another private theatre at Brandenburgh 
House, Hammersmith, and here the Mar- 
gravine of Anspach (q.v.) made numerous 
appearances both as author and as actress. 
Worthy to rank with the doings at Lord 
Barrymore's were those which took place 
between 1770 and 1808, at Wynnstay, the 
seat of Sir W. W. Wynn. These, we are 
told, "were on a scale of great complete- 
ness," and included such serious adventures 
as certain Elizabethan tragedies. Among 
notable amateurs at the beginning of the 
century were Sir Thomas Lawrence, Captain 
Caulfield (who appeared at Covent Garden 
in 1802), and the remarkable ' Romeo * 
Coates (q.v.). The last-named made his 
debut in London in 1811, and had the dis- 
tinction of being burlesqued by the elder 
Mathews (q.v.). Captain Hicks, Captain 
Tuckett, and a disreputable journahst 
named Gregory, all had, as amateurs, a 
certain amount of notoriety in their day, 
and the first-named was even once seen at 
Covent Garden (about 1837). Probably the 
most distinguished company of amateurs 
ever seen in^Engiand was that organized by 
Charles Dickens (q.v.) for performances in 
aid of the proposed Guild of Literature and 



Art. The doings of this company are 
narrated, more or less fully, in the biography 
and correspondence of Dickens, -vrho was 
himself the best amateur actor of his day. 
He was supported by Mark Lemon, John 
Forster, and other well-known persons, for 
whom the first Lord Lytton •oTote ' Not so 
Bad as we Seem' (q'v.), and who were 
especially successful in ' The Frozen Deep ' 
(g.r.) and ' The Light-House ' (q-v.). Notable 
amateur performances were those which 
took place in Manchester in 1S79, when 
Miss Helen Faucit (q.v.) and Miss Wallis 
iq.v.) were supported (in ' As You Like It ') 
by a number of non-professionals, including 
Tom Taylor, Herman Merivale, Hon. Lewis 
Wingfleid, and others. Still more recently 
there have been representations in London 
of 'The Tale of Troy,' dramatized from 
Homer, and of 'The Story of Orestes,' 
adapted from .Fschylus ; Avhilst the company 
headed by Lady Archibald Campbell has 
made popular some outdoor performances 
of 'The Faithful Shepherdess' (q.v.) and 
of scenes in 'As You Like It' {q.v.) and 
' Becket ' (q.v.). Among other distinguished 
amateurs of our own time have been Sir 
Charles Young (q.v.) and Lady Monckton 
Cq.v.), the latter of whom joined the regular 
stage in 1SS6. It is impos'sible even to men- 
tion the names of the amateur clubs which 
have come to the front so prominently of 
recent years. Of these, one of the most 
notable' is that of the Old Stagers, which 
(with the assistance of professional ac- 
tresses) has performed so many pleasant 
histrionic feats at Canterbury year by year. 
Few English regiments have been without 
their histrionic ambitions, and specially 
praiseworthy have been the efforts, from 
time to time, of the Brigade of Guards, whose 
productions of burlesque have always been 
very interesting. Of University "amateur 
theatricals" something is said under the 
heads of Cambridge and Oxford. See 
Dutton Cook's ' On the Stage ' (1SS3) and 
W. G. Elliott's ' Amateur Clubs and Actors ' 

Amateur Pantomime Rehearsal 
(An). See Pantomime Rehearsal, A. 

Amateurs and Actors. A musical 
farce by R. B. Peake (q.v.), first performed 
at the Lyceum Theatre, London, on August 
29, 1818,' with Harley as Buttle, Wrench as 
Winrf, Bartley as Elderberry, Wilkinson as 
Mufflncap, Pearman as Dulcet, and Miss 
Love as Mary Hardacre ; played at New 
York in September, 1S23, with Booth as 
Mvffincap; and revived in London in 1S27 
with Keeley as Mu£incap. 

Amazaide. A character in ' Zembucca,' 
played by Mrs. Duff (q.v.). 

Amazon Q,ueen (The); or, The 
Amours of Thalestris and Alex- 
ander the Great. A tragi-comedy in 
heroic verse, by John Weston ; printed in 
1667. The stoiy is from Quintus Curtius 
and Strabo. 

Amazons (The). (1) The title of masks 

performed respectively in 1579 and in 1618. 
(2) A " farcical romance," by A. W. Pinero 
(q.v.), first performed at the Court Theatre, 
London, on March 7, 1S93, with a cast in- 
cluding Miss R. Leclercq, Miss Lily Han- 
bury, Miss E. Terriss, Miss P. Browne, 
Weedon Grossmith, F. Kerr, and W. G. 
Elliott ; produced at the Lyceum, New York, 
in February, 1894. 

Ambassador, (The). A comedy, in 
four acts, by John Oliver Hobbes (Mrs. 
Craigie), St. James's Theatre, London, June 

2, 1898, with G. Alexander, F. Terry, H. B. 
Irving, H. V. Esmond, Miss V. Vanbrugh, 
Miss Fay Davis, in the cast. 

Ambassador from Below (An). See 

Ambassador's Lady (The); or, 
The Rose and the Rina:. A romantic 
dramaby Thomas EGERT0NWiLKS(3.r.), first 
performed at the Strand Theatre on August 

3, 1S43, with Mrs. Stirling in the title part 
(Lady Elizabeth Bubb). 

Ambassadress (The). (1) A comic 
opera iu^ three acts, words by Gilbert 
Abbott A Beckett. (g'.r.), music by Auber ; 
first performed at the St. James's Theatre, 
London, in 1S38, with Braham as Fortunatus, 
Miss Rahiforth as Henriette, and Mdme. Sala 
as Mdme. Barneck. Auber's opera, with 
libretto by George Loder, was performed 
in New York in January, 1851. (2) An opera, 
libretto by R. Reece (q.v.), performed at 
St. George's HaU, London, in December, 

Amber Box (The). A comic opera, 
printed in 1800. 

Amber Heart (The). A " poetical 
fancy" in three acts, by A. C. Calmour 
(q. v.), first performed at the Lyceum Theatre, 
London, on the afternoon of July 7, 1887, 
with iliss Ellen Terry as Ellaline, Beerbohm 
Tree as Silvio, E. S. Willard as Coranto, Miss 
C. Grahame as Mirabelle, and other roles by 
Miss M. A. Giffard, Miss H. Forsyth, H. 
Kerable, A. Beaumont, and F. Tyars ; revived 
at the same theatre in ^lay, 1888, with Miss 
Terry in her original part, G. Alexander as 
Silvio, H. Vezin as Coranto, Mrs. Macklin as 
Mirabelle, etc. 

Amber "Witch (The). (1) A drama 
produced at the City of London Theatre at 
Easter, 1851, with a cast including E. F. 
Saville, W. Searle, and Mrs. E. F SavUle. 
(2) An opera, adapted by H. F. Chorley 
(q.v.) from a German novel by Meinhold, 
music by AV. Vincent Wallace, first per- 
formed at Her ^Majesty's Theatre, London, 
on Februarj- 28, 1861, with Mdme. Lemmens- 
Shenington as Mary, J. Sims Reeves as 
Count Eudiger, and Santley, Patey, and 
ZVIiss Huddart in other parts. (3) A drama 
by Henry Sayile, performed at the Victoria 
Theatre, London, in 1862. 

Ambient, Mark. Actor and dra- 
matic writer ; part-author of ' Christina ' 
(q.v.), 'The Anonymous Letter' (q.v.), ' O, 



Susannah,' 'A Little Ray of Sunshine,' 
'A Snug Little Kingdom' (1903); was a 
member of the Dramatic Students' Society 
(q.v.), and appeared in several of their 

Ambig-uous Lover (The). A farce 
by Miss Sheridan, founded on Patrats 
' Heureuse Erreur ' (q-v.), and acted at Crow 
Street Theatre, Dublin, in 1781. 

Ambition; or, Marie Mig-not. A 
drama in three acts, by Thos. Mayhew, 
first performed at the Haymarket on Sep- 
tember 13, 1830, with Miss F. H. Kelly as 
the heroine, and other characters by Vining, 
W. Farren, and Mrs. Glover. (2) ' Ambition; 
or, The Throne and the Tomb : ' a play pro- 
duced at New York in 18.58, with Clarance 
Holt as the Ea)-l of Derby and Mrs. Holt 
as Catherine Iloicard (q.v.). (3) ' Ambition : ' 
drama by H. L. Walford, St. George's Hall, 
London, December 14, 1870. 

"Ambition is a vulture vile."— 
Daniel, 'Cleopatra'— 

" That feeils upon the heart of pride. 
And finds no rest when all is tried." 

For " Ambition should be made of sterner 
stuff," see 'Julius Caesar,' act iii. sc. 2 

Ambitious Slave (The) ; or, A 
Generous Revenge. A tragedy by El- 
KANAii Settle (q.v.), acted at the Theatre 
Royal, and printed in 1694. 

Ambitious Statesman (The); or, 
The Lioyal Favourite. A tragedy by 
J. Crowne (q.v.), performed at the Theatre 
Royal in 1679, and printed in that year. The 
ambitious statesman is the Constable of 
France, and the loyal favourite his son, the 
Duke of Venddme. Venddme is engaged to 
Louize de Guise, but the Constable contrives 
to make Louize think her lover indifferent to 
her, and, in pique, she marries the Daiqyhin. 
Later, Louize and Vend(jme come to an 
understanding, and the Dauphin is led to 
believe the worst of Vendoyne. They fight ; 
Louize dies ; Veriddme dies also, on the rack ; 
and the Constable is imprisoned. In the 
course of the play Venddme says— 

" Princes are sacred : ... no sacrilege is 
Greater, than when a rebel with his sword 
Dares cut the hand of Heaven from Kings' commissions." 

In the epilogue, spoken by Haines, the 
speaker is made to say — 

" I've three pl.agiies no flesh and blood can bear ; 
I am a Poet, married, and a Player." 

Ambitious Stepmother (The). A 
tragedy by Nicholas Rowe (q.v.), acted at 
Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1700, and printed in 
that year. The original cast included Mrs. 
Barry as the heroine, Artemisa ; Booth as 
Artaban, her son ; Betterton as Memnon ; 
Verbruggen as Artaxerxes ; and INIrs. Brace- 
girdle as Amestris (daughter of Memnon and 
>nfe of Artaxerxes). Artaxerxes is the heir 
to the throne of Persia, but Artemisa, the 
king's second wife, desires her son to suc- 
ceed ; and, in the end, he does so, Artaxerxes 
committing suicide on the death of his wife. 

Ambitious "Widow (The). A "comic 
entertainment" by William Woty, sug- 
gested by an incident in Johnston's ' Chry- 
sal,' and printed in ' Poetical Amusements ' 

Amble. An usher in Massinger's 'A 
New Way to pay Old Debts' (q.v.). 

Amboyna; or, The Cruelties of 
the Dutch to the English Mer- 
chants. A tragedy by John Dryden 
(q.v.), acted at " the Theatre Royal " in 1673, 
and printed in that year. The original cast 
included Hart as Toiverson, INIohun as 
Beaumont, Kynaston as Harman, jun., Mrs. 
Marshall as Ysabinda, and Jlrs. Cory as an 
English woman. The piece is in five acts, 
and "though printed originally in prose, 
abounds in a kind of bastard blank verse, 
which the author does not seem to have 
thought worth printing as such." It is 
based on the barbarities practised by the 
Dutch upon the English settlers at Am- 
boyna, in 1622. In 1672 the British Govern- 
ment declared war against the Dutch, and 
it was with the view of making the campaign 
popular in England that Dryden revived the 
story of the Amboyna massacre. The play 
follows the actual facts closely, so far as the 
background of the plot is concerned. It 
was conceived and Avritten in a month. 
Ysabinda is an Indian lady, betrothed to 
Captain Toiverson. The story of her rape is 
said by Langbaine to have been borrowed 
from a novel by Cinthio Giraldi. Beaumont 
is an English merchant ; Harman, jun., the 
son of the Dutch governor. Sir Walter Scott 
described the piece as "beneath criticism," 
and " the worst production Dryden ever 

Ambroise, Michael. " The miller of 
Derwent Water," in Fitzball's drama of 
that name (q.v.). 

Ambrose Germaine. A play by John 
Brougham (q.v,), first performed at Niblo's 
Garden, New York. 

Ambrose Gwinnett ; or, A Seaside 
Story. A melodrama in three acts, by 
Douglas Jerrold (q.v.), first performed 
at the Coburg Theatre, London, with 
Cobham in the title part, Davidge as Ned 
Grayling, and Miss Watson as Lucy Fair- 
love ; published in 1828 ; revived at New 
York in July, 1829, with Barry as Ambrose, 
Hilson as Ned Grayling, Placide as Label, 
and Mrs. Hilson as Lucy ; also at Boston, 
U.S.A., in the same year, with Mrs. J. R. 
Duff as Lucy. Reef, in this piece, was in the 
repertory of Jefferson " the third " (q.v.). 

Ambrose, Miss. A comedy actress, 
well known on the Dublin stage about 
1765-70. One of her parts was Charlotte in 
IMacklin's 'Love k la Jfode' (q.v.). See 
Malcolm's ' Anecdotes of the IManners and 
Customs of London,' ii. 247. 

Ambs-ace, Lady. A character in 
Odingsell's 'Bath Unmasked' (q.v.). 

Ambuscade. A character in M. P. 
Andrews' ' Fire and Water' (q.v.). 




Amcotts, Vincent. Dramatist, died 
November, 18S1 ; author of ' Adonis Van- 
quished/ a comedy ; ' The Love Tests,' 
operetta (1870); 'Ariadne,' 'Fair Helen,' 
' Lalla Rookh,' ' Lurline,' extravaganzas ; 
and ' Poisoned,' farce ; part author of 
'Pentheus,' etc., and at one time manager 
of the Olympic Theatre, London. 

Amelia, in O'Keefe's ' Wild Oats ' (q.v.), 
is the wife of Sir George Thunder {q.v.). 
The name of a character in (2) W. H. 
Arnold's 'Woodman's Hut' (_q.v.), (3) J. 
B. BUCKSTOXE'S 'King of the Alps' (q.v.), 
(4) 'Incog.' (q.v.), and (5) 'The Robbers' 

Amelia. A " serious " opera by Henry 
Carey (q.v.), set to music "in the Italian 
manner " by J. F. Lampe, and performed at 
the French Theatre in the Hay market, 
London, in 1732. Susanna Maria Arne ap- 
peared in the piece. See Summer's Tale. 

Amelrosa. Daughter of Alfonso, King 
of Castile, in M. G. LEWIS'S play of that 
name (q.v.). 

Amends for Ladies, with the 
Merry Pranks of Moll Cut-purse ; 
or, The Humours of Roaring-. A 
comedy by Nathaniel Field (q.v.), acted 
at Blackfriars, both by Prince Charles's and 
by the Lady Elizabeth's " servants." _ Ac- 
cording to Langbaine, this play was written 
as a species of apology for the lack of 
gallantry towards the fair sex shown in 
Field's 'A Woman's a Weathercock' (q.v.). 
It was acted apparently before November, 
1611, and first printed in 1618 ; there is also 
an edition of 1639. The main plot concerns 
the love affairs of Tngen and Ladi/ Honor. 
■ The lady's brother, Lord Proudly, desires her 
to marry an old count ; but, by a stratagem, 
she contrives to espouse her lover. There 
are two comic underplots, between Lady 
Perfect and her husband, and between Boidd 
and a widoAv. Moll Cut-purse is one of the 
personce, but has little to say or do. The 
''roarers " figure in the third act. 

Amens, Dr. A character in F. A. Mar- 
: SHALL'S ' INIad as a Hatter ' (q.v.). 

America. A " mask" in one act, by J. 
H. Barber, written in 1805, but not acted. 

America, Young. See Young 

America Discovered ; or, Tam- 
many the Indian Chief. An opera by 
Mrs. Hatton, revived at New York in 1795, 
with Hallam as Columbics. 

American (An). A play by A. R. 
Haven, the hero of which is Abraham 
Lincoln (represented by Sol. Smith Russell). 

American (The). (1) An adaptation by 
AUGUSTIN DALY(g.v.)of Dumas./?^5"L'Etran- 
ghve,' produced in America in 1874, with C. 
F. Co^hlan, Miss F. Davenport, and -\Iiss 
Jeffreys Lewis in the chief parts. (2) A 
play in three acts, by Joseph Derrick, 
first performed at the Alexandra Palace, 
June 19, 1882. (3) A play in three acts, by 

G. M. Wood, first performed at the Gaiety 
Theatre, Glasgow, April 16, 1883. (4) A 
play in four acts, by Henry James, first 
performed at the Winter Gardens, South- 
port, on January 3, 1891 ; first performed 
in London at the Opera Comique, on 
September 26, 1891, with E. Compton as 
Christopher Hewman (the American), Miss 
E. Robins as Claire (Comtesse de Cintre), 
Miss Bateman (Mrs. Crowe) as the Marquise 
de Bellegarde, Miss L. Moodie as Mrs. Beard, 
Miss A. DairoUes as Noemie, etc. 

Araerican, The Pair. See Fair 

American Bride (An). A comedy- 
drama in four acts, by Sir William Young 
and Maurice Noel, first performed at the 
Lyric Theatre, London, on the afternoon of 
May 5, 1892, with Miss Janette Steer as the 
heroine (Stella Durand) ; revived' at Terry's 
Theatre in October, 1893. 

American Captives (The) ; or, The 
Siege of Tripoli. A play by James Elli- 
son, acted at Boston, U.S.A., in 1812. 

American Claimant (The). A play 
by W. D. Howells (q.v.), produced in 
America in 1SS7. 

American Cousin, Our. See Our 
American Cousin, 

American Grit. A play, founded by 
George Hoey on G. ManvUle Fenn's novel, 
' The Vicar's People,' and first performed at 
New York in May, 1837, with H. T. Chanf rau 
in the leading part. 

American Heroine (The); or, In- 
gratitude Punished. A pantomime 
founded on the story of Incle and Yarico, 
and first performed at the Haymarket Opera 
House on March 19, 1792. 

American Indian (The); or, Vir- 
tues of Nature. An unacted play in three 
acts, by James Bacon ; founded on a poem 
by Mrs. Morton (of Boston, New England), 
called ' Ouabi ; or. The Virtues of Nature ; ' 
and printed in 1795. 

American Lady (An). A comedy by H. 
J. Byron (q.v.), first performed at the Cri- 
terion Theatre, London, on March 21, 1874, 
with Mrs. John Wood in the title part (Geor- 
gina Greville), the author as Harold Trivass, 
I). Fisher as Sir Ransorae Trivass, J. Clarke 
as Shrew, J. H. Barnes as Geoffrey Neville, 
Miss Jane Rignold as Lucy, and Miss Mont- 
gomery as Perkins ; revived at the same 
theatre in December, 1377, with C. Wyndham 
as Harold. 

American Minister (The). A play 
bv Paul M. Potter, first performed at the 
Star Theatre, New York, April 4, 1892. 

American Slaves; or, Love and 
Liberty. A comic opera, performed at 
Dumfries in 1792. 

Americans (The). A comic opera in 
three acts, by S. J. Arnold (q.v.)\ set to music . 
by King, and first performed at the Lyceum 
Theatre, London, on April 27, 1811, with 
Horn, Lovegrove, Mrs. Mountain,Mrs. Bland, 



Braham, Johnstone, Mathews, :Miss Kelly, 
Dowton, Knight, Oxberry, etc., in the cast. 

Americans Abroad; or, Notes and 
Notions. U) ^^ farcical comedy in two 
acts, by R. B. Peake {q.v.), first performed 
at the Lyceum Theatre, London, on Septem- 
ber 3, i82-4, with Mathews as Jonathan 
Doubikins, Bland as Delapierre, and Keeley 
and "O." Smith as Xatty and Jemmy Lark- 
spur. (2) ' Americans Abroad : ' a drama 
by ViCTORlEN Sardou, written originally 
in French, then adapted to the American 
stage, and first performed (in English) at the 
Lyceum Theatre, New York, on December 
5, 1S92, with Miss Georgia Cayvan, Miss 
Eflae Shannon, Mrs. C Walcot, Herbert 
Kelcey, and W. J. Le Moyne in the principal 
parts. The Americans abroad (in France) 
are a mUlionnaire, his daughter, his niece, 
and a young artist. The niece, a heiress, 
desires to be loved for herself alone, and 
pretends that she has lost her money. 
Loving the artist, who is poor, she is about 
to avow herself, when an intriguing French 
baroness leads her to believe that her lover 
is a fortune-hunter. In the end, the artist 
and the heiress are brought together. 

Americans in Eng-land. A dramatic 
piece by Mrs. Susanna Rowson. 

Americans in Paris ; or, A G-ame 
of Dominoes. A comedy in two acts, by 
Henry Hurlbut, performed at Wallack's 
Theatre, New York, on May 8, 1S58, with 
Lester Wallack as Morria, Blake as Botherer, 
Davenportasiamoi<?"ei, Mrs. Hoey as ^meZta 
Morris, and Miss Gannon a.s Annie Botherer. 

Americans Roused (The), in a Cure 
for the Spleen. A dramatic piece, dating 
from about 177G, and including among its 
2)ersonce Sharp, a parson ; Bumper, ajustice ; 
Fillpot, an innkeeper ; Graveairs, a deacon ; 
Trim, a barber ; Brim, a Quaker ; and Puf, 
a "late representative." See Dunlap's 
'American Theatre ' (1832). 

Americans Strike Home. 
Federal Oath, The. 


Amersfort, Captain. A character in 
Planche's ' Loan of a Lover ' (q.v.). 

Amestris. Wife of Artaxerxes, in 
Rowe's 'Ambitious Stepmother' (g. v.). 

Amherst, J. H. Actor and dramatic 
■writer, born in London, 1776 ; died at Phila- 
delphia, U.S.A., in 1S51 ; first appeared on 
the stage at the Haymarket in July, 1817 ; 
was afterwards connected with Astley's 
Amphitheatre, and in 1837 made his Ameri- 
can cUhid at New York. Among his thea- 
trical compositions were ' Almoran and 
Hamet,' 'The Attack of the Diligence,' 
'Bill Jones,' 'The Black Castle,' 'The 
Battle of Waterloo,' 'The Blood-red Knight,' 
' The Blood-stained Banner,' ' Bonaparte's 
Invasion of Russia,' 'The Burmese M'ar,' 
'The Death of Christopher,' 'Der Freis- 
chutz,' 'The Death of Fair Rosamond,' 
<The Faithless Friend,' 'The Fish and 

the Ring,' 'The Fall of Missolonghi,' 'The 
Infernal Secret,' ' The Invincible,' ' Ireland 
as it is,' ' The Irish Witch,' ' The Iron 
Collar,' ' Married or Not,' ' Monk, IMask, 
and Murderer,' ' Napoleon,' ' Real Life in 
London,' ' The Ship^^Teck of the Grosvenor 
East Indiaman,' ' The Sis Simpletons,' ' The 
Silver Mask,' 'The Three Magic Wands,' 
'Three Blind Eyes,' 'The Three Cripples,' 
'Tippoo Saib,' 'The White Spectre,' and 
'Will Watch.' Ireland describes Amherst 
as "a man of moderate talent and great 
experience . . . invaluable as a prompter" 
(' New York Stage '). See, also. Brown's 
' American Stage ' (1870). 

Amideo. See Angelina ('Rival Ladies'). 

Amie. The "gentle shepherdess in Ben 
JONSON's ' Sad Shepherd ' {q.v.). 

Amilie; or, The Love Test. A ro- 
mantic opera in three acts ; libretto bv J. 
T. Haines {q.v.), music by W. M. Rooke ; 
first performed at Covent Garden Theatre, 
London, on December 2, 1837, with Miss 
Shirreff in the title part ; first played at New 
York in October, 1838, with Miss Shirreff 
in her original rule. A travesty by B. A. 
Baker, called 'Amy Lee,' was produced in 
New York in 1843. 

Am.ina. The heroine of Bellini's 'La 
Sonnambula' {q.v.) and of H. J. Byron's 
burlesques of that opera {q.v.). See Brown, 

Arainadab. An apprentice in Bullock's 
' Adventures of Half an Hour ' {q.v.). 

Aminta. A pastoral drama by TOR- 
QUATO Tasso {q.v.) ; translated by Fraunce 
(1591), Reynolds (1628), Dancer (1660), Du 
Bois (1726'), Ayre (1737), Stockdale (1770), 
and Leigh Hunt (1S20). A version by John 
Oldmixon was played at the Theatre' Royal 
in 1693. (2) ' Aminta, the Coquette : ' a 
comic opera in two acts, music by Howard 
Glover, performed at the Haymarket, with 
a cast including Weiss, Harrison, H. Corri, 
and Miss L. Pyne. 

Amintas. An English opera, compiled 
by Tenducci fromthe!Italianof Metastasio, 
and Rolfs opera, ' The Royal Shepherd ' 
{q.v.), and acted at Covent Garden on Decem- 
ber 15, 1769, with a cast including Reinhold, 
Tenducci, Mattocks, Mrs. Mattocks, and 
Mrs. Baker. 

Amintor, in Beaumont and Fletcher's 
' Maid's Tragedy ' {q.v.), is betrothed to 
Aspatia {q.v.), but mames Evadne {q.v.). 
Hazlitt says of him that his is "a feeble, 
irresolute character: his slavish, recanting 
loyalty to his prince, who has betrayed and 
dishonoured him, is of a piece with the 
tyranny and insolence of which he is made 
the sport." 

Amlet, Bichard. A gambler in Van 
BRUGH'S 'Confederacy' {q-i'-)- Mrs. Amlet, 
mother of Riohard, is a wealthy but ill-bred 

' Am.o,' Song sung by Lingo, in 



act ii. sc. 2 of O'Keefe's ' Agreeable Sur- 
prise ' (q.v.)— 

" I love a lass. 
As a cedar tall and slender ; 
Sweet cowslip's grace 
Is her nom'tive case, 
And she's of the feminine gender." 

Among- the Breakers. A comedy in 
two acts, by John Brol-ghaai (q.v.), tirst 
performed at the Prince of Wales's Theatre, 
Liverpool, in June, 1S6S ; produced at the 
Strand Theatre, London, on July 26, 1869, 
vrith J. S. Clarke as Babington Jones, and 
H. J. Turner and Miss Eleanor Bufton in 
other parts. 

Amor, Julia. A character in :\r. 
Lemon's 'Love and Charity' {q.v.). In the 
course of the piece she assumes the cha- 
racters of a charity girl (Phoebe Pop) and a 
French portrait painter {Louis Bertrand). 

Amoret. (1) The heroine of Fletcher's 
'Faithful Shepherdess' {q.v.), loving and 
beloved by Perigot. See Amarillis. (2) A 
sprightly widow in Smythe's ' Rival :Modes' 
(q.v/). (3) A character in Oxenford's ' Ivy 
Hall' (3. r.). 

Am.orita. An adaptation of Czibulka's 
opera, ' Pfingsten in Florenz,' produced at 
the Casino, New York, in November, 1SS5, 
with F. H. Celli in the chief male part, and 
the Misses Pauline Hall and Madeleine Lu- 
cette in other rOles. 

Amoroso, King- of Little Britain. 
A " serio-comic, bombastic, and operatic in- 
terlude" by J. R. PLA.NCHE {q.v.), produced 
at Drury Lane Theatre, London, on April 21, 
1818, with Harley in the title part. Knight 
as Roastcrndo (his cook). Smith as Blusterbus 
(a yeoman of the guard), Mrs. Bland as 
Coquetinda (the queen, in love with Roast- 
ando), and Mrs. Orger as Mollidusta (a cham- 
bermaid, in love with Blusterbus). "The King 
sees Roastando and the Queen salute. He 
discharges Roastando. The Queen sees the 
King and Mollidusta together. She stabs 
Mollidusta. The King stabs the Queen. 
Roastando stabs the King. The King stabs 
Roastando. All the dead persons come to 
life again " (Genest). "The excellent acting 
and singing secured for the piece," says its 
author, " a popularity it could never other- 
wise have enjoyed." "It was a poor imita- 
tion of ' Bombastes Furioso,' with which it 
is unworthy compai'ison." See Planche's 
• Recollections ' (1872). 

Amorous Bigot (Th.e), -with the 
Second Part of Teague O'Divelly. 
See Lanc.vshire Witches. 

Amorous Fantasme (The). A tragi- 
comedy by Sir William Lower, translated 
from tiie ''Fantome Amoureux ' of Quinault, 
and printed in 1660. 

Amorous Gallant (The). See Amo- 
rous Orontus. 

Amorous Jilt (The). See Younger 
Brother, The. 

Amorous Miser (The); or. The 
Younger the Wiser. See Farewell, 

Amorous Old Woman (An) ; or, 'Tis 
Well if it Take. A comedy attributed by 
Langbaine to THOM.4.S Duffet, and printed 
in 1764. It was afterwards republished, with 
a new title-page, under the name of ' The 
Fond Lady.' 

Amorous Orontus ; or, Love in 
Fashion. A comedv in heroic verse 
adapted by John Bulteel {q.v.) from tho 
' Amour a la Mode ' of Corneille, printed in 
1665, and reprinted in 1675 as ' The Amorous 

A morous Prince (The); or, The 
Curious Husband. A comedy by Aphra 
Behn {q.v.), acted at Lincoln's Inn Fields in 
1671. The plot is based on the novel of the 
' Curious Impertinent' in 'Don Quixote,' and 
on Davenport's ' City Nightcap ' {q.v.j. Th& 
"amorous prince "is named Frederick, and 
debauches Claris under a promise of mar- 

Amorous Quarrel (The). A comedy 
by John Ozell {q.v.), translated from ^Nloli- 
ere's ' Depit Amoureux.' See Foote's ' Comic 
Theatre' (1762). See, also. Mock Astro 
loger ; Wrangling Lovers. 

Amorous War (The). Atragi-comedy 
by Jasper Mayne {q.v.), first printed iu 
1648. The " amorous war " is carried on by 
Roxane, Queen of Bithynia, and her ladies, 
who, contriving to be captured by the 
Thracians, i-eturn to Bithynia disguised as- 
Amazons, and proceed to test the fidelity 
of their respective spouses. The King is- 
found constant to Roxane ; but two of his- 
noblemen have an affair of gallantry with 
their wives, "not knowing them to be 

Amorous Widow (The); or. The 
Wanton Wife. A comedy by Thomas Bet- 
terton {q.v.), founded on Moliere's ' George 
Dandin ' (1668), to which Betterton added an 
underplot. The piece was tirst performed 
at Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1670, with Mrs. 
Betterton as Lady Laycock, the ' ' amorous 
widow," and Mrs. Long as Mrs. Brittle, " the 
wanton wife." Betterton was Lovemorc, 
Smith Cunningham. Lady Laycock en- 
deavours to entangle both Lovemore and. 
Cunningham; but Lovemore is intriguing 
with Mrs. Brittle, and Cunningham is also 
pre-engaged. The comedy was afterwards 
condensed into the farce of 'Barnaby 
Brittle ' {q.v.). See :May and December. 

Amos Clark. A drama, in a prologue 
and four acts, founded by Watts Phillip* 
{q.v.) on his novel of that name, and fir.>t 
performed at the Queen's Theatre, London, 
on October 19, 1872, with Miss WaUis ai- 
Mildred Clavering, G. F. Neville as Johr. 
Clavering, J. Ryder as Sir Robert Clavering. 
and G. Rignold in the title part ; producei 
at the Academy of Music, New York, ii 
1875. Amos (the unacknowledged nephev 
of Sir Robert, and the real heir to tht 
baronetcy assumed by him) is in love witl' 
Sir Robert's daughter ^Mildred, who is her 
self in love with and beloved by J 'hi 
Clavering, Amos's half-brother. In the en. 



Amos, for the sake of Mildred, confesses 
to havinjx killed Sir Robert with John's 
dagger. He is shot, and John, who has 
been arrested for the crime, is made happy 
with Mildred. 

Amour a la Mode (L') ; or, Love a 
la Mode. A farce in three acts, translated 
from the French by (it is believed) Hugh 
Kelly, and printed in 1760. See Amorous 
Orontus and LOYE A LA Mode. 

Amourettes (Les). A comic opera, the 
music by Dr. T. R. G. Jose, the libretto 
adapted from Planche's 'Somebody Else' 
iq.v.), by John Percivale ; performed in 
Dublin, April 14, 1885. 

Amours Maudits (Les). See Lost 

Amours of Billing-sgrate (The). See 
Cobler's Opera. 

Am.phares. A character in Home*s 

Am.phitruo. A comedy by Plautus 
(B.C. 254-184), translated into English by 
Echard (1694), Cooke, Thornton (1746), War- 
ner, Colman (1769-74), and Riley (1852). See 

Am.phitryon ; or, TheTwo Sosias. 

A comedy l)y J(jnN Dryden {q-v.), largely 
based upon the ' Amphitruu' of Plautus and 
'Amphitryon' of Moliere ; first performed 
(with music by Henry Purcell) at the Theatre 
Royal in 1690, and printed in the same year. 
The original cast included Betterton as 
Jupiter, Lee as Mercury, Bowman as Phmbus, 
AVilliams as Amphitryon, Nokes as Sosia, 
Sandf ord as Grij) us, Bright as Polidas, Bowen 
as Tranio, Mrs. Barry as Alcmena, Mrs. 
Montfort as Phcedra, Mrs. Cory as Bromia, 
and Mrs. Butler as Night. The piece was 
"very favourably received, and continued 
long to be what is called a stock-play." It 
was revived at Drury Lane in September, 
1708, with Powell as Jupiter ; at Drury Lane 
in September, 1734, with Mills as Jupiter 
and Mrs. Pritchard as Phcedra; at Drury 
Lane (altered by Dr. Hawkesworth) in 
December, 1756, with Woodward as Sosia, 
Palmer as Mercury, Mrs. Yates as Alcmena, 
and Mrs. Clive as Phcedra ; at Drury Lane 
in November, 1769, Avith Reddish as Jupiter, 
King as Sosia, Jefferson as Mercury, J. 
Aickin as Amphitryon, Parsons as Gripus, 
Miss Younge as Alcmena, and Miss Pope as 
Phcedra ; at Covent Garden (altered) in 
March, 1773, Avith Wroughton as Mercury, 
itshuter as Gripus, ^Mattocks as Amj^hitryon, 
Mrs. Hartley as Alcmena, ^Mrs. Mattocks as 
Phcedra; at Covent Garden (adapted by 
Dibdin and others as ' Jupiter and Alcmena ') 
in October, 1781 ; at Drury Lane in May, 
1784, with Kemble as Jupiter, Palmer as 
Sosia, Barrymore as Mercury, Miss Farren 
«,s Alcmena ; at Drury Lane (reduced to two 
acts) in November, 1826, with Cooper as 
Jupiter, Laporte as Sosia, Harley as Mercury, 
Archer as Amphitryon, and Mrs. W. West as 
Alcmena [in this version Gripus was called 
ixraapus, an alteration stigmatized by 

Genest as "absurd"] ; and (adapted by J. 
Oxenford) at the Court Theatre, London, in 
November, 1872, with H. Vezin as Jupiter, 
E. Righton as Sosia, D. Fi.sher as Amphi- 
tryon, Miss Litton as Phcedra, Miss Dyas as 
Alcmena, and Mrs. Stephens as Bromia. 
' Amphitryon ' was played for the first time 
in America in 1750. Sir Walter Scott says 
that "although inferior to Moliere, and 
accommodated to the gross taste of the seven- 
teenth century, ' Amphitryon ' is one of the 
happiest effusions of Dryden's comic muse. 
... In the scenes of a higher cast, Dryden 
far outstrips both the French and Roman 

Amphlett. The author of a farce called 
' The Astronomer ' (1802). 

Am-phrisa, the Forsaken Shep- 
herdess. See Pelopcea and Alope. 

Ample Apolog-y (An). A farce in one 
act, by G. Roberts (q.v.), first performed at 
the Princess's Theatre, London, on March 13, 
1865, with Dominick Murray as Mr. Stiooz- 
inyton Spooner. The other parts are Mr. 
and Mrs. Crushington Clasper and Mr. Mil- 
linghain Mawley. 

Amrus, Prince. A character in Bell- 
INGHAM and Best's 'Princess Primrose' 


Amshack. ' Demon of the Desert,' in 
A. L. Campbell's melodrama of that name 


Amurack. Sultan of Turkey in Greene's 
' Alphonsus ' (q.v.). 

Amurath. A renegade Venetian noble 
in Sheil's ' Balamira' (q.v.). 

Amy Lee. See Amilie. 

Amy Robsart. (1) A drama in four 
acts, by A. Halliday (q.v.). founded on Scott's 
novel of ' Kenilworth,' and first performed at 
Drury Lane Theatre, London, on September 
24, 1870, with Miss Neilson in the title part, 
Miss Fanny Addison as Queen Elizabeth, 
T. C. King as Varney, J. B. Howard as 
Leicester, Fred Yokes as Flibbertigibbet, and 
Rosina Yokes as Janet Foster ; revived at 
Drury Lane in February, 1871, Avith Miss 
Victoria Vokes as Amy; at Drury Lane in 
January, 1874, with Miss Wallis in the title 
part. Miss Clara Jecks as Janet, Miss Kate 
Vaughan (who, some years after, played 
J. my in a revival at the Gaiety) as Flibber' 
tigibbet, J. Ryder as Varney, and H. Sinclair 
as Leicester; at Drury Lane in October, 
1877, with ^liss L. Willes as Amy, Vi. 
Terrissas Leicester, J. Fernandez as Varney, 
Miss H. Coveney as Flibbertigibbet, etc. ; at 
the Adelphi in June, 1S79, with Miss Neilson 
(followed by :\liss Lydia Foote) in the title 
part, Miss Pateman as the Queen, H. Vezin 
as Varney, H. Neville as Leicester, and other 
parts by E. Compton, R. Pateman, C. P. 
Flockton, Miss H. Coveney, and Miss Jecks ; 
at Sadler's Wells in December, 1881, with 

E. Price as Leicester, W. Mc Intyre as Varney, 

F. Mellish as Sussex, Miss K. De Witt as 
Amy, and iMiss Page as Queen Elizabeth. Sea 




Irving played Richard Hargrave in this piece 
at Edinburgh, in 1856-9. 

Ancient Day (The). An anonjTnous 
American play. 

Ancient Pistol, An. A play in one 
act, by Sir Charles Young (q.v.). 

Ancient Times. An unacted drama 
by Joseph Strutt, printed in ISOS. " This 
piece is illustrative of the domestic manners 
and amusements of the fifteenth century." 

"And to begrin." First line of a song 
in Heywood's ' Play of Love ' (q.v.). In this 
song, as Robert Bell remarks, "Hey wood 
adopts the vein of Skelton." 

Andalusian (Th.e) . A " petite opera," 
words by GEORGE LODER (q.v.), music by 
Edward Loder ; performed at New York in 
January, 1S51. 

Anderson, David, journalist, was 
dramatic critic of the London Sj^ortsman 
from 1S74 to 1879, and of Bell's Life from 
1879 to 1SS2. He wrote on theatrical sub- 
jects in the Theatre, All the Year Round, 

Anderson, David C, American actor, 
accompanied Edwin Booth on his first tour 
to San Francisco and Australia (18413). (See 
Mrs. Clarke's lives of the Booths.) Among his 
most notable parts were Polonius, the Friar 
in ' Romeo and Juliet,' and Father Joseph 
('Richelieu'). Mrs. Clarke calls him "a 
kind, genial gentleman and actor." — Mrs. 
David Anderson, who was an actress, died 
in 1840. 

Anderson,ElizaT3eth. See Saunders, 

Anderson, James. Irish comedian ; 
at different times prompter of the Park 
Theatre, New York ; stage-manager of the 
Bowery and New National Theatre in that 
city ; and member of the company at the 
Chatham Garden Theatre. The first repre- 
sentative in America of Terry O'Rourke 
(1823), he was also in the original cast of 
IMorris's ' Brier Cliff,' and was famous for 
his Terence in ' Brian Boroihme.' 

Anderson, James "R. Actor, born 
at Glasgow, 1811, died 1895 ; obtained his 
early professional experience at Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, Nottingham, Newcastle, etc. In 
1834, 1835, and 1836, he was concerned in the 
management of the Leicester, Gloucester, 
and Cheltenham Theatres respectively. He 
made his first appearance in London at 
Covent Garden Theatre on September 30, 
1837, as Florizel in 'The Winter's Tale.' 
From that date onwards, Anderson played 
the following among many " original " 
parts :—Sir Valentine de Grey in Knowles's 
' Woman's Wit,' De Mauprat in Lytton's 
'Richelieu,' Fernando in Knowles's 'John, 
of Procida,' Charles Courtly in Boucicault's 
' London Assurance,' Fulvius in Griffin's 
' Gisippus,' Earl ^Mertoun in Browning's 
'Blot on the 'Scutcheon,' the "secretary" 

Kemlworth. (2) A burlesque by ISIark 
KiNGHORXE (q.v.), produced at Norwich in 
ISSO. See Little Amy Robsart. 

Amyntas; or, The Impossible 
Dowry. A pastoral drama by Thomas 
Randolph {q.v.), acted at Whitehall, and 
printed in 1638. " Give thanks," says Leigh 
Hunt, "to the M'itty scholar, Thomas Ran- 
dolph, for an addition to the stock of one's 
pleasant fancies." See ' Biogi-aphia Drama- 
tica.' See also Fickle Shepherdess, The. 

Amyott, Sir "Walter and Lady 
Eveline. The leading personages in 
Lovell's ' Wife's Secret' {q.v.). 

Anaconda, the Terrific Serpent of 
Ceylon. " This piece," says Genest, " came 
out at one of the minor theatres." It was 
played at Bath in 1826. 

Anah. One of the two women in By- 
ron's 'Heaven and Earth' {q.v.), beloved by 
Japhet, and in love with Azaziel, the angel. 

Ananias. A deacon of Amsterdam, in 
Ben Jonson's 'Alchemist' {q.v.). 

Anarchy; or, Paul Kauvar. A 

drama in five acts, by Steele Mackaye 
{q.v.), first performed in America in 18S7 ; first 
represented in England at the Elephant 
and Castle Theatre, London, April 27, 1887 ; 
produced at Drury Lane in May, 1890, as 
' Paul Kauvar,' with W. Terriss in the title 
part. Miss MUlward as Diane de Beaumont, 
H. Neville as Honor e Albert Maxime, A. 
Stirling as General Delaroche, etc. The 
scene is laid in France in 1794, at the time 
of the Revolution. 

Anato, King" of Assyria. A play 
founded on Verdi's opera of 'Nabucco,' 
produced at the City of London Theatre in 


Anatole. (1) The duke inLecocq's ' Isle 
of Bachelors ' {q.v.). (2) The ward of Brise- 
viouche, in Palgraye Simpson's ' Scrap of 
Paper' {q.v.). 

Anatomist (The); or, The Sham 
Doctor. A farce in three acts, by Edward 
Ravknscroft {q.v.), produced at Lincoln's 
Inn Fields in 1697, and printed in that 
year. Old Gerald desires to marry Angelica 
(daughter of the Doctor, "the anatomist"), 
but "she and Young Gerald love and are 
eventually united. Old Gerald acquiescing. 
Crispin is servant to Young Gerald, and pre- 
tends to be a doctor. ' The Anatomist ' was 
revived— reduced to two acts, and with the 
Doctor as a Frenchman — at Drury Lane in 
November, 1743. In 1753 it was played in 
America with Hallam {q.v.) as Crispin. 

Ancestress (The); or. The Doom 
of Barostein. A melodrama in two acts, 
by Mark Lemon {q.v.), first performed at 
tlie City of London Theatre on April 27, 

Anchor of Hope (The); or. The 
Seaman's Star. A drama in two acts, by 
Edward Stirling {q.v.), first performed at 
the Surrey Theatre, London, on April 19, 1847, 
with the author as Abraham Moses. Henry 



in Knowles's play of that name, Sidney 
Courtoun in Sullivan's ' Old Love and tlie 
New,' Richard Cceur de Lion in Hallidayr: 
play of that name, and Azael and Ingomar iu 
the dramas so called {q.v.). He also appeared 
as Biron in ' Love's Labour's Lost ' (Covent 
Garden, 1839), Romeo (Covent Garden, 1840), 
Bassanio (Drurv Lane, 1842), Othello (Drury 
Lane, 1S42), Orlando (Drury Lane, 1842-3), 
Captain Absolute (Drury Lane, 1842-3), 
Harry Dornton in ' The Road to Ruin ' 
(Drury Lane, 1842-3), Faulconhridqe in 
' King John ' (Drury Lane, 1842-3), Posthu- 
onus in ' Cymbeline ' (Drury Lane, 1S42-3), 
lago (Covent Garden, 1S43-4), JJamlet (New 
York, 1844), Claude Melnotte (Haymarket, 
1845), Hercule in Wilkins's ' Civilization ' 
(Strand, London, 1853), Rob Roy (Drury 
Lane, 1855), lachimo (Drury Lane, 1SG5), 
Antony in 'Antony and Cleopatra' (Drury 
Lane, 1873-4), Mcrcutio (Drury Lane, 1874), 
etc. Anderson appeared in the United 
States in 1S44-8 and in the English pro- 
vinces in 1849, in Avhich year he also became 
lessee of Drury Lane. In 1851 he began his 
career as a "star" actor, visiting America 
again in 1853, 1856, 1858, and 1859. In 1863 
he undertook the joint management of the 
Surrey Theatre, and in 1867 he visited 
Australia and other "foreign parts," re- 
appearing in London in liiGS. He was the 
author of 'Cloud and Sunshine,' ' Schamyl 
the Circassian,' 'The Scottish Chief (in 
which he played Wallace), ' The Soldier of 
Fortune,' and ' The Three Great Worthies.' 
See Pascoe's 'Dramatic List' (ISSO), Ire- 
land's 'New York Stage* (1867), and 
Brown's 'American Stage' (1870); also 
Anderson's autobiographical articles in the 
J\'e^vcastle Chronicle (' An Actor's Life '). 

Anderson, Jane. See Gerjion, Mrs. 

Anderson, Joshua, actor and vocalist 
from Drury Lane, appeared in New Y'ork in 
1831 as Henry Bertram, but, owing to some 
disparaging remarks which he was reported 
to have made concerning America and its 
people, he had a hostile reception, and was 
forced to retire from the local stage. He 
next went to Boston, and, later, again es- 
sayed to act in New York, but with no better 
fortune than before. 

Anderson, Mary. American actress, 
born at Sacramento, California, on July 28, 
1859 ; studied for the stage under Vanden- 
ho if, junior ; and made her debut a.t Louis- 
ville, U.S. A., on November 27, 1875, as Juliet, 
appearing at the same place in February, 
1876, as Bianca ('Fazio'), Evadne (Shell's'), 
and Julia (' The Hunchback'). In March, 

1876, she was seen at St. Louis as Pauline 
Deschapelles, and at New Orleans as Meg 
Merrilees; in September, at San Francisco, 
as Parthenia ('Ingomar'). In January, 

1877, she played Lady Macbeth at Washing- 
ton, and in November, 1878, Berthe in a 
translation of 'La Fille de Roland.' Her 
next impersonations were the Countess in 
Sheridan Knowles's ' Love ' and the Duchess 
of Torrcnuei-a in Planch^'s 'Faint Heart 

never won Fair Lady.' At Detroit, in 1S80, 
she played Ion in Talfourd's tragedy, and 
at Troy, in 1881, Galatea in W. S. Gilbert's 
' Pygmahon and Galatea.' Her first appear- 
ance in England was made at the Lyceum 
Theatre, London, in September, 1S33, as 
Parthenia, an assumption followed in 
October by Pauline Deschaioelles, and in 
December by Galatea ('Pygmahon and 
Galatea'); in January, 1884, by Clarice 
(' Comedy and Tragedy ') ; in November, 
1884, by Juliet ; in February, 1885, by Julia 
(' Hunchback ') ; on August 29, 1885 (at 
Stratford-on-Avon), by Ro'~sali7id ; in 1887 (at 
Nottingham) by Hermione and Perdita in 
' The Winter's Tale,' and in May, 1887, at 
Liverpool, by Bianca in ' Fazio.' See Miss 
Anderson's 'A Few Memories' (1896), the 
memoirs by J. :^L Farrar (1SS4) and W. 
Winter (1886), ' Actors and Actresses' (New 
York, 1886), and the Theatre for 1885. 

Anderson, Mrs. Joshua (Josephine). 
Actress and vocalist, born 1807, died in 
London, 1848 ; nde Bartolozzi and sister of 
Mdme. Vestris ; made her dibut at the Hay- 
market Theatre, London, on June 17, 1828 ; 
appeared in New York in 1831 as Rosina in 
' The Barber,' Lilla in ' The Siege of Bel- 
gi-ade,' Edward in ' Charles II.,' Giovanni in 
London, and Princess of Navarre. See Ire- 
land's ' New York Stage ' (1867). 

Anderson, Mrs. Ophelia (n6e Pelby). 
American actress, born 1813, died 1852 ; made 
her dibut at Boston, U.S.A., in 1815, as 
Cora's child in ' Pizarro ' (q.v.). She was for 
many years the chief attraction at the 
National Theatre, Boston, under her father's 
management. Her last appearance in New 
York was as Jane Shore (June, 1841). See^ 
Ireland's ' New York Stage ' (1867) and 
Drake's ' American Biography ' (1872). 

Anderson, "William. American actor, 
died at Philadelphia in 1869, "after a career 
of painful iiTegularity, ending in indigence."^ 
Ludlow describes him as "a good actor in 
heavy characters, tragedy villains, and the 
like." He married Euphemia Jefferson. 

Anderson, Mrs. William (Euphemia, 
daughter of Jefferson " the second "). Ame- 
rican actress, died 1831 ; a member of the 
company of the Park Theatre, New York, in 
1816, and of the Chestnut Street Theatre, 
Philadelphia, in 1817. She married William 
Anderson (q.v.) According to Wood, in his 
' Personal Recollections,' she " reached a 
high place in public favour." Winter says 
she " IS remembered on the stage as correct 
and pleasing." 

Anderton, Sarah [Coxer]. Actress, 
born at Sheffield ; made her d<ibut at New 
York in 1850 as Lady Teazle ; appeared as 
Pauline in ' The Lady of Lyons ' at Phila- 
delphia in 1850, and as Juliet at Boston in 
1851-2 ; played Costanzia in Boker's ' Be- 
trothal ' at Drury Lane in 1853, and Koephed 
in Fitzball's ' Nitocris ' at the same theatre 
in 1855. 

Anderton, T. See Artaxaminous and 
Gentle Gertrude. 



Andover. The theatre here was first 
opened at Easter, 1S03, by Thornton. 

Andre. A tragedy in verse, by William 
DUNLAP ; acted in New York on March 30, 
1793, with Hodgkinson in the title part, 
Hallam as Washington, and Cooper as Bland; 
and performed in London in 1799. It was 
founded on the story of the Major Andre 
who was hanged as a spy in the American 
war. A friend of his, named Bland, is, how- 
ever, of the two, almost the more prominent 
character in the drama, in which an English 
ladv, betrothed to Andre, also figures. Dun- 
lap* afterwards altered his piece, calling it 
' The Glorv of Columbia,' and producing it 
at Philadelphia in 1S07, at New York in 
1817. ' Andre ' was privately printed for the 
Dunlap Society, with a preface by Brander 

Andre. The name of a character in (1) 
Bayle Bernard's ' Lucille' {q.v.), (2) ' The 
Violet' (g.r.), and (3) H. Sutherland 
Edwards' ' Fernande ' {q.v.). 

Andrea. (1) Daughter of the Baron di 
Torrida in J. Palgrave Simpson's ' Marco 
Spada' (q.v.). (2) The chief "knave of 
hearts " in Suter's ' Baccarat ' (g'.r.). 

Andrea. A drama in four acts, by Vic- 
TORiEX Sardou iq.v.), practically identical 
M-ith his ' Agnes ' (q.v.), and performed at the 
Gymnase, Paris, on March 17, 1S73 ; first re- 
presented in London at the Opera Comique 
in May, 1875 ; adapted to the English stage 
by Charles Eeade under the title, first of 
'Jealousy' (q.v.), and afterwards of 'The 
Countess' and the Dancer' (q.v.); and 
adapted to the American stage (by L. 
Richardson) as 'Anselma' (q.v.), and (by 
Steele Mackaye) as ' In Spite of All' (q.v.). 

Andrea of Hung-ary. A tragedy in 
five acts, bv Walter Savage Landor, pub- 
lished in 1839. 

Andrews, A. Actor, born at Jamaica 
in 1807 ; first representative in America of 
Cool in 'London Assurance' (q.v.); played 
the King of Hearts in 'Zazezizozu' at New 
York in 1838, and Bertuceio Faliero in ' Ma- 
rino Faliero ' in 1843 ; and appeared at Phila- 
delphia in 1845. " In certain saucy servants, 
fidgety footmen, and obsequious valets, such 
as Fan, Tri-p, and Cool, we have rarely," says 
J. N. Ireland, "seen his equal." 

Andrews, Georg-e H. Actor, born in 
London, 1793 ; died in New York, April, 1866 ; 
made his first appearance at Manchester in 
1818-19 as Lothair in ' Adelgitha ;' went to 
America in 1827, and made his dehut at 
Boston that year as Boh Acres. In 1S38 he 
appeared in New York as the Gravedigger, 
Zekiel Homespun, and Luke the Labourer ; 
and in 1842 made his first appearance at 
Philadelphia &5 Lord Lumbercourt in 'The 
Way of the World.' In 1845-7 he was a 
member of the company at the Park Theatre, 
New York, and in 1365 appeared at the 
Winter Garden as Polonius. "He was a 
good low comedian, and in the character of 
a Yorkshireman, either serious or comic, has 

probablv not been surpassed on our stage " 
(Ireland's ' New York Stage,' 1867). 

Andrews, James Petit. Magistrate 
at Queen Square, Westminster, died 1797 ; 
part author of ' The Inquisitor ' (q.v.). 

Andrews, Miles Peter. Dramatist, 
died 1S14 ; the son of a drysalter, afterwards 
the owner of extensive powder magazines 
and M.P. for Bewdley ; was the author of 
the following pieces (aU of which see) :— 
'The Conjuror' (1774), 'The Election' (1774), 
' Belphegor ' (1778), ' Summer Amusement ' 
(with W. A. Miles, 1779), ' Fire and Water ' 
(1780), 'Dissipation' (1781), 'The Baron 
Kinkvervankotsdorsprakingatchdern ' (1781), 
' The Best Bidder ' (1782), ' The Repa- 
ration ' (1734), ' The Enchanted Castle ' 
(1786), ' Better Late than Never ' (with Frede- 
rick Reynolds, 1790), and ' The Mysteries of 
the Castle ' (with Frederick Reynolds, 1795). 
"This gentleman," said the ' Biographia 
Dramatica,' "is a dealer in gunpowder, but 
his works, in their effect, by no means re- 
semble so active a composition, being utterly 
deficient in point of force and splendour." 
Gifford, in his 'Baviad,' devotes a strong 
passage to Andrews, of whom Dutton Cook 
writes that he " was less successful with his 
plays than with his prologues and epilogues, 
which, although tawdry and vulgar enough, 
laden with slang and with gross carica- 
tures of the foibles of the day, were so 
skilfully delivered by the popular come- 
dians, Lewis and Mrs. Mattocks, as to com- 
mand gi-eat applause." See the ' Thespian 
Dictionary ' (1805), ' Biographia Dramatica ' 
(1312), Bernard's ' Retrospections of the 
Stage' (1830), Tavlor's 'Records of My Life' 
(1832), Genest's ' Enghsh Stage ' (1832), and 
' Dictionary of National Biography ' (1885). 

Andrews, Miss, vocahst, a pupil of 
Dr. Arnold, was heard at the Haymarket 
in 1797. 

Andria. A comedy by Terence (q.v.) ; 
translated, separately, into English by an 
anonvmous hand (about 1520), Kvffin (1588), 
Newman (1627), Webbe (1629), Bentlev (1726), 
Englefield (1814), Goodluck (1820), Gardiner 
(1821), Phillips (1836), Giles (1856), Barrv 
(1857), Stock (1891), Mongan (1392), and 
anonymously in 1859, 1880, and 1391. It 
was on this comedy that 'Jacke Jugeler' 
(q.v.) was founded. 

AndrolDoros. A " biographical " farce 
in three acts, said to be WTitten by Governor 

Andromache. (1) A tragedy by Euri- 
pides (q.v.) ; translated, separately, into 
English bv Hickie (1892), and an "anony- 
mous hand (1840). (2) A tragedy translated 
from Racine's 'Andromaque' by J. Crowne 
(q.v.), and acted at Dorset Garden in 1G75. 
It is partly in verse and partly in prose. 
" It is a contemptible production," says 
Genest, "and differs little from 'The Dis- 
tressed Mother' [q.v.], except that Pyrrhus 
is kUled on the stage."— ' Andromaque ' it- 
self was played (in French) at New t)rleaus 
in 182S, with the elder Booth as Orestea. 




Andromana ; or, The Merchant's 
"Wife. A tragedy by "J. S.," founded on 
the story of Plangus in Sidney's ' Arcadia ' 
(q.v.), ascribed to James Shirley (q.v.), and 
first printed in 1660. Dyce points out that " it 
bears not the slightest resemblance, in dic- 
tion, thought, or versification," to Shirley's 
acknowledged dramas. 

Andromaque. See Andromache, 

Andromeda. Daughter of Cepheus 
in Planche and Dance's ' Deep, Deep 
Sea* (q.v.); figures also in W. Brough's 
'Perseus and Andromeda' (g'.v.), and gives 
the title to a one-act piece by Rose Sea- 
ton, played at the Vaudeville Theatre, 
London, on March 24, 1890. 

Andronicus : Impietie's long" Suc- 
cesse, or Heaven's late Reveng-e. 
An anonymous tragedy, founded on the life 
of Andronicus in Fuller's ' Holy State ; ' 
printed in 16G1. " It is a fierce attack upon 
the Puritans, and a glorification of the 
Stuart dynasty." 

Andronicus Comnenius. A tragedy 
by J. Wilson, unacted and printed in 1664. 
It is founded on the latter part of the forty- 
eighth chapter of Gibbon's ' Roman Empire.' 
"The real adventures of Andronicus were 
almost as extraordinary as anything to be 
found in romance." 

Andronicus, Titus. See Titus An- 

Andy Blake; or, The Irish Dia- 
mond. A comedy in two acts, founded on 
'Le Gamin de Paris ' (q.v.) by DiON BOUCI- 
Cault (q.v.) ; played at New York in 1S.')4, 
•with Mrs. Boucicault as the hero ; produced 
at the Adeli)hi Theatre, London, on Feb- 
ruary 10, 1862, as ' The Dulilin Boy,' with 
Mi's. Boucicault in her original part, Miss 
Laidlaw as Mary Blake, Billington as 
Captain Daly, Emery as General Daly, and 
Mrs. Billington as Lady Mountjoy ; revived 
at the Gaiety Theatre, London, in November, 
1880, with Dion Boucicault, jun., as Andy ; 
at the Prince's Theatre, London, in Novem- 
ber, 1885, with INIiss Clara Jocks as Andy. 

Andy, Handy. See Handy Andy. 

Anette. One of the two foster-sisters in 
'Ernestine' (g. v.), ' Clarice,' and' The Foster- 

Ang-e de Minuit (L'). A play by MM. 
Barriere and Plouvier, first performed 
at the Theatre de Ambigu-Comique, Paris, 
March 5, 1861, and several times adapted 
to the English stage. See Angel of 
Death ; Angel of Midnight ; Spirit of 

Ang'el. Actor ; engaged as a boy by 
Rhodes, for the Duke's Theatre, Lincoln's 
Inn Fields ; employed afterwards, under 
Davenant, as a low comedian, specially good 
in Frencli parts. "We hear nothing of 
him," says Doran, "after 1673." 

Ang-el King: (The). (1) An anony- 
mous play, licensed in 1623-4 for perform- 
ance at the Fortune Theatre. (2) A play in 
five acts, by Ross Neil {q.v.], Westwood 
House, Sydenham, July 17, 1884. 

Ang-el of Death (The). A play 
adapted by G, Conquest (g.?;.) from ' L'Ange 
de Minuit' (jq.v.), and played at the Grecian 
Theatre, London, on May 20, 1861, with Mrs. 
Charles Dillon in the title part, T. Mead as 
the Doctor, Miss J. Coveney as Marjuerite, 
and Alfred Rayner as the Baron. See Angel 
of Midnight; Spirit of Death. 

Angrel of Isling-ton (The). A farce 
by E. L. Blanchard, 1838. 

Angrel of Midnight (The). (1) A play 
by John Brougham iq.v.), adapted from 
'L'Ange de Minuit' iq-v.), and first per- 
formed at the Princess's Theatre, London, 
in February, 1862, with Miss Marriott in 
the title part, G. Jordan as Albert Werner, 
J. Ryder as Colonel Lamheck, J. G. Shore 
as Karl de Strauherg, and Widdicomb as 
Von Blokk ; produced in New York in 
1867. Werner is a young physician, to 
whom the Angel grants successful love, 
riches, and renown, on condition that he 
refrains from aiding those of his patients 
on whom she (the Angel) sets her heart. 
He agrees until the victim must be either 
his mother or his wife, and then he appeals 
to Heaven for help. The Angel thereupon 
succumbs, and blesses Werner. (2) A 
"legend of terror" in three acts, adapted 
from ' L'Ange de INIinuit,' by W. E. Suter 
and T. H. Lacy. See Angel of Death; 
Spirit of Death. 

Ang-el of the Attic (The). A serio- 
comic drama in one act, adapted from the 
French by Thomas Morton {q.v.\ and first 
performed at the Princess's Theatre, London, 
on May 27, 1843, with Walter Lacy as Michael 
Magnus (an apprentice) and Miss Emma 
Stanley as Mariette (a milliner) ; first played 
at New York in 1846, with George Andrews 
as Magnus and Miss Barnes as Mariette. 
George Jordan played the Chevalier in New 
York in 1848. Magnus Avas in the reper- 
tory of Lester Wallack. See LouisON. 

Ang-el or Devil. A drama in one act, 
by J. Stirling Coyne {q.v.), adapted from 
Mdme. de Girardin's ' Une Femme qui 
deteste Son Mari,' and first performed at 
the Lyceum Theatre, London, on March 2, 
1857, with C. Dillon as Captain de Vaude- 
mont, J. L. Toole as Martin Montonnet, and 
Mrs. C. Dillon as Leonie de Vaudernont. 

Angela. (1) A character in Lewis's 
•Castle Spectre' {q.v.). (2) The "black 
domino" in G. A. A Beckett's 'Queen's 

Angela. A play by Henry Lee, first 
performed at the Madison Square Theatre, 
New York ; afterwards performed under 
title of 'The Child of Naples,' with Alex- 
ander Salvini. (2) ' Angela ; or, A Woman's 
Wit,' is the title of an operetta by Charles 




Lecocq (g.v.), performed at Drury Lane on 
September 28, 1S7S. 

Ang-elica. (1) An heiress in Coxgreve's 
'Love for Love' (q-v.), of -n-hom Valentine 
Legend (q.v.) is enamoured, and to whom he 
is ultimately united. Congi'eve is said to 
have sketched ]Mrs. Bracegirdle (q.v.) in the 
character of Annelica, and himself in that 
of Valentine. (2) The heroine of Farquhar's 
' Constant Couple ' {q.v.) and ' Sir Harry 
Wildair' {q.v.). (3) The heroine of Mrs. 
Centlivre's 'Gamester' {q.v.). (4) Donna 
Angelica is a character in ' The Students of 
Salamanca ' {q.v.). 

Angelica ; or, Quixote in Petti- 
coats. A comedy in two acts, adapted 
from ;Mrs. Lennox's story, ' The Female 
Quixote,' and printed in 1758. Steele 
treated the same subject in his 'Tender 
Husband' {q.v.). 

Angrelina. (1) A comic opera by I\Iary 
GOLDSJIITH, acted in the English provinces 
in 1804. (2) A comedy in three acts, adapted 
by W. Cooper from Bisson's ' Une Mission 
Delicate,' and first performed at the Vaude- 
ville Theatre, London, on May 9, 1SS9, with 
Miss L. Hanbury in the title part, and other 
roles by T. Thorne, F. Thorne, C. Maude, F. 
Gillmo're, Miss G. Homfrey, and Miss E. 

Ang-elina. (1) Daughter of Lord Lewis, 
in Beaumont and Fletcher's ' Elder Bro- 
ther' (g.t'.). (2) One of the "rival ladies" in 
Dryden's tragi-comedy so-called, in love 
with Don Gonsalvo, and masquerading as a 
man under the name otAmideo. {Z) Angelina, 
in Gibber's 'Love makes a Man' {qv.), is 
in love with Carlos {q.v.), and, overcoming 
her father's opposition, marries her lover in 
the end. See Clodio. An Anaelina ^gMxes 
in (4) T. H. HiGGiE's 'Devil's Mount' 
iq.v.), (5) B. Webster's 'Old Gentleman' 
iq.v.), and (6) W. Brough and A. Halli- 
day's ' Pretty Horsebreaker ' {q.v.). 

Ang-eline le Lis. A drama in one act, 
by J. T. Haines {q.v.), first performed at the 
St. James's Theatre, London, on September 
29, 1S37, with Mrs. Stirling in the title part ; 
produced at Niblo's Garden, New York, in 
1S41, and revived at Laura Keene's Theatre 
in 1S57. 

Ang-elo. A tragedy by Victor Hugo, 
first performed in Paris in 183.5, and adapted 
to the English and American stage under 
the following titles :— (1) ' Angelo, the 
Tyrant of Padua,' produced at the Victoria 
Theatre, London, in 1S35. (2) ' Angelo : ' a 
tragedy in four acts, by Charles Reade 
{q.v.), first performed at the Olympic The- 
atre, London, on August 11, 1851, with H. 
Farren as Angelo Malipieri ; Miss L. How- 
ard as Catarina, his wife ; Mrs. Stirling as 
La Tishe, his supposed mistress ; W. Farren 
as Rodolfo, and Diddear as Homodci. (3) 
'The Actress of Padua' (1852) {q.v.). 
Hugo's ' Angelo ' was produced at New York 
and Boston, U..S.A., in 1855, with Rachel as 
La Tisbe. It has been translated into Eng- 
lish blank verse by E. O. Coe (ISSO). La 

Tishe, the actress, whom Angelo pursue3 
with his attentions, is in love with Rodolfo. 
She discovers, however, that he is enamoured 
of Catarina, and, when Angelo lays a trap 
for the lovers. La Tishe is able to extricate 
them, though at the cost of her own life. 

Ang-elo. (1) Deputy of the Duke of 

Vieima, in ' Measure for Measure ' {q.v.) ; 

he is betrothed to Mariana {q.v.), but makes 

lawless proposals to Isabella {q.v.). Hazlitt 

says of him that " he seems to have a much 

greater passion for hypocrisy than for his 

j mistress." (2) A goldsmith in ' The Co- 

i medy of Errors ' {q.v.). (3) Friend of Julio, 

in Beaumont and Fletcher's 'Captain' 

\ {q.v.). (4) A character in Brougham's ' Bel 

Demonio' {q.v.). 

Angelo, the Tyrant of Padua. See 


Angels and Lucifers ; or, Court- 
ship and Congreves. A farce by E. L. 
Blanchard {q.v.), first performed at the 
Royal Manor House Theatre, Chelsea, about 
1838-9, with the author as Benjamin Brim- 
stone, an itinerant vendor of matches ; pro- 
duced at the Olympic Theatre, London, on 
October 25, 1841, with G. Wild as Brimstone ; 
produced at New York in 1857, with James 
Rogers in the chief part. 

"Angels and ministers of grace 
defend us." — ' Hamlet,' act i. sc. 4. Ham- 
lets exclamation on first seeing the Ghost— 

"Be thou a spirit of health or goblin damn'd." 

Anger figures in Tom Taylor's " mo- 
rality," 'Sense and Sensation' {q.v.). 

Angiolina, in Byron's 'Marino Faliero' 
{q.v.) and 'The Doge of Venice' {q.v.), is the 
wife of Faliero. 

Angiolo. A character in Miss Vanden- 
HOFF's 'Woman's Heart' {q.v.). 

Anglade Family (Th.e). See Accu- 

Angle, Miss. A character in Mrs. 
Inchbald's ' Appearance is against Them ' 

Angot, Madame. See Fille de Ma- 
dame ANGOT. 

"Angry Boy (The)," in Jonson's 
'Alchemist' {q.v.), is Kastrill, the brother 
of Dame Pliant {q.v.). This character sup- 
plied Sheridan with an effective retort to a 
remark of Pitt's. " Although," says Mark 
Boyd, " Mr. Pitt rarely lost his temper, it is 
said that on one occasion he was seriously 
angry with Sheridan, whom he told to his 
face that he would be much better occupied 
at home correcting his plays. ' Probably I 
should,' said Richard Brinsley ; ' and the 
first I shall endeavour to correct wUl be the 
' Angry Schoolboy.' " 

Angus, J. Keith. Dramatic and mis- 
cellaneous writer, born at Aberdeen, 1848 ; 
author of 'Send Thirty Stamps' {q.v.), 
'By this Token ' (g.r.), and other dramatic 
pieces; as well as of 'A Scotch Playhouse' 



(the old Theatre Royal, Aberdeen) (1878), 
'Children's Theatricals' (1878), 'Theatrical 
Scenes for Children' (1879), 'The Comedie 
Franq;aise' (1879), and 'Amateur Acting' 

Anibal. A character in 'La Marjo- 
laine ' iq-v.). 

Animal Mag-netism. A farce in three 
acts, adapted from the French by Mrs. Inx'II- 
BALD (q.v.), first performed at Covent Garden 
on April 26, 1788, with Quick as the Doctor, 
Mrs. Wells as Constance, Pope as the Ifar- 
quis de Lancy, Edwin as Lajleur, and Mrs. 
Mattocks as Lisette. A Doctor keeps Con- 
stance, his Avard, under lock and key, desiring 
to marry her himself. But she is in love with 
a Marquis, and he and his servant Lajleur 
gain admission to the house in the characters 
of a sick man and a magnetic doctor. Much 
fun is got out of the magnetizing scenes. 
The part of Lajleur was in the repertory of 
both Jefferson "the second and fourth. The 
farce was first played in America in 1793. 

Animals on the Stagre. Horses, 
dogs, etc., have figured on tlie boards from 
"time immemorial" — not only as "proper- 
ties," but in reality. Plays have been writ- 
ten for them, and some of these still hold 
the stage. At one time the " equestrian 
drama," as it was called, " flourished " 
indeed, and it has not yet wholly dis- 
appeared. To trace the origin of the appear- 
ance of animals even on the English sta^e 
would be impossible. Pepys speaks of wit- 
nessing in 1668 a performance of Shirley's 
'Hide Park,' in which horses were brouglit 
before the audience. In 1727, when Shake- 
speare's 'Henry VIII. ' was revived, a 
mounted champion figured in the corona- 
tion spectacle. In 1803 Astley rebuilt his 
amphitheatre, and it was then, says Dutton 
Cook, that the "equestrian drama" became 
an institution. In the same year a dog had 
figured at Drnry Lane in Reynolds's ' Cara- 
van' iq.v.), and had been so successful as to 
receive the tribute of the managerial rap- 
tures. In 1811 Colman's ' Blue Beard ' was 
brought out at Covent Garden Avith a troop 
of horses — a spectacle satirized at the Hay- 
market in 'The Quadrupeds of Quedlin- 
burgh' iq.v.), and at Drury Lane in 'The 
Quadrupeds ; or. The ^Manager's Last Kick ' 
iq.v.). In the prologue to the former, it 
was said— 

" Dear Johnny Bull, . . . 
Your toste, recovered half from forei!2:n quacks, 
Takes airings now on English horses' backs. 
While every modern bard may raise his name, 
If not on lasting praise, on stable fame." 

In the brothei-s Smith's ' Rejected Ad- 
dresses,' published in 1812, we read in the 
parody on Coleridge — 

" Amid the freaks that modern fashion sanctions, 
It grieves nie much to see live animals 
Brought on the stage. Grimaldi has his rabbit, 
Laurent his cat, and Bradbury his pig. 
Fie on such tricks ! " 

'The Dog of Montargis; or. The Forest of 
Bondy,' has, as its title indicates, a dog for 
its hero ; whilst in ' The Hindoo Robber ' 
there are two dogs. Horses are introduced in 

more than one of Boucicault's dramas, and, 
as Percy Fitzgerald reminds us, Chilperic, in 
the opera, sings a song on horseback. In 
' Claude Duval' (Stephens and Solomon) the 
highwayman makes his first appearance thus. 
' Mazeppa,' to the representation of which a 
horse is essential, is still seen at intervals ; 
an elephant has played its part in ' Round 
the World' (g. v.); a donkey figured in 'La 
Cigale' (q.v.); sheep have been employed 
in comic opera ; and the presence of live 
animals is, of course, frequent in pantomime. 
Birds have often appeared in plays, as in 
Tennyson's ' Falcon,' for example. See 
Dutton Cook's ' Book of the Play ' (1876) and 
Percy Fitzgerald's 'The World Behind the 
Scenes ' (1881). 

Anjou, Marg-aret of, figures in 
Franklin's ' Earl of Warwick' (g. v.). 

Ankarstrom. A character in H. M. 
MiLNER's libretto, 'Gustavus III.' (g.y.). 

Anna. A comedy ascribed to ^Nliss 
CUTHBERT.SON, and performed at the Hay- 
market, for the first and only time, on 
February 25, 1793, by Palmer, Bannister, 
jun., Wroughton, Suett, Mrs. Jordan, Miss 
Pope, Mrs. Powell, Mrs. Kemble, etc. 

Anna BuUen. See Anne Boleyn ; 
Virtue Betrayed. 

Anna Maria. The " maid of all work " 
in T. J. Williams's ' Ici on Parle Fran^ais' 

Annabel. (1) The wife of the hero, in 
Miss :Mitford's 'Julian' (q.v.). (2) A cha- 
racter in 'The Man of Ten Thousand' (q.v.). 

Annabella. Sister of Giovanni, in 
Ford's ' 'Tis Pity she's a AVhore ' (q.v.). 

Annap olis, U.S.A. The theatre here 
was erected in 1831, and opened by J. B. 
Booth, under the management of Thomas 

Anne Blake. A play in five acts, by 
Wesxland Marston (q.v.), first performed at 
the Princess's Theatre, London, on October 
28, 1852, with Mrs. C. Kean in the title part, 
C Kean as Thorold, W. Lacy as Llaniston, 
Addison as Sir JosejyJi Tojypington, and Mrs. 
Winstanley as Lady Toppington. Anne 
lives with the Toppinytons, who are induced, 
by pressure in reference to a mortgage, to 
promise her to Llaniaton. By a device she 
is brought to think that Thorold, whom she 
loves, and who loves her, does not cai-e for 
her, and she accepts Llaniston ; but in the 
end the lovers are made happy. The play 
was first performed at New York in Novem- 
ber, 1852, with F. Conway as Thorold and 
Mrs. Mowatt as the heroine. It was revived 
at the Standard Theatre, London, in 1861, 
with Miss Marriott in the title part. 

Anne Boleyn. Consort of Henry VIII. , 
and centi-al figure of the following dramatic 
works, each named after her :— (1) A dra- 
matic poem by Henry Hart Milman (q.v.\ 
printed in 1826. (2) A tragedy by G. H. 
BOKER (g.r.), printed in 1850. (3) A panto- 
mime by Nelson Lee (q.v.) produced at the 



City of London Theatre at Christmas, 1S56. 
(4) A buriesque extravaganza by Conway 
Edwardes (q.v.), first performed at the 
Royalty Theatre, London, on September 7, 

1572, with E. Danvers in the title part, and 
other parts by Miss Bella Moore, Miss 
Emma Chambers, Miss Kate Phillips, and 
Miss H. Coveney. (5) A. historical play in 
four acts, by R. "Dodsox, first performed at 
the Victoria Theatre, London, on March 22, 

1573. (6) A drama by ToM Taylor (q.v.), 
first performed at the Haymarket Theatre, 
London, on February 5, 1876, with Miss 
JNeilson as the heroine, H. Howe as Earl of 
Surrey, Kyrle Bellew as Percy, Miss Carlisle 
as Jane Seymour, ^liss B. Henri as Lady 
Rochfort, A. Cecil as Chapuis, Everill as Sir 
J. Boleyn, Conway as Francis Weston, C. 
Ifarcourt as the King, and A. Matthison as 
Sir T. Wyatt. "'Anne'Boleyn,' " -writes Dutton 
Cook, "purports to relate history in blank 
verse. Little recourse has been had to in- 
vention ; no fictitious personages are per- 
mitted to occupy the scene. ' Anne Boleyn ' 
is indeed a dramatic version of the text- 
books." See Boleyn, Anne, and Virtue 


Anne, Lady. "Widow of the Prince of 
AY ales in 'Richard III.' (g.r.), afterwards 
married to Richard. For the famous wooing, 
see act i. sc. 2. Lady Anne appears, of 
course, in the burlesques of ' Richard III.' 
by Selby, Stirling Coyne, and Burn.a.nd. 

Anne T-Iie (i.e. Mary Anne). A domestic 
comedy in four acts, by Rosier Faassen, per- 
formed in the original Dutch at the Imperial 
Theatre, London, in June, ISSO, with a cast 
including Miss Catherine Beersmans (in the 
title part), J. Haspels, W. van Zuylen, etc. ; 
adapted by Clement Scott (^.r.), and per- 
f/jrmed at' the Prince of Wales's Theatre, 
London, on November 1, ISSO, with Miss 
Genevieve Ward in the title part, Edgar 
Bruce as Herbert L.usscll, J. Fernandez as 
Dirksen, ?iliss C Grahame as Lise, :Mrs. 
Leigh Murray as Xeeltje, J. Forbes-Robertson 
as Koenraa'd, and C. P. Flockton as Jan 

Anne of Austria is one of the 2yerso7icB 
tn C. Rice's 'Three Musketeers '(5.1-.). 

Anne of G-eierstein. A play, founded 
on the story by Sir Walter Scott, and first 
performed at New York in INIarch, 1S34. 

Annerly, Frank. The hero of Mar- 
STON's ' Favourite of Fortune ' (q.v.). 

Annesley, James. The hero of C. 
Reade'S 'Wandering Heir' {q.v.). 

Annette. The name of a character in 
(1) Payne's 'Maid and the Magpie' (q.r.), 
and (2) COLMAN juniors ' Blue Devils ' 
(q.v.). (3) Daughter of Mathias, and affianced 
to Christian, in Ware's 'Polish Jew' and 
L. Lewis's ' Bells.' 

Annette; or, The Fruits of Crime. 

A play produced at the National Theatre, 
New York, in 1S3S.—' Annette' is the title 
fji an opera by G. E. Horn (q.v.). 

Annette and Lubin. A comedy-opera 
in one act, adapted by C. Dibdin (q.v.) from 
the French, and first performed at Covent 
Garden on October 2, 177S, with 3Iiss Brown 
and Mrs. Farrell in the title parts. Annette 
and Lubin live together on the banks of the 
Seine, knowing no wrong. They are rudely 
enlightened, and for a time fear that, being 
cousins, they will not be permitted to 
marry ; but the lord of the manor procures 
for them a dispensation. 

Anniversary (The). A farce, in- 
tended as a sequel to 'Lethe' (q.v.), and 
first performed at Covent Garden in March, 

Annophel, in Beaumont and Flet- 
cher's 'Laws of Candy' (5.!;.), is daughter 
of Cassilane, the general. 

Annot. Daughter of Allen Allison in 
J. T. Haines's ' Wraith of the Lake.' 

Anodyne, Dr. A character in W. H. 
Oxberry's 'Delusion" (q.v.). 

Anonymous. The captain of the Royal 
Guards in Planciie's 'Golden Fleece '(q.v.). 

Anonymous Letter (The). A co- 
medy in three acts, by Mark Ambient and 
Frank Latimer, first performed at the 
Lyric Theatre, London, on the afternoon of 
May 5, 1S91, with a cast including W. H. 
Vernon, L. Waller, E. Lewis, G. Mndie, 
Miss F. West, Miss Annie Rose, Miss Vane, 
and Miss Alexes Leighton. 

A-nother. A character in ' The Man- 
darin's Daughter' (q.v.). 

Another Drink. A burlesque on C. 
Reade'S ' Drink ' (q.v.), written by H. Savile 
Clarke (q.v.) and Lewis Clifton (q.v.), 
and first performed at the Folly Theatre, 
London, in July. 1S79, with G. W. Anson 
as Coujyeau and Mdme. Dolaro as Gervaise. 

Another Glass. See Drunkard's 

Ansell, Mrs., actress, was the third 
wife of Richard Yates, the actor (q.v.), and 
after his death adopted the stage as a pro- 
fession. In or after 1800 she mamed again, 
and thenceforth acted as " Mrs. Ansell." 
She played both in London (at Drury Lane, 
Covent Garden, and the Haymarket) and 
the provinces. Among her parts were the 
Queen in ' Hamlet,' Margaret of Anjou (' Earl 
of Warwick'), Mandane ('Cyrus'), and 
Angela (' Castle Spectre '). A contemporary 
writer describes her acting as "spirited", 
but generally too elaborate " (' Thespian Dic- 
tionary,' IsOo). 

Ansell, Mary. Actress ; made her 
debut at the Grand, Islington, in April, 
1890 : has played in London the following 
"original" parts -.—liosie in 'A Month after 
Date' (1S91), Inez in 'A Mighty Error" 
(iS91), yancy O'Brien in ' Walker, London ' 
(1S92), and Sophia in 'Fast Asleep' (1S92) ; 
also, Evangeline in * All the Comforts of 
Home* (1891), Loyse in 'Gringoire' (1891). 




Sybil Hardimck in 'The Bookmaker' (1891), 
Nelly Saunders in ' Formosa,' and Virginia 
Vanderpump in ' Brighton ' (1892). 

Anselma. A play, founded by L. Rich- 
ardson on the ' Andrea' (q.v.) of Victorien 
Sardou, and produced in New York, at the 
Madison Square Theatre, in September, 1875, 
with Mdme. Janish in the principal r6le. 
The piece was afterwards called ' The Prin- 
cess Andrea.' 

Anselmo, Brother, in Oxenford's 
'Monastery of St. Just' (q.v.), is the name 
adopted by the Emperor Charles V. 

Anson, Georg-e William. Actor, born 
at Montrose, .Scotland, on November 25, 
1847 ; son of John William Anson ((/.r.) ; first 
appeared on the stage in December, 1865, at 
the Theatre Royal, Edinburgh, and made 
his debut in the metropolis at the Olympic 
on October 4, 1873, as Minadab in Byron's 
' Sour Grapes.' Among his other original 
rdles are Huguet in Recce's ' Richelieu Re- 
dressed,' Scum Goodman in Taylor's ' Lady 
Clancarty,' Picard in ' The Two Orphans,' 
Sir Howardin Albery's ' Spendthrift,' Mousta 
in Gilbert's 'Broken Hearts,' Abb^ Plaque 
in Wills's ' Ellen,' Coupeau in ' Another 
Drink,' Commander Jarbi in ' Fernande,' 
Gubbins in Byron's ' Courtship,' Tupman in 
' The Trial from Pickwick,' Washington 
Phipps in ' The Old Love and the New,' Mr. 
Merriweather in * Two Old Boys,' Friar Philip 
in Wills's ' Juana,' Jagurtha Brouni in Reece 
and Thorpe's ' Out of the Hunt,' Sir Josiah 
Muggeridge in Grundy's • Dust,' Joe Vinton 
in Burnand's 'Manager,' Ledger, M.P., in 
Godfrey's ' Parvenu,' Ptolemy Timbs in Sims' 
'Wise Child," Mr. Dominie in Collins's 
•Rank and Riches,' Septimus Wragshy in 
Pettitt's 'Spider's Web,' Dan Bradbury in 
Jones and Herman's ' Breaking a ButterHy,' 
Sidney Gibson in ' The Private Secretary,' 
Dr. Ceneri in ' Called Back,' Slater "in 
Grundy's 'An Old Jew,' and Schivartz in 
Grundy's * Bunch of Violets.' Among 
his other impersonations are Verges in 
' Much Ado ' (1874), Banter in ' New INIen 
and Old Acres' (1876), the Major in ' Henry 
Dunbar ' (1877), Fagin in ' Nancy Sikes ' 
(1878), Grimaldi in ' The Life of an Actress ' 
(1879), Dufard in ' The First Night ' (1879), 
Michonnet in ' Adrienne Lecouvreur ' (1880), 
the Governor in ' The Critic ' (1880), Peter 
and the Apothecary in ' Romeo and Juliet ' 
(1881), Brigard in ' Frou Frou ' (ISSl), King 
Phanor in '.The Palace of Truth" (1884), 
Woodcock in 'A Lucky Dog' (1892), and 
Eccles in ' Caste ' (1S94). 

Anson, John William. Actor, born 
in London, July 31, 1817 ; made his ddbut 
in 1843 at Bath. He afterwards joined the 
Ryde, York, and Belfast circuits, and was 
the manager of several theatres in Scotland. 
He first appeared in London in 1853, at 
Astley's, making special successes in Fal- 
staff. Bailie Nicol Jarvie, and " our own 
correspondent " in 'The Battle of the Alma.' 
He was for many years treasurer of the 
Adelphi Theatre, London. He founded, in 
1855, the Dramatic, Equestrian, and Musical 

Sick Fund ; in 1856, the Dramatic Burial 
Ground at Woking ; in 1859, the Dramatic 
CoUege ; in 1866, the G. V. Brooke Lifeboat 
Fund. He was also one of the founders of 
the Junior Garrick Club, He died in 1881. 

Anspach, Elizabeth, Margravine 
of. Daughter of fourth Earl of Berkeley ; 
bom 1750, died 1828 ; man-ied, in 1767, the 
sixth Earl of Craven, and, in 1791, Christian, 
Margrave of Anspach ; wi-ote ' The Som- 
nambule' (1778), 'The Miniature Picture' 
(1781), 'The Silver Tankard' (1781), 'The 
Arcadian Pastoral' (1782), 'The Statue 
Feast ' (1782), 'The Yorkshire Ghost' (1794), 
' The Princess of Georgia ' (1799), ' Puss in 
Boots' (1799), 'Nourjad' (1803), and 'Love 
in a Convent ' (1805), all of which see. She 
also wrote two plays in French, ' LaFolledu 
Jour' and ' Abdoul et Nourjad,' and trans- 
lated into French ' She Would and She 
Would Not ' (q.v.). Her ' ilemoirs ' appeared 
in 1826. See also the ' Biographia Dra- 
matica' (1812), Genest's 'English Stage' 
(1832), and Walpole's ' Letters ' (1859). See 


Anstey, F. Two stories by this writer 
— ' Vice Versa' (g.v.) and ' The Tinted Venus' 
(g.v.)— have bsen adapted to the stage. 

Antarctic ; or, The Pole and the 
Traces. A " bouffonnerie musicale" by H. 

B. Farnie (^-.v.), first performed at the Strand 
Theatre, London, on December 27, 1875, 
by E. Terry as Paletot, H. Cox as Bastille, 

C. Marius, Miss Lottie Venne, and Miss 
Angelina Claude. 

Antenor. A Trojan commander in 
'Troilus and Cressida' (q.v.). 

Anthony of Italy, St., is one of 
Planchk's ' Sevon Champions of Christen- 
dom' (q.v.). 

Anthony Street Theatre, New 
York. See New York Theatres. 

Anti-Rosciad. (The). See Rosciad, 

Anti-Theatre (The). See Theatre, 

Antichristi, De Adventu. The title 
of the twenty-third Chester play, of which 
Antichrist is the hero. He "assumes," says 
Collier, "almighty power, and, after raising 
two dead men, and dying himself and coming 
to life again, he gives away to four credulous 
kings what are called the four kingdoms of 
the world. . . . Enoch and Elias arrive to- 
disprove the claim of Antichrist to be the 
Messiah. . . . The four kings consent to listen 
to the 'proofs of disputation,' and an argu- 
ment is commenced, between Enoch and 
Elias on one side and Antichrist on the other. 
... At last Enoch and Elias challenge Anti- 
christ to make the dead, whom he had 
before raised, eat. Elias blesses bread in 
the name of the Trinity, and, marking it 
with a cross, requires the dead to taste it ; 
but they turn from it with fear and horror. 
. . . The proof is quite convincing to the. 
four kings, and Antichrist, in a fury, draws a 
sword and kills them, as well as Enoch arnl 



Elias. The Archangel Michael arrives, and 
does the same execution on Antichrist- . . . 
The end of the pageant is the departure of 
Enoch and Elias with Michael to Heaven " 
('Dramatic Poetry'). 

Antidote. (1) Lady Antidote is a cha- 
racter in J. V. MiLLiNGEN's ' Ladies at 
Home' iq.v.), and (2) there is a Mrs. 
Antidote in POCOCK'S * Anything New ' 

Antig-allican (The). See Heiress, 

Antig-one. A Theban princess ; heroine 
of the following dramatic works :— (1) A tra- 
gedy by Sophocles {q.v.) ; translated, sepa- 
rately, into English by Spillan (1831), Bartho- 
lomew (1844), Campbell (1873), Mongan (ISSO). 
A translation by R. Whitelav/ was per- 
formed at the Crystal Palace on November 6, 
1890. (2) 'Antigone, the Theban Princess,' 
a tragedy by Tho>ias May (q.v.), founded on 
Sophocles, Seneca, etc., and published in 
1631. (3) A tragedy by Alfieri (1782) ; 
translated into English by Lloyd (1815) and 
Bowring (1876). (4) A version of Sophocles' 
tragedy \q.v.) was performed at Covent 
Garden Theatre, London, in January, 1845, 
with Miss Vandenhoff in the title part, and 
her father as Creon, and with the aid 
of Mendelssohn's music. This represen- 
tation was witnessed by Edward Fitz- 
Gerald, who wrote of it : "" The music very 
fine, I thought. It was horribly ill sung 
by a chorus in shabby togas, who looked 
much more like dirty leakers than Theban 
(were they?) respectable old gentlemen. 
Mr. Vandenhoff sat on a marble camp-stool 
in the middle, and looked like one of Flax- 
man's Homeric kings— very well." Jliss Van- 
denhofl's Antigone was praised for "its 
classic simplicity, its grace, and pathos." 
The tragedy was played at Dublin in March, 
1845, with Miss Helen Faucit in the title part ; 
at Palmo's Opera House, New York, in April, 
1845, with G. Vandenhoff as Creon, Chanfrau 
as Hcemon, and I\Iiss Clarendon as the 
heroine ; and at the Crystal Palace, in 
December, 1875, with Miss Genevieve Ward 
in the leading role. De Quincey described 
Miss Faucit's J.niic/one as "the most fault- 
less of Grecian marbles." ' ' What perfection 
of Athenian sculpture ! the noble figure, 
the lordly arms, the fluent drapery ! What 
an unveiling of the ideal statuesque ! . . . 
Perfect she is in form ; perfect in attitude." 
(5) A burlesque by E. L. Bl.vnchard {q.v.), 
first performed at the Strand Theatre, Lon- 
don, in February, 1845, with G. Wild as 
Antigone and H. Hall as Creon. 

Antig-one, tlie Theban Princess. 
See Antigone. 

Antig-onus. (1) A Sicilian lord in ' The 
Winter's Tale' (q.v.), husband of Paulina 
(q.v.), and employed by Leontes (q.v.) to 
make away with his infant daughter. (2) The 
King in BEAUMONT and FLETCHER'S ' Hu- 
morous Lieutenant' (q.v.). 

Antiraony. (1) A character in T. 

DiBDiN's ' Will for the Deed ' (q.v). (2) An 
old bachelor in J. F. Smith's 'Lesson for 
Gentlemen' (q.v.). 

AntinoTis. Brother oi Annophel (q.v.), 
in Beaumont and Fletcher's 'Laws of 
Candy ' (q.v.). 

Antiochus. (1) A tragedy by John 
iMOTTLEY (q.v.), first performed at Lincoln's 
Inn Fields on April 13, 1721, with Ryan in the 
title part, Mrs. Seymour as Stratonice, and 
Quin as Seleiichus. Antiochus, son of Seleu- 
chus (King of Syria), is in love with Stra- 
tonice, his father's wife, and she with him. 
The king overhears their mutual declara- 
tions, and surrenders Stratonice to his son. 
Stratonice, however, poisons herself. (2) 
A tragedy on the same subject by CHARLES 
Shuckborough, printed in 1740. 

Antiochus. (1) King of Antioch in 
• Pericles \(q.v.). (2) A Parthian commander 
in WiLKiNS'S ' Egyptian ' (q.v.). 

Antiochus the Great ; or, The Fatal 
Relapse. AtragedybyMrs. Jane Wiseman 
(q.v.), first performed at Lincoln's Inn Fields 
in 1702, with Powell as the hero, Mrs. Barry 
as Leodice, Mrs. Bowman as Berenice, and 
Booth as Ormades. Antiochus has seduced 
and deserted Leodice. He marries Berenice, 
daughter of the King of Egypt, who loves, 
and is loved by, Ormades, an Egyptian 
prince. Antiochus, after being reconciled 
to Leodice, surprises Berenice and Ormades 
together. Ormades kills himself, Leodice 
poisons herself and the king, and Berenice 
returns to Egypt. 

Antipholus. The name of two brothers 
("of Ephesus" and "of Syracuse"), twin 
sons of jEgeon, in ' The Comedy of Errors ' 

" The one so like the other, 
As could not be distinguish'd but by names." 

Antipholus of Ei^hesus is man-ied to Adriana 
(q.v.). It is the likeness between the twins 
which causes most of the embroglio in the 
comedy. "Matters," says Schlegel, "are 
carried so far, that one of the two brothers 
is first arrested for debt, then confined as a 
lunatic, and the other is forced to take 
refuge in a sanctuary to save his life." 

Antipo. A tragedy by Francis Verney, 
" written in couplets and divided into five 
acts ; an unpublished quarto manuscript, 
formerly in the Lee Warley Collection, near 
Canterbury " (W. C. Hazlitt). 

Antipodes (The). (1) A comedy by 
Richard Brome (q.v.), acted "at Sahsbury 
Court, in Fleet Street," in 1638, and printed 
in 1640: " Peregrine has studied Mandeville 
and other writers of travels, till he is become 
disordered in his wits. "The Doctor, who 
undertakes to cure him, proposes that they 
should travel together to the Antipodes, 
telling him that the Antipodes under Eng- 
land are English 

' To the exterior show : but in their manners. 
Their carriage, and condition of life, 
E.\tremely contrarj'.' 



He then gives his patient a strong sleeping 
potion, and conveys him to the house of a 
lord. \Mien Peregrine Avakes, a play is 
acted before him to represent the manners 
of the Antipodes. Everything is done con- 
trary to what is usual ; two sergeants with 
draAvn swords run from a gentleman who 
wishes them to arrest him ; a lawyer refuses 
all fees ; a citizen makes a complaint of a 
gentleman who will not cuckold him, etc., 
etc. At the conclusion of the play. Peregrine 
recovers his senses. There is an under- 
plot, in which Joyless, Peregrine's father, 
is cured of his jealousy." See Leigh Hunt's 

* Wit and Humour ; ' also By-play ; Pere- 
grine. (2) ' The Antipodes ; or, The Ups 
and Downs of Life : ' a play in three acts, by 
Tom Taylor iq.v.), first performed at the 
Holbom Theatre on June 8, 18G7, with ]\Iiss 
Ellen Terry as Madeline, Mrs. P.aymond as 
Mrs. Seymour, Miss C. Saunders as Miskin 
(a groom), J. Vollaire as Seymour, E. Price 
as Hon. Sam Strayigeways, and S. Emery as 
Duck-fingered Joe. 

Antipodes, Tlie King: of the. A 

potentate so named figures in Carey's 

* Chrononhotonthologos ' (7. v.), where he 
is described as entering "walking on his 
hands." The Queen of Queerummania, who 
is enamoured of him, says to her atten- 

"In what a charming attitude he stands I 
How prettily he foots it with his hands ! " 

Antiquary (The). (1) A comedy by 
Shackerly Marmion {q.v.), acted at the 
Cock-pit before May 12, 1G36, and printed in 
1C41. " The play was revised before publica- 
tion, the scene being changed from Venice to 
Pisa, and Bravo's character being altered in 
iii. 1 and v. 3" (Fleay). "The character of 
the Antiquary, who cannot endure anything 
but what is old, is an admirable hint, original 
in its execution" (W. C. Hazlitt). The piece 
is included among Dodsley's old plays. The 
name of the xVntiquary is Veterans (q.v.). (2) 
A musical play, adapted by D. Terry (q.v.) 
from the novel of Sir Walter Scott, and first 
produced at Covent Garden on January 25, 
1820, with Liston as Jonathan Oldbuck (the 
antiquary), Emery as Edie Ochiltree, Blan- 
chard as Caxon, Duruset as Lovel, Terry 
himself as Lord Glenallan, Abbott as Hector 
Maclntyre, Farley as Saunders Mucklebackit, 
Chapman as Sir Arthur Wardour, Mrs. 
Faucit as Elspeth of the Craighurnfoot, Miss 
■Stephens as Miss Isabella Wardour, Miss 
ilatthews as Miss Maria Maclntyre, and 
Mrs. Davenport as Miss Grizelda Oldbuck. 
— A dramatization of Scott's novel Avas per- 
formed at New York in May, 1822, with 
CoweU as Oldbuck and May wood as Ochil- 

Antiquity. A farce in two acts, " by a 
young gentleman of the Inner Temple ; " 
imacted, and published in ISOS. "The 
object of it was to ridicule the taste for 
a-ntiquity, when it goes to unreasonable 
lengths." See the ' Biographia Dramatica' 

Antoine. The dumb sailor-boy in W. 
J. Lucas's ' Death Plank' (q.v.). 

Antoine ; ou, Les Trois Epoques. 
See Past and Present. 

Antoine the Savag-e. A melodrama, 
played at New York in December, 1S29. 

Antoinette. The heroine of Offen- 
bach's ' La Creole ' (q.v.). 

Antoinette, Marie. See Marie An- 

Antoinette Rigraud. A comedy in 
three acts, translated by Ernest Warren 
(q.v.) from the French play of the same 
name by Eaymond Deslandes (Comddie 
Fran^aise, September SO, 18S5), and first 
performed at the St. James's Theatre, Lon- 
don, on February 13, 1886, with Mrs. Kendal 
in the title part, W. H. Kendal as Henri de 
Tourvel, J. Hare as General de Prdfond, J. 
H. Barnes as Rigaud, Miss Linda Dietz as 
Marie de Prefond, etc. ; performed at Bos- 
ton, U.S.A., in March, 1877, with Miss 
Evesson as Antoinette. See Keepsake, 

Antonio. (1) The " merchant of Venice " 
in Shakespeare's play (q.v.), whose bond 
with Shylock forms the main basis of the 
drama. He makes his entry in the first scene 
of the play. Schlegel characterizes his 
"melancholy and self-sacrificing equanimity" 
as "affectingly sublime." (2) The "seacap- 
taiu" in 'Twelfth Night' (g.r.), who saves 
Sebastian (q.v.) from drowning on the coast 
of lUyria. (3) The usurping brother of the 
rightful Duke of Milan, in 'The Tempest' 
(q.v.). (4) Father of Proteus, in 'The Two 
Gentlemen of Verona' (q.v.). (5) Kinsman 
of Petruccio, in Beaumont and Fletcher's 
• Chances ' (q.v.). (6) The steward, in Web- 
ster's ' Duchess of Malfy' (q.v.). (7) Father 
of Carlos (q.v.) and Clodio (q.v.), in Cibber's 
' Love Makes a Man' (q.v.). 

Antonio ; or,The Soldier's Keturn. 
A tragedy in five acts, by W. Godwin (q.v.), 
performed at Drury Lane, for the first and 
only time, on December 13, 1800, with Kemble 
as the hero, :\Irs. Siddons as Helena, Barry- 
more as Don GuzmayuWronghton as the King 
of Arragon, and C Kemble as Don Henry. 
Antonio is the brother of Helena, and o'n 
his return from the wars is angry to find 
that his sister, who had been betrothed by 
his father to Jiodrigo, has been married to 
Don Guzman. He appeals to the King, and, 
receiving no satisfaction, forces Helena into 
a convent. She is rescued thence by her 
husband and Do7i Henry, but is eventually 
stabbed by Antonio. 

Antonio, Don. A poor nobleman, in 
love with Louisa (q.v.), in Sheridan's ' Du- 
enna ' (q.v.). 

Antonio and Mellida. A drama bv 
John :Marston (q.v.), acted by the children 
of St. Paul's in or before 1602, and printed 
in that year. Lamb said of this play that "the 
situation of Andrugiosind Lucio," where An- 
drugio, Duke of Genoa, banished his country, 




with the loss of a son supposed drowned, is 
cast upon the territory of his mortal enemy 
the Duke of Venice, with no attendants but 
Lucio, an old nobleman, and a page, "re- 
sembles that of Lear and Kent in that 
king's distresses. Andrur/w, like Lear, mani- 
fests a king-like impatience, a turbulent 
greatness, an affected resignation." Hazlitt 
describes the play as "a tragedy of con- 
siderable force and pathos, but in the most 
critical parts the author frequently breaks 
off, or flags ^^-ithout any apparent reason 
but want of interest in his subject ; and, 
further, the best and most affecting situa- 
tions and bursts of feeling are too evidently 
imitations of Shakespeare." A sequel to 
this drama was written by Marstox, under 
the title of ' Antonio's Revenge.' This also 
was acted by the children of St. Paul's (in 
1600), and printed in 1602. Lamb says that 
'• the prologue to the second part, for its 
passionate earnestness, and for the tragic 
note of preparation which it sounds, might 
have preceded one of those old tales of 
Thebes or Pelops' line, which Milton has 
so highly commended." " This play," says 
Fleav, "was a 'revenge for a father' play, 
like Shakespeare's 'Hamlet' and Chettle's 
' Hoffman.' Revenge plays were very popu- 
lar just then." 

Antonio and Vallia. A comedy as- 
cribed to Philip Massinger (q.v.), the 
manuscript of which is supposed to have 
been destroyed by "VVarburton's servant. 
It was probably an adaptation of a play 
by Dekker (circa 1590). 

Antonio of Kag-usa. "One of the 
characters in a titleless comedy in the 
Bodleian (Rawl. Poet. 93)" (W. C. Hazlitt). 

Antonio's Revenge. See Antonio 
AND Mellida. 

Antonius. A tragedy by Mart, Coun- 
tess of Pejibroke ; translated from the 
French of R. Garnier, and published in 1592. 
It was reprinted in 1595 under the name of 
•Antony.' Its "most remarkable feature," 
says Collier, " is that all the principal 
speeches are in blank verse, so that it is an 
early attempt in that kind. The choruses, 
in various lyrical measures, are usually well 

Antony, Mark, in Shakespeare's 
'Julius Cfesar' (q.v.), is mainly remarkable 
for his well-known speech over the body of 
Caesar, commencing— 

"Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears" 

(act iii. sc. 2). Antony reappears in ' Antony 
and Cleopatra' (q.v.) as the hero of that 
tragedy. "In Antony," says Schlegel, 
" we observe a mixture of great qualities, 
weaknesses, and vices, violent ambition, 
and ebullitions of magnanimity— we see him 
now sinking into luxurious enjoyment, and 
then, nobly ashamed of his own aberrations, 
manning himself to resolutions not unworthy 
of himself, which are always shipwrecked 
against the seductions of an artful woman. 

It is Hercules in the chains of Omphale, 
drawn from the fabulous heroic ages into 
history, and invested with the Roman cos- 
tume." Hazlitt speaks of "the irregular 
gi-andeur of the soul of Mark Antony." 
"Antony," says Hallam, "was given to the 
dramatist by history, and he has but em- 
bodied in his own vivid colours the irregular 
mind of the triumvir, ambitious and daring 
against all enemies but himself." Antony 
is a prominent character also in the Coun- 
tess of Pembroke's 'Antonius' (q.v.), in 
Daniel's 'Cleopatra' (q.v.), in Dryden's 
'AU for Love' (q.v.), in 'Caesar in Egypt, 
(q.v.). and in E. Stirling's 'Serpent of 
the Nile ' (q.v.). 

Antony and Cleopatra. (1) A tragedy 
by William Shakespeare (q.v.), entered in 
the Stationers' Register under date May 20, 
1608, and first printed in the folio of 1623. 
The Countess of Pembroke had printed in 
1592 her tragedy of ' Antonius ' (q.v.), and 
Daniel had published in 1594 his tragedy of 
' Cleopatra ' (q.v.), but Shakespeare owed 
nothing to either of these plays, his chief 
authority being the biography of Mark 
Antony in Roger North's translation of 
Plutarch's ' Lives.' " ' Antony and Cleo- 
patra,'" says Schlegel, "may in some mea- 
sure be considered as a continuance of 
'Julius Caesar' (g.w.)— the two principal 
characters of Antony and Augustus are 
equally sustained in both pieces. ' Antony 
and Cleopatra ' is a play of great extent ; 
the progress is less simple than in ' Julius 
Caesar.' . . . The principal personages are 
most emphatically distinguished by linea- 
ment and colouring, and powerfully arrest 
the imagination." Coleridge doubted "whe<- 
ther the ' Antony and Cleopatra ' is not, in 
aU exhibitions of a giant power in its strength 
and vigour of maturity, a formidable rival of 
'Macbeth,' 'Lear,' 'Hamlet,' and 'OtheUo.' 
. . . This play should be perused in mental 
contrast with 'Romeo and Juliet,' as the- 
love of passion and appetite opposed to the 
love of affection and instinct. ... Of all 
Shakespeare's historical plays, ' Antony and 
Cleopatra' is by far the most powerful. 
There is not one in which he has followed 
history so minutely, and yet there are few 
in which he impresses the notion of angelic 
strength so much, perhaps none in which 
he expresses it more stronglj'." Coleridge- 
adds : "If you would feel the judgment as 
well as the genius of Shakespeare in your 
heart's core, compare this astonishing drama 
with Dryden's ' All for Love ' " (q.v.). "This," 
says Hazlitt, " is a very noble play. Though 
not in the first class ©f Shakespeare's pro- 
ductions, it stands next to them, and is, we- 
think, the finest of his historical plays. . . . 
"What he has added to the actual story is- 
upon a par -nith it. His genius was, as it 
were, a match for history as well as nature, 
and could grapple at will with either. The 
play . . . presents a fine picture of Roman 
pride and Eastern magnificence. . . . The 
characters breathe, move, and live." The first 
revival of the play, after the Restoration, 
was in January, 1759, when, adapted by 




Capell and Garrick, it was produced by the 
latter at Drury Lane. Garrick was the An- 
tony and Mrs. Yates the Cleopatra, and the 
production had a run of six nights only. 
The tragedy was next revived at Covent 
Garden in November, 1813, having been 
-prepared for the purpose by J. P. Kemble, 
who interpolated whole passages from ' All 
for Love.' C. M. Young and Mrs. Faucit 
then played the title parts, Mrs. Siddons 
having declined to perform that of Cleo- 
patra, on the ground that "she should 
hate herself if she were to play it as it 
ought to be played." Abbott was Octa- 
vius and Terry Ventidius. Yet another 
amalgam of Shakespeare and Dryden was 
produced at Drury Lane in November, 1S33, 
-with Macready as Antony, and Brindal, 
Diddear, and G. Bennett in other parts. 
The first American performance of the play 
took place at New York in April, 1846, with 
G. Vandenhoff as Antony and Mrs. Bland 
as Cleopatra. In October, 1849, Phelps re- 
stored the text to uniformity with the ori- 
ginal, and represented the tragedy at Sad- 
ler's Wells, with himself as the hero, Miss 
Glyn as the heroine, H. Marston as Pom- 
peius, and G. Bennett as Enoharbas. At 
the Standard in March, 1855, Henry Mar- 
ston was the Antony. The play was repre- 
sented at the Broadway Theatre, New York, 
in March, 1859, with Eddy as Antony, J. W. 
Howe as Octavius, Mdme. Ponisi as Cleo- 
patra, and Mrs. G. C. Germon as Charmian. 
In 1866 it was revived at Manchester by 
Charles Calvert, who played Antony to the 
Cleopatra of his wife. In May, 1867, it was 
revived at the Princess's, with H. Loraine 
as Antony, H. Forrester as Octavius, E. F. 
Edgar as Pompcius, and Miss Glyn again 
as Cleopatra. It was next reproduced at 
Drury Lane in 1873, when the leading r6les 
ivere performed by J. R. Anderson and ^liss 
Wallis, Ccesar being played by H. Sinclair, 
Enoharhus by J. Ryder, Eros by Howard 
Russell, anil Charmian by Miss Edith 
Stuart. The text had been edited and re- 
duced to four acts by Andrew Halliday, and 
the scenery was by W. R. Beverley. In 
1890 the tragedy was represented at the 
Princess's, London, with Mrs. Langtry as 
Cleopatra, C. Coghlan as Antony, F. K. 
Cooper as Octavius, H. Stirling as Enobar- 
btis, H. Loraine as Proculeius, Miss F. Ivor 
as Octavia, and Miss A. INIcNeill as Char- 
mian. 'Antony and Cleopatra' has been 
several times burlesqued ; first by F. C. 
BuRNAND, at the Haymarket, in November, 
1866, under the title of ' Antony and Cleo- 
patra ; or. Her Story and His Story, related 
in a modern Nilo-metre,' the chief parts 
being taken by C. J. Mathews and his wife, 
Compton, Rogers, Clark. ]Miss Fanny Wright, 
and Miss Caroline Hill ; next at Jersey, 
in 1870, by J. F. Draper ; again by F. C. 
BURNAND, under the title of 'Our Own 
Antony and Cleopatra' (q.v.); and again, 
by W. Sapte, jun., under the title of ' Mdlle. 
Cleopatra ' (q.v.). See Antony, Mark; 
Cesar ; Charmian ; Cleopatra ; Dola- 
BELLA ; Enobarbus ; Octavia ; Pompey. 
<2) A tragedy in rhyme, by Sir Charles 

Sedley (q.v.), acted at Dorset Garden in 
1677, with Betterton as Antony, Crosby as 
Thyreus, Medbourne as Canidius, and J^Irs. 
Mary Lee as Cleopatra. Mrs. Betterton, JNirs. 
Hughes, Mrs. Gibbs, Sandford, and Harris 
were also in the cast. For the plot Sedley 
was in no way indebted to Shakespeare. 
Thyreus is in love with Cleopatra; Antony 
is jealous of him, and orders him to be 
whipped. Canidius protests against such 
treatment of an ambassador. Thyreus and 
Antony fight, and the former is killed. (3) 
A tragedy by Henry Brooke ; unacted, and 
printed among the author's works (1778). 
(4) A burletta in one act, by Charles Selby 
(g.r.), first performed at the Adelphi The- 
atre, London, on November 7, 1842, with 
Wright as Antony, " a gentleman in town," 
and Miss Murray as Cleopatra (a grisette) ; 
revived at the Adelphi in October, 1843, with 
INIiss Woolgar as Cleopatra ; produced at 
New York in 1843, with Mitchell and Mrs. 
Timm. To this piece Selby vreotQ a sequel, 
called (5) 'Antony and Cleopatra Married 
and Settled,' produced at the Adelphi on 
December 4, 1843, with Wright and Miss 
Woolgar in the title parts. 

Anysidos, Marquis of. The major- 
domo in PLANCHli'S ' Invisible Prince ' (q.v.). 

Anything" for a Chang-e. A one-act 
comedy by Charles Shirley Brooks (q.v.), 
produced at the Lyceum Theatre, London, 
on June 7, 1848, " with Charles Mathews [as 
Swoppington] and a Miss ' Polly ' Marshall, 
who played a servant-girl [Eliza] inimitably" 
(Edmund Yates). Miss Fitzwilliam was 
the Margaret Honeyball with whom Swoj-)- 
pington (g.v.)— who is ready to " swop" any- 
thing for a change— is in love. Harley was 
the Paul Honeyball and Mrs. Leigh :Murray 
the Mrs. Honeyball. The comedy was played 
at New York in 1849. Swoppington was one 
of John Clarke's favourite parts. 

Anjrthing- for a Quiet Life. A co- 

medv by Thomas Middleton (q.v.), as- 
cribed by Fleay to 1623, acted at Black- 
friars, and printed in 1662. " There is very 
good stuff in the plot or gi-oundwork," 
says Swinburne, "but the workmanship is 
hardly worthy of the material. Mr. Bullen 
ingeniously and plausibly suggests the part- 
nership of Shirley in this play, but the con- 
ception of the character in which he discerns 
a likeness to the touch of the lesser drama- 
tist is happier and more original than such 
a comparison would indicate." 

An3rtliing- New ? A musical farce in 
two acts, the words by I. POCOCK (q.v.), the 
music bv C. Smith ; first performed at 
the Lvceum Theatre on July 1, ISll, with 
Miss Kelly as Fanny Transit. Among the 
personce are Jeremiah Babble and 3Irs. Anti- 

Apsecides. Brother of lone in tho 
adaptations and burlesques of ' The Last 
Days of Pompeii' (g.r.). 

"Apartments." A " piece of extrava- 
gance" in one act, by William Brough 



(q.v.), first performed at the Princess's The- 
atre, London, on May 14, 1S31, with Keeley 
as Mr. Tij^pitiu ^Nlrs. Alfred Wigan as Mrs. 
Tippity, Mrs. Keeley as Clementina, and J. 
F. Cat'hcart as a Scotchman. 

Apelles. A character in Lyly's ' Alex- 
ander and Campaspe' {q.v.). It is he who 
sings the song beginning— 

" Cupid and my Campaspe play'd" {q.v.). 

Apemantus. A "churlish philosopher" 
in 'Timon of Athens' {q.v.); first seen in 
act i. sc. 2, where he " comes, dropping 
after all, discontentedly, like himself." 
Schlegel, in his ' Dramatic Art,' refers to 
"the incomparable scene [act iv. sc. 3] where 
the cynic Apemantus visits Timon in the 
wilderness. They have a sort of competi- 
tion with each other in their trade of misan- 
thropy." "The soul of Diogenes," says 
llazlitt, in the 'Characters,' "appears to 
have been seated on the lips of Apemantus. 
The churlish profession of misanthropy in 
the cynic is contrasted with the profound 
feeling of it in Timon." 

Apewell. A character in Colman ju- 
nior's 'New Hay in the Old Market' {q.v.), 
played by Caulfield, and introduced as a 
vehicle for his imitations. 

Aphrodisial (The) ; or, Sea Feast. 
A drama by Wm. Percy (1602), preserved in 
manuscript in the Duke of Devonshire's 

Apiolin, Miss. See Matthews, Mrs. 

Artocryphal Ladies (The). A comedy 
by M'argaret, Duchess of Newcastle (g.i-.). 
" This play is, as many others of her pieces, 
irregular and unfinished, and is divided into 
twenty-three scenes, but not reduced to the 
form of acts " (' Biographia Dramatica '). 

Apollo figures in a large number of dra- 
matic pieces. He is the chief personage in the 
following :—(l) 'Apollo Shroving : ' a comedy 
written by William Hawkins, schoolmaster 
of Hadleigh, in Suffolk, for the use of his 
scholars, and acted by them on Shrove Tues- 
day, February 6, 1626-7 ; printed in 1627. (2) 
' Apollo turn'd Stroller ; or, Thereby hangs 
a Tale : ' a burletta by Sir John Oldmixon, 
first performed at the Royalty Theatre, Lon- 
don, on December 3, 17S7. "(3) 'Apollo in 
New York :' a local satire by Dion Bouci- 
CAULT {q.v.), produced at Burtons Theatre, 
New York, in December, 1S54, -with Burton 
as Jupiter. Apollo also plays a leading part 
in O'Hara's ' Midas ' {q.v.), Graves's 'Cupid' 
{q.v.), Beckett's ' Son of the Sun ' {q.v.), 
Tom Taylor's ' Diogenes and his Lantern ' 
{q.v.), H. J. Byron's ' Orpheus and Eury- 
dice' {q.v.), F. C. Burnand'S 'Venus and 
Adonis' {q.v.), E.. Eeece's 'Prometheus' 
{q.v.), and the same writer's ' Romulus 
and Remus' {q.v.), in which he is "a 
sort of Chorus, commenting on the action 
and interposing in it." See the following 

ApoUo and Daphne. The legend of 

which these are the subject has suggested 
the following pieces: — (1) A drama liv 
Thomas Heywood {q.v.), printed in his 
' Pleasant Dialogues and Dramas ' (1637). 
(2) A masque .by J. Hughes {q.v.), set to 
music by Pepusch, and performed at Drury 
Lane in 1716. (3) A pantomime bv Joh.v 
Thurmond, acted at Drury Lane in 1725. 
(4) A pantomime.written by Lewis Theo- 
bald {q.v.), and composed by Rich, per- 
formed at Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1726. (5) 
An opera, printed in 1734. 

Apollo in New York. See Apollo. 

Apollo Shroving-. See Apollo. 

Apollo turn'd Stroller. See Apollo. 

Apollo's Holiday. See Appeal to 
THE Muses. 

Apollodoros. A character in Professor 
Aytoun's ' Firmilian' {q.v.). 

Apology for Actors (An), "con- 
taining three briefe treatises : 1. Their Anti- 
quity. 2. Their ancient Dignity. 3. The 
true use of their Quality." This "ingenious 
and amusing " work was ■«'ritten by Thomas 
Heywood {q.v.), and pubUshed in 1612. It 
consists only of forty- six pages, of which 
fourteen are preliminary. It has been re- 
printed of late years by the Shakspere So- 
ciety, and in Somers' ' Collection of Tracts.' 
See'" ALL the World's a Stage." 

Apolog-y for the Life of Mr. CoUey 
Gibber, Comedian, and Late Paten- 
tee of the Theatre Royal (An), " with 
an Historical View of the Stage during his 
Own Time, Written by Himself," and pub- 
lished originally in 1740. This delightful 
melange of gossip and criticism was re- 
printed in 1740, in 1750, in 1756, in 1822 
(edited by E. Bellchambers), in 1S26 (in 
Hunt's series of autobiographies), and in 
1S89 (edited, with notes and supplement, 
by R. W. Lowe). It has been highly 
praised by the best judges. Swift, it is 
recorded, was so pleased with it that he sat 
up all night to read it ; whereupon, on hear- 
ing which, we read, Gibber shed tears of joy. 
" You will allow," said Boswell to Dr. John- 
son, "Gibber's 'Apology' to be well done.'" 
" Very well done, to be sure, sir," replied the' 
sage ;'" that book is a striking proof of the 
justice of Pope's remark — 

' Each might his several province well command. 
Would all but stoop to what they understand.' " 

Hazlitt describes Gibber as "one of thei 
most amusing coxcombs . . . teeming with; 
animal spirits, uniting the self-sufficiency- 
of youth with the garrulity of age." The 
narrative in the ' Apology ' begins with the 
Restoration, and ends with Gibber's re- 
tirement from the histrionic profession ir 

Apostate (The); or, The Moors ir 
Spain. A tragedy in five acts, by Richari 
Sheil {q.v.) — the overture and incidenta" 
music by Bishop— first performed at Govern 
Garden on May 3, 1S17, Avith G. Kemble as 
Hemeya, Miss O'Neill as Florinda, INIurra} 



as Alvarez, Macreacly as Pescara (q.v.), and 
Young as Malec. Macready, in his Diary, 
says Young "acted admirably," Kemble 
I was " spirited, chivalrous, and gallant," and 
i Miss O'Neil " beautiful." Hemeya, a Moor, 
is in love -with Florinda, the daughter of 
' Alvarez, and having saved her life is pro- 
; mised her hand. But the King of Spain 
t decrees that no Moor shall marry a Chris- 
tian under pain of death, and Hemeya, 
for the sake of Florinda, becomes an apos- 
tate to his religion. He fights with Pescara, 
governor of Granada (who loves Florinda), 
and is taken prisoner, whilst Florinda, to 
save his life, marries Pescara. Hemeya is 
rescued by Malec, another Moor ; Pescara is 
killed, Florinda dies of the poison she has 
taken, and Hemeya commits suicide. The 
tragedy was first played in New York in 1817, 
■With Mrs. Barnes as Florinda; it was 
revived there in 1823, with Mrs. J. R. Duff 
as Florinda, J. R. Duff as Malec, Maywood 
as Pescara, and E. Simpson as Heineya ; in 
1824 with Booth as Pescara and Conway as 
Hemeya, and again with H. Wallack as 
Pescara; also, at the Marylebone Theatre, 
London, in 1852, with M'Kean Buchanan 
in the title part. (2) ' The Apostate ; or, 
Atlantis Destroyed : ' a tragedy in five acts, 
by John Galt, printed in 1814. 

Apostles (The) figure in the thirty- 
ninth and fortieth pageants of the Coventry 
plays ((/.v.). The Holy Spirit descends upon 
them, and some Jews, observing its effect 
upon them, imagine they are intoxicated. 

"Muste in here brayn so sclyly doth crepe, 
That thei chateryii and chateryn as they jays were." 

" Muste " means " new wine." See Collier's 
* Dramatic Poetry.' 

Apothecary (The), in 'Romeo and 

Juliet,' reappears in the burlesques of the 
tragedy by Dowling and Halliday. 

Apotheosis of Punch (The). A sa- 
tirical masque, " with a INIonody on the 
Death of the late Master Punch. Acted at 
the Patagonian Theatre, Exeter 'Change." 
This was an attempt to ridicule Sheridan's 
monody on Garrick's death. It was printed 
in 1779, and was attributed to Leonard 

"Apparel oft proclaims the man 

(The)."—' Hamlet,' act i. sc. 3 {Polonius). 

Apparition (The). (1) A comedy trans- 
lated from the ' Mostellaria ' of Plautus, by 
Richard Warner {q.v.), and printed in 1772. 
(2) A musical romance in two acts, by J. C 
Cross, first performed at the PLaymarket 
Theatre on September 3, 1794, with a cast 
mcludmg C. Kemble, Bannister, iun., Suett, 
Johnstone, Mrs. Harlowe, and Miss De 
Camp. (3) ' The Apparition ; or, The Sham 
NNedding:' a comedy by "a gentleman of 
Oxford," first performed at Drury Lane on 
November 25, 1713, with Norris as Sir Tris- 
tram Gettall, Pack as Plotwell, Keen as 
Dawhwell, Booth as young Welford, Bowman 
as old Welford, Spiller as Foist, and Mrs. 
Mountfort as Aurelia. The "sham wed- 

ding" is that of Sir Tristram to Aurelia; 
she has already been espoused by young 
Welford, and keeps Sir Tristram at a dis- 
tance. The "apparition" is that of old 
Welford to the knight, who has forged his 
name to a deed. Plotwell assists Aurelia, 
and Dawhwell aids Sir Trisfram throughout. 
Appeal (The). An anonymous tragedy 
in three acts, produced at Edinburgh in 
1818, with Yates as Helgert, Mrs. Renaud 
as Isbel, Mrs. H. Siddons as Ariette, and 
Putnam as Ethelstane. Helgert, accused by 
Isbel of the murder of her husband, in- 
voluntarily confesses his gTiilt, on which 
Ariette, who is betrothed to Ethelstane, son 
of Helgert, " dies -without speaking." ' The 
Appeal ' was altered from ' The Witness,' a 
play printed in the ' Rejected Theatre.' 

Appeal to the Muses (An); or, 
Apollo's Decree. A dramatic and mu- 
sical prelude, written by James Cawdell, 
and performed at the opening of several pro- 
vincial theatres, being produced at one of 
them, in 1792, under the title of ' Apollo's 

Appeal to the Public (An), by John 
OxENFORD {q.v.), was performed at New 
York in 1S49. Felix Rosemary, in this play, 
was in the repertory of Lester Wallack. 

Appearance is Ag-ainst Them. A 
farce by Mrs. lNCHBALD(g.i).), first performed 
at Covent Garden on October 22, 1785, with 
a cast including Quick, Edwin, and others. 
The plot turns on the number of hands 
through which the heroine's shawl passes. 
Among the personce are Lord Lighthead, 
Clownhy (a country gentleman). Fish (a 
lady's maid). Miss Angle, Lady Loveall, and 
Lady Mary Magpie. The piece was revived 
in 1804, under the title of 'Mistake upoa 

Appearances. A comedy in two acts, 
by J. Palgrave Simpson {q.v.), first per- 
formed at the Strand Theatre, London, on 
May 28, 1860, with J. Clarke as Montgomery 
de Courcy Plantagenet Puf, H. J. Turner as 
Mr. Carney Pillgild, Parselle as Vincent, W. 
U. Swanborough as Florid, Poynter as Var- 
nish, Miss E. Bufton as Mrs. Mowbray, Miss 
Neville as Cecilia Vivid, Miss C. Saunders as 
May Marigold, and Mrs. Selby as Mrs. 

"Appetite had grown by what it 
fed on, As if increase of."—' Hamlet,' 
act i. sc. 2. 

Appiani. A character (1) in Thomp- 
son's ' Emilia Galotti ' {q.v.) and (2) in 
♦ The Woman of the People' {q.v.). 

Appius, in Crisp's 'Virginia' {q.v.), 
differs from the Appius of other dramatists 
in that he offers marriage to Virginia. See 
Appius and Virginia. 

Appius and Virginia. The famous 
story of which Appius, Virginia, and Vir- 
ginius are the leading personages, has been 
dramatized in the following works :— (1) 
' Appius and Virginia : ' a " tragical comedy," 
by " R. B." [ ? Richard Bower], " wherein" 





(according to the title-page) "is lively ex- 
pressed a rare example of the vertue of 
Chastitie by Virginias constancy, in 'n-ish- 
ing rather to be slaine at her o-v\Tie fathers 
hands, than to be defloured by the wicked 
judge Apius." This work, -which was printed 
m 1575, is not divided into acts, and is, in 
fact, less of a "tragical comedy" than of a 
moral plav, being a singular combination of 
history and allegory. (2) ' Appius and Vir- 
ginia : ' a tragedy by John Webster (q.v.), 
ascribed by Fleay to circa 1G09, printed in 
1654, and described by HazUtt as "a good, 
sensible, solid tragedy, cast in a framework 
of the most approved models, with little_ to 
blame or praise in it, except the affecting 
speech of Virg-iniusio Firc^inmjust before he 
kills her." The play was afterwards adapted 
by Betterton, and produced at Lincoln's Inn 
Fields in 1670, as ' The Roman Virgin ; or, 
The Unjust Judge' {q.v.). Betterton was 
Virginius, ilrs. Betterton Virginia, and 
Harris Appius. Characters called Comfort, 
Conscience, Doctrine, Reward, and Rumour 
are introduced, and are employed to punish 
Ajipius and console Virginia. There is also 
a "vice" caUed Haphazard.^ who supplies 
what may be called the comic element. As 
specimens of the anachronisms in the work, 
it may be mentioned that " Virginia and 
her mother go to ' church,' and Virginius, 
like a sound orthodox believer, explains the 
creation of man and woman according to 
the Book of Genesis." Virginius, at Vir- 
ginia's own desire, strikes off her head and 
presents it to Ajypius. (3) ' Appius and 
Virginia : ' a tragedy by John Dennis (q.v.), 
produced at Drury Laiie on February 5, 1709, 
with Booth as Appius, INIrs. Rogers as Vir- 
ginia, Betterton as Virginius, and Wilks as 
Icilius. "It was," says Button Cook, "a 
hopelessly dull tragedy, which not even the 
united exertions of Booth, Wilks, and Bet- 
terton could keep upon the stage for more 
than four nights." It was into this play 
that Dennis introduced a mode of producing 
stage thunder by means of " troughs of 
wood with stops' in them." " Whether," 
says a contemporary wi-iter, "Mr. Dennis 
was the inventor of that improvement I 
know not, but it is certain that, being once 
at a tragedy of a new author, he fell into a 
great passion at hearing some, and cried, 
"Sdeath ! that is my thunder.'" See, also, 
Dibdin's ' History of the Stage.' (4) 
' Virginia ' iq.v.), by Henry Crisp (i754). (5) 
' Appius : ' a tragedy by John Moncrief 
{q.v.), performed at Covent Garden on March 
6, 1755, with Sparks as Appius, Sheridan 
as Virginius, and Mrs. Bellamy as Virginia. 
The failure of this play was attributed by 
the author to Sheridan, who had deprived 
it of its fifth act. In this tragedy Appius 
makes an unsuccessful attempt upon the 
virtue of Camilla, Virginia's guardian, and 
in the end takes poison. (6) 'Virginia' 
\q.v.), bv Frances Brooke (1756). (7) 
* Virginia ' {q.v.). by J. Bidlake (ISOO). (8) 
' Virginius ; or. The FaU of the Decemviri ' 
(1S20). (9) ' Virginius' (q.v.), by J. SHERIDAN 
Knowles ClS-20) ; and (10) ' Virginia' (q.v.), 
by J. Howard Payne. 

"Applaud to the very echo, 
I ■would." — ' Macbeth,' act v. sc. 3. 

Apple-Blossoms. A comedy by James 
Albery (g.r.), first performed at the Vaude- 
ville Theatre, London, on September 9, 1871, 
with W.Farrenas Captain Penryn, LinRayne 
as Tom Penryn, T. Thome as the Great 
Baggs, D. James as Bob Prout, and Miss Amy 
Fawsitt SiS Jenny Prout; played in the Eng- 
lish provinces in 18S6, with Miss G. Warden 
as Jenny, E. S. Gofton, M. M. Mellor, and J. 
H. Rogers. Tom, the Captain's son, is in 
love with Jenny, the young mistress of the 
Apple Tree Inn ; but the "Captain opposes 
the match, and Tom, disinherited, goes off 
to sea. Meanwhile the Cap/tain, falling iU 
at the inn, is so admirably nursed by Jenny 
(whom he does not know as his son's sweet- 
heart), that he determines to adopt her as 
his daughter. In due course Tom returns, 
and, after explanations, the lovers are made 
happy. See Baggs the Great ; Prout, 

Appleby, Thomas Bilton. Actor ; 
made his first appearance on the stage at 
Dmidee in 1S66, his London debut taking 
place in 1S74. He " created " the following, 
among many parts : — Sadlove, in Boucicault's 
' Elfie,' King Kokatoo in Burnand's bur- 
lesque, the Governor in ' The Broken Branch,' 
Rerny in ' The Woman of the People,' and 
Matthew Lambert in ' Married, not Mated.' 
He played Moses in ' The School for Scandal' 
at the Strand Theatre, London, in 1SS6. 

Appleface. A character in Jerrold's 
' Catspaw' (q.v.). 

Apples. A comedy in one act, by 
Julian Sturgis (q.v.), performed at Lad- 
broke Hall, London, on November 28, 1887. 

"Apples even ripe below."— Beau- 
mont and Fletcher, ' Valentinian' (song), 

Appletree. A character in Farquhar's 

'Recruiting Ofiicer' (q.v.). 

Apprentice (The). A farce in two acts, 
by Arthur Murphy (^7. 1-.), first performed at 
Drury Lane on January 2, 1756, with Wood- 
ward as Dick, and other parts by Yates, 
Jefferson, and Miss Minors. The prologue 
was by Garrick. " The intention of this 
farce," says the ' Biographia Dramatica,' ",is 
entirely to expose the absurd passion so 
prevalent amongst apprentices, and other 
young people, who assemble themselves . . . 
under the title of Spouting Clubs," etc. It 
was first played in Ameri'ca in 1768. Dick 
was one of the parts of J. R. Duff. 

Apprentice's Prize (The). A plav by 
Richard Bro:me (q.v.) and Thomas Hey- 
W'OOD (g.r.), entered on the books of the 
Stationers' Company on April 8, 1654. " Must 
date 1634, the only year in which these 
authors wrote for the same company " 

Apprentices to Actors. See Actino 
as a Profession. 

"Approbation from Sir Hubert 



Stanley is praise indeed."— Morton, 
' Cure for the Heartache,' act v. sc. 2. 

April Day. A burletta in three acts, by 
K. O'Haka (q.v.), first performed at the Hay- 
market on August 22, 1777, with Bannister as 
Bon Buffalo, L)u Bellamy as Count Folatre, 
and Edwin as Davo. Cephisa is in love -with 
the Count, but bound by her father's will 
to marry Buffalo, unless he consents to her 
marrying some one else. Davo, tlie Count's 
servant, personates an astrologer, and 
persuades Buffalo that whosoever marries 
Ce2)hisa first shall die. Tlie Don tliereupon 
agi'ees to give way in favour of the Count, 
and is then laughed at, as an April fool, for 
his pains. 

April Folly (An). A comedy in one act, 
adapted (from a novelette) by J. P. HURST 
(q.v.), and produced at the Olympic Theatre, 
London, on April 6, 1885. 

April Fool; or, The Follies of a 

Nig-lit. A farce by Leonard M'NALLY(g.u.), 
first performed at Covent Garden on April 1, 
1786. The story was used by Johnson in 
his 'Country Lasses,' Middleton in his 
'Mad "World,' Bullock in 'The Slip,' and 
Kenrick in ' The Spendthrift,' all of which 
.see. (2) ' An April Fool : ' a farce in one act, 
by W. Brough (q.v.) and A. Halliday (q.v.), 
first performed at Drury Lane on April 11, 
1864, with Miss Lydia Thompson as Diana 
Oldbuck, and R. Roxby and G. Belraore in 
other parts. See Davenport Done. 

April Rain. A comedy in prologue and 
two acts, by LEONARD S. Outram (q.v.), 
performed at the Theatre Royal, Reading, 
on May 10, 18S6. 

April Showers. A comedy in three 
acts, by F. Romer and G. S. Bellamy, first 

Serformed at Terry's Theatre, London, on 
anuary 24, 1889, with a cast including INIiss 
M. Millett, Miss R. Norreys, W. Everard, 
L. Waller, and A. Chevalier ; revived at the 
Comedy Theatre in April, 1890, with Miss 
M. Millet and W. Everard in their original 
rdles, Nutcombe Gould, Reeves Smith, Miss 
A. Hughes, Miss E. Brunton, etc. 

April the First. King of Tomfoolery 
in Planches ' Cymon and Iphigenia' (q.v.). 

Actuariura Theatre. See London 

Aquila, Serafino del'. A young poet 
in Tom Taylor's ' Fool's Revenge ' (q.v.). 

Arab (The). A tragedy by Richard 
Cumberland (q.v.), first performed at Covent 
Garden on March 8, 1785, with Henderson 
as the Arab, Alcanor, and other parts 
by Farren, Lewis, Wroughton, and JNIiss 
Younge. Alcanor, Avho is in love with 
Glaphyra, and believes himself to be the 
son of Herod Agrippa, comes from Arabia 
to Judfea to claim the throne ; but, dis- 
covering that he is the son of Barzilla, that 
Herodian is the real heir, and that Glaphyra 
loves Herodian, he resigns the kingdom to 
the last-named, and stabs himseK. 

Arab Boy (The). A drama in which 
Mdme. Celeste appeared successfully, both 
in England and America. 

Arabbo. A character in Reynolds' 
•Caravan' (q.v.). 

Arabella. The heiress in Knight's 
'Honest Thieves' (g. v.). 

Arabia Sitiens ; or, A Dream of 
a Dry Year. A tragi-cnmedy by W. 
Percy (160l), preserved in manuscript in 
the Duke of Devonshire's library. 

Arabian Nig-ht (An). (1) A comedy 
adapted from Von Moser's ' Haroun al Ra- 
schid' by AuGUSTiN iDaly (q.v.), and first 
performed in New York in 1879, with Miss 
Ada Rehan (Kate Spinlde), Miss Catherine 
Lewis, C. Leclercq, and John Drew in the 
cast. (2) ' The Arabian Nights : ' a comedy 
adapted by Sydney Grundy from Von 
Moser's work, and first performed at the 
Globe Theatre, London, on November 5, 
18S7, with W. S. Penley as Joshua Gilli- 
irand and Miss Lottie Venne as Rosa Colom- 
bier; produced at Daly's Theatre, New 
York, in March, 1890, under the title of 
' Haroun al Raschid and his ]Mother-in- 
Law,' and with a cast including John Drew 
and ;Mrs. Gilbert ; revived at the Comedy 
Theatre, London, November 5, 1892. -- 
• Haroun Alraschid ' has also been adapted 
under the title of ' The Skeleton' (q.v.). 

Arable, Captain. Brother of Jack, 
and son of Alderman, Arable, in F. REY- 
NOLDS' 'Speculation' (q.v.). 

Arac. Son of Kiyij Gama, in Gilbert 
and Sullivan's ' Princess Ida' (q.v.). 

Arajoon ; or, The Conquest of 
Mysore. An Oriental drama in three 
acts, by J. Stirling Coyne (q.v.), first per- 
formed at the Adelphi Theatre, London, 
October 22, 1838, with a cast including Mrs. 
Yates, Yates, Saville, J. Webster, Lyon, and 

Aram, Eugrene. See Eugene Aram. 

Araminta. (1) Wife of Moneytrap (q.v.), 
and friend of Clarissa (q.v.), in Vanbrugh's 
' Confederacy' ( See Gripe. (2) Ara- 
minta, in Congreve'S ' Old Bachelor' (q.v.), 
is in love with Vainlove (q.v.). (3) Ara- 
tninta, in Whitehead's ' School for Lovers' 
(q.v.), is in love with Modely (q.v.). 

Aramis. One of the "three musketeers" 
in C. Rice's play of that name (q.v.) \ als» 
figures in J. and H. Paulton'S 'Three 
Musket-Dears ' (q.v.). 

Aranza, Duke, in Tobin's 'Honey- 
moon ' (q.v), is the husband of Juliana (q.v.). 
Leigh Hunt said that in no character did 
Elliston display his skill in dry humour 
with such felicity as in this part, which 
was "altogether his finest performance" 
(' Critical Essays,' 1807). Of Edmund Kean's 
Aranza Hazlitt said that it Avas "the least 
brilliant of all his characters. It was Duke 
and no Duke. It had severity without 
dignity, and was deficient in ease, grace. 



and gaiety. He played the feigned charac- 
ter as if it -were a reality." 

Art)aces. (1) King of Iberia, in Beau- 
mont and Fletcher's ' King and No King ' 
(g.r.). '" Arbaces," says Hazlitt, " is painted 
in gorgeous, but not alluring colours. His 
vainglorious pretensions and impatience of 
contradiction are admirably displayed. . . . 
His pride of self-will and tierce impetuosity 
are the same in "war and in love. The 
haughty Toluptuousness and pampered 
effeminacy of his character admit neither 
respect for his misfortunes nor pity for his 
errors." (2) Son of Artahanes, and in love 
with Mandane, in Arxe's 'Artaxerxes' 
{q.v.). (3) A sati-ap in BraON's ' Sardana- 
palus' (g.r.). (4) First lord-in-waiting in 
BURNA>D"s 'Dido' {q.v.). (5) ArMces is 
a character in Bcckstoxe's ' Last Days of 
Pompeii' (q.v.), Oxenford's adaptation of 
the same story {q.v.), and Reece's burlesque, 
' The Very Last Days of Pompeii ' {q.v.). 

Arbitration; or, Free and Easy. 
A farce in two acts, by F. Reynolds {q.v.), 
first performed at Covent Garden on De- 
cember 11, 1S06, with Lewis as Jack Fami- 
liar, Blanchard as Sir Toby Tritely, Liston 
as Chequer, and Mrs. Davenport as Lady 
Litifiious. It was first played in Xew York 
in 180S. 

Arbuthnot, Jotm, M.D. See Three 

Hours after Marrl\ge. 

Aj:'cades. "An Entertainment presented 
to the Countess-Dowager of Derby at Hare- 
field by some noble persons of her Family," 
probably in 1633 or 1634. Of this masque, 
which was written by ]MlLTOX, only three 
songs and a speech by " the Genius of the 
"Wood " have been preserved. The music was 
probably written bv Lawes. See IMasson's 
edition of r^Iilton's ' Works ' (1SS2). 

Arcadia, The Conntess of Pem- 
Taroke's. From this romance by Sir Philip 
Sidney, "J. S." took his ' Andromana' (g.r.), 
Shirley his 'Arcadia' {q.v.), Glapthorne his 
'Argalus and Parthenia' {q.v.), Beaumont 
andFletcher their ' Cupid's Revenge' {q.v.), 
and X. Morgan his 'Philoclea' {q.v.). "It 
was from ' Arcadia ' that Shakespeare de- 
rived the names of some of his characters, 
■such as Leonte.i, Antigonus,Cleomenes, Archi- 
darnus, and Jlojysa." 

Arcadia. (1) A pastoral play by James 
Shirley {q.v.), presented at Court (Fleav 
thinks) in 1632, and printed in 1G40. The 
plot is founded on Sir P. Sidney's ' Arcadia' 
Iq.v.). " In this play," says Dyce, " the chief 
incidents in Sidney's famous romance are not 
unskilfully dramatized." Basilim, Gynecia, 
Pamela, Philoclea, Pyrocles, Musidorus, 
UiiarchitS, Mojjsa, Pamelas, all figure in the 
piece. (2) An operetta, words" by E. L. 
Blanchard (7.t).), performed at the'Greciau 
Theatre in 1S43, with INIiss H. Coveney in 
the cast. 

Arcadian Pastoral (The). A musical 
piece in five acts, by L.vdy Craven (:Margi-a- 

vine of Anspach), performed privately at the 
Duke of Queensberry's, BurUngton Gardens, 
in 17S2. 

Arcadian Virg-in (The). A play by 
William Haughion (q.v.) and Henry 
Chettle {q.v.), acted in 1599. 

Arcanes. Friend of Cassilane (q.v.), in 
Beaumont and Fletcher's 'Laws of 
Candy' {q.v.). 

Archas. General of the Muscovites, in 
Beaumont and Fletcher's ' Loyal Sub- 
ject' (g.u.). 

Archer. Actor, a native of Edinburgh, 
who made his first appearance on the stage 
at Dublin in 17S6, and his London debut 
(after experience on the Scottish and Eng- 
lish provincial stage) at Drury Lane in 1797, 
as Shylock. See the ' Thespian Dictionary ' 

Archer, Francis. One of the beaux in 
Farquhar's ' Beaux' Stratagem ' {q.v.), the 
other being Viscount Aimivell {q.v.). 

Archer, Frank. Actor, born at Wel- 
lington, Shropshire : made his professional 
debut at Nottingham, and, after engage- 
ments at Manchester and Liverpool, first 
appeared in London at tlie Prince of Wales's 
Theatre in ]May. 1S72, as Dudley Smooth in 
' Money.' He has played the following 
" original" parts : — Julian Gray in CoUins's 
' New :Magdalen,' Wilfred Gordon in Byron's 
'Wrinkles,' Burchell in Wills's 'Olivia,' 
Mephistopheles in Gilbert's ' Gretchen,' St. 
Cyr in Lee's 'Branded,' CAorZes Wolverley 
in W. Marston's 'Under Y'lre,' Sir Baldicin 
Calvert in H. A. Jones's ' Hard Hit,' and 
Algernon Beltravers in ' Christina.' His 
other principal roles have been : Poli- 
ccenes in 'The Winter's Tale' (Manchester, 
1S69), Ajyemantus in ' Timon of Athens' 
(Manchester, 1S71), Antonio in ' The Mer- 
chant of Venice' (Manchester, 1S71), Clau- 
dius in ' Hamlet ' (Crystal Palace, 1873), Lord 
Ptarmigant in Robertson's ' Society ' (Prince 
of Wales's Theatre, London, 1874)) Vane in 
Reade's ' Masks and Faces ' (same theatre, 
1875), Prince PerovsJnj in Robertson's 'Ours* 
(same theatre, 1876), Dul-e de Gonzagues in 
' Duke's Device ' (Olvmpic Theatre, London, 
1876), Hamlet (Edinburgh, 1877), Count de 
Liniere in The Two Oi-phans' (Olympic 
Theatre, London, 1S7S), Joseph Surface in 
'The School for Scandal' (Vaudeville The- 
atre, London, 1SS2), Faulkland in 'The 
Rivals' (same theatre. 18S2), Beauscant in 
'The Lady of Lyons' (Lyceum Theatre, 
London, 1SS3), Sir Geoffrey in ' Our Boys ' 
(Strand Theatre, London, 1SS4), and Fou'chi 
in 'Secret Service' (Her Majesty's Theatre, 
London. 1SS5). He is the author of a volume 
entitled ' How to Write a Good Play' (1892). 

Archer, John. Actor, bom in London, 
1835 ; made his professional debut in 1849 ; 
pei-formed for some years in the British 
provinces, notably at Etlinburgh (1868) ; and 
afterAvards became a member of the London 
Lyceum company. 



Arclier, Thomas. Actor and dramatist, 
bom at Bath, 1789 ; died 1848 ; the son of 
a watchmaker, and trained at Bath and Bir- 
mingham ; made his debut at Drury Lane in 
1823 as the King in ' 1 King Henry IV.' He 
first appeared in America in 1827 at the 
Bowery, New York, and opened Arch Street 
Theatre, Philadelphia (with Maywood and 
Walton) in 1830. He was afterwards a mem- 
ber of ISIiss Smithson's English company at 
Paris. After touring with his own troupe 
in Belgium and Germany, he returned to 
Drury Lane, appearing there in 1839, and at 
Covent Gai'den in 1845. He was the original 
of Opimius in Knowles's ' Caius Gracchus ' 
(1823), and of Gesler in the same -wi-iter's 

• William Tell ' (1825). Among his other roles 
were those of Polixenes, Bassanio, Claudio 
('Measure for Measure'), Gloster ('Jane 
Shore '), Harry Thunder (' Wild Oats '), and 
Appius Claudius (' Virginius '). He was the 
author of ' Asmodeus ; or, The Little Devil's 
Share' (q.v.), 'Blood Royal' (q.v.), 'The 
Black Doctor' (5-.?;.), 'The Daughter of the 
Regiment ' (q.v.), ' Don Caesar de Bazan ' 
(q.v.), 'The Inundation' (q.v.), 'The King's 
Ransom' (q.v.), 'Marguerite's Colours' (7. v.), 
'Red Cap' (q.v.), 'Three Red Men' (q.v.), 
and other pieces. Edward Stirling tells this 
story of Archer: "Playing Ai)pius Clau- 
dius in ' Virginius,' with his usual careless- 
ness, seated in the forum, a book placed 
under one of the gas-burners at the Aviiig 
enabling him to read, one of his companions 
wickedly turned the book upside down. 
Archer 'began with sonorous declamation 
addressing the assembled Roman people, 
faltered for a word, cast his eyes on the 
book, and perceived at once the joke that 
had been perpetrated. A long pause en- 
sued. Ap})ius Claudius had vanished from 
his memory. Cato came to the rescue. De- 
liberately he recited to the astonished 
plebeians Cato's celebrated soliloquy, com- 
mencing 'It must be so— Plato, thou 
reasonest well,' to the end of the speech : 
' I'm weary of conjectures ; this must end 
'em; Lictors, follow me. Claudius [his 
client], I'll hear more of this case to- 
moiTow' (strutting off the stage pompously 
in Roman fashion)." See Genest's ' History 
of the Stage' (1832), 'Theatrical Times'' 
(1847), and Stirling's ' Drury Lane ' (1881). 

Archer, Mrs. Thomas. American 
actress ; a member of the company at the 
Park Theatre, New York, in 1834. She 
played Adrian in 'Rienzi' at Boston in 
1829, Laertes at Baltimore in 1831. 

Archer, "William, author and jour- 
nalist, born 1856, has published (besides 
magazine articles and prefaces to plays) 

* English Analyses of the French Plays re- 
presented at the Gaiety Theatre, London, 
June and July, 1879, by the Coniedie Fran- 
?aise ' (1879), ' English Dramatists of To-day ' 
(1SS2), ' Henry Irving, Actor and Manager ' 
(1883), ' About the Theatre,' essays and 
studies (1886), ' :Masks or Faces? a Stndv in 
the Psychology of Acting ' (1888), ' William 
Charles Macready,' a memoir (1890), 'The 
Theatrical "World"' (1893-97), and (with 

R. W. Lowe) ' The Fashionable Tragedian ' 
(1877) ; has edited ' Henrik Ibsen's Prose 
Dramas,' translated into English by himself 
and others (1890-91) ; has translated Ibsen's 
'When We Dead Awaken' (1903); is part- 
author of translations of Ibsen's ' Peer 
Gynt ' (q.v.) and ' The Master-Builder ' (q.v.) ; 
has adapted Ibsen's ' Pillars of Society ' 
[see Quicksands) ; has translated Edward 
Brandes' 'A Visit' (q.v.)\ was theatrical 
critic of the London Figaro from ^lay, 1879, 
to October, 1881, and has written the dra- 
matic notices of the World since March, 1884. 

Archers (The); or, The Moun- 
taineers of Switzerland. An opera in 
three acts, founded by W. Dunlap (q.v.) 
on the play called ' Helvetic Liberty ' (q.v.) ; 
performed and printed at New York in 1796 ; 
also called ' William Tell ; or. The Archers." 

Archie Lovell . A drama in four acts, 
adapted by F. C. Burnaxd (q.v.) from the 
novel of the same name by 3Irs. Edwardes, 
and first performed at the Royalty Theatre, 
London, on May 16, 1874, with':Miss H. Hod- 
son a9 the heroine, Miss E. Thorne, Miss 
Maggie Brennan, G. Rignold, and T. B. 
Bannister in the cast. 

Archipropheta, sive Joannes 
Baptista. A Latin tragedy by Nicholas 
Grimald (q.v.), written in 1547, and pro- 
bably acted at Oxford in the same year. 

Architect (An) figures in Planche's 
' Birds of Aristophanes.' 

Archon, in Dryden's 'Albion and Al- 
banius' (q.v.), is intended for General ]Monk. 

Arden, Eliza. Actress ; was the original 
Lcttij in 'Tlie Writing on the Shutters' 
(1855), Fatima in ' Asmodeus ' (1859), and 
Hardress Cregan in Byron's 'Miss Eily 
O'Connor ' (1861). She was also in the first 
cast of Fitzball's ' Widow's Wedding ' (q.v.), 
and appeared in revivals of Smith's ' Valen- 
tine and Orson ' (1855), Haines's ' Poll and 
my Partner Joe ' (1857), and Planche's ' In- 
visible Prince ' (1859). 

Arden, H. T. The nam de tMdtre 
adopted by Henry Thomas Arnold (q.v.). 

Arden of Feversham. (1) A play by 
an unknown writer, first printed in 1592 under 
the full title of ' ' The lamentable and true 
Tragedie of ]M. Arden of Feversham, in 
Kent, who was most wickedlye murdered, by 
the means of his disloyall and wanton wyfe, 
Avho, for the love she bare to one Mosbie, 
hyred two'desperat ruffins, Blackwill and 
Shakbag, to kill him. Wherein is shewed 
the gi'eat malice and discimulation of a 
M'icked woman, the unsatiable desire of fil- 
thie lust and the shamefull end of all 
murderers." This drama, which Fleay is 
inclined to ascribe to 1585, and which, he 
thinks, " there is some ground for attri- 
buting to Kyd " (q.v.), was founded on the 
details of a crime actually committed at 
Feversham in 1550, and referred to in the 
Privy Coimcil Register for 1551, where 
"Arden" is spelled " Arderne." In 1578 
had appeared a play called 'Murderous 



Michael,' which apparently dramatized the 
murder, and to which ' Arden of Feversham ' 
may owe something. The latter work was 
reprinted in 1599, 1633, and 1770,— in the 
last-named year with a preface in which 
the editor, Jacob, strongly urged the claims 
of Shakespeare to the authorship. Those 
claims, which have been regarded some- 
what favourably by A. C. Swinburne (see his 
• Study of Shakespeare,' 18S0), are rejected 
by the latest editor of the play, A. H. 
Bullen (1887), who, however, says " it is in 
the highest degree probable that 'Arden* 
was one of the plays which received cor- 
rection and revision from Shakespeare's 
hand." The Quarterly Review says of the 
unknown writer that, *' whoever he was, 
he not only possessed incomparably the 
greatest purely dramatic genius which had 
revealed itself in tragedy anterior to the 
period of Shakespeare's mature activity, but 
he exercised, in conjunction with the writers 
of the school of which he was the represen- 
tative, a very marked influence on the deve- 
lopment of popular tragedy " (October, 1885). 
Donne, in his ' Essay' on the subject (1873), 
points out that the work is ' ' one of the 
comparatively few plays of the sixteenth 
century of which the plot and action are 
founded upon English life and manners." 
See the criticisms by Hazlitt and by Lamb 
(' English Dramatic JPoets ') ; also Symonds's 
' Shakespeare's Predecessors' (lSS-4). ' Arden 
of Feversham ' was ti'anslated into German 
in 1823 (by Tieck), and again in 1840. (2) A 
play, founded by George Lillo (g.u.) on 
that of 1592 ; left unfinished by him, com- 
pleted by Dr. John Hoadly, and first per- 
formed at Drury Lane on July 19, 1759, with 
Havard as Arden, Bransby as Moshy, Packer 
as Green, Phillips as Black Will, Vaughan as 
Shakehag, Wignell as Michael, Maria by Miss 
Barton, and Alicia by "a young gentle- 
woman." In this play, Alice, wife of Arden, 
loves Mosby, and putspoison in her husband's 
broth; but ^rrfe/i dislikes the taste of the 
broth, and does not swallow it. Michael, 
Arden's servant, then plots with Black Will 
and Shakehag (hired by Green, an enemy of 
Arden's) to murder Arden on his way home 
from London ; but their plan is frustrated, 
and eventually Arden is killed in his own 
house. Genest remarks that " Lillo has 
softened the character of Alicia," and that 
''Mosby takes a more leading: part in the 
murder than he does in the old play. Lillo," 
he adds, " has borrowed a considerable part 
of the dialogue." The play (reduced to three 
acts) was revived at Covent Garden on April 
14, 1790, probably with Holraan as Arden, 
Harley as Mosby, and IMrs. Pope as Alicia. 
It was performed at Sadler's Wells in 1852. 

Arden, The Forest of. The locale of 
most of the scenes in 'As You Like It' 
(q.v.). "We are here transported," says 
Gervinus, " to a romantic Ardenia into wiiich 
the forest of Arden is metamorphosed. 
Shakespeare met with this in the tale which 
furnished him with the material for his 
play ; lions were from thence brought to 
France, and our poet added serpents and 

palm trees." We think of the forest, say* 
Grant White, " without giving it locality. 
. . . There shepherds, and Court-fools, and 
English hedge-priests, and lions, and gilded 
serpents, and palm trees, were joined to- 
gether without the slightest seeming incon- 
gruity." Charles Lamb, in his prologue to- 
Coleridge's ' Remorse' (q.v.), alludes to 

" The forest walks of Arden's fair domain, 
■\Vhere Jaques fed his soUtary vein." 

The French forest of Arden lies near the- 
river Mouse, between Charlemont and Ro- 
croy. Spenser, in his ' Colin Clout,' speaks 
of it as '' famous Ardeyn." 

Ardenne, Poynet. The "charcoal- 
burner " in G. AlmaPv's drama of that name 

Ardent. A character in J. T. Alltng- 
iiam's 'Hearts of Oak.' There is (2) an- 
Alfred Ardent in H. Wigan's ' Charming 
Woman ' (q.v.), (3) an Arnold Ardent (" a. 
man of mind and merit") in T. E. Wilks's 
' My Valet and I ' (q.v.), (4) a Percy Ardent 
in Boucicault's 'Irish Heiress' (q.v.), and 
(5) a Sir Edicard Ardent in DA^■CE's * Morn- 
ing Call' (q.v.). 

Ardenton, Eliza. The heroine of 
Bayle Bernard's ' Dumb Belle ' (q.v.). 

Ardinelle. Protectress of Ali Baba in 
G. COLMAX junior's ' Forty Thieves ' (q.v.). 

Ardourly. (1) Harriet Ardourly is a. 
character in Edward Stirling's 'Nice 
Young Ladies ' (q.v.), and (2) there is a Jack 
Ardourly in W, T, MONCRIEFF'S ' Monsieur 
Tonson' (q.v.). 

Area Belle (The). Afarceby W. Brough 
(q.v.) and A. HALLiDAY(g.tO., first performed 
at the Adelphi Theatre, London, on March 7, 
1864, with J. L. Toole as Pitcher, a police- 
man ; Paul Bedford as Tosser, a soldier ; R. 
Romer as Walker Chalkes, a mUkman ; and 
Mrs. Alfred INIelion as Penelope, "the area 
belle," with whom the three men are in 
love ; at the Bowery, New York, in August 
1864, with G. L. Fox as Pitcher and Mrs. 
H. Chapman as Penelope. The song of 
'A Norrible Tale,' written by E. L. Blan- 
chard, was sung by Toole as Pitcher. In 
1889, ' The Area Belle ' was turned into 
an operetta, under the title of ' Penelope,' 
the lyrics being WTitten by G. P. Hawtrey, 
and the music composed by Edward Solomon 
(q.v.). The piece was produced at the 
Comedy Tneatre, with Dan Leno as Pitcher, 
Rutland Barrington as Tosser, G. P. Hawtrey 
as Walker Chalkes, and Miss K. Everleigh- 
as Penelope. 

Arethusa. (1) Daughter of the Kin^ 
of Messina in BEAUMONT and Fletcher's 
'Philaster' (q.v.). (2) A njTnph of Diana 
in W. Brough's ' Endymion' (q.v.). (3) A 
character in SiMS'S 'Member for Slocum' 

Arg-alus and Parthenia. A tragi- ' 
comedy by Henry Glapthorne (q.v.), acted, 
at Court and the Cockpit, probably in 1638» 



and printed in 1639. The plot is founded 
on the story of the two lovers in Sir P. 
Sidney's 'Arcadia.' Amphialus, Bemagorgas, 
and the Queen of Corinth, figTire in the piece. 
Pepys, who saw it three times in 1(560-1, 
speaks of it with some favour. 

Argentile and Curan. A le,2:endary 
drama in five acts and verse, by William 
Mason ((/.f.), founded on Warner's 'Albion's 
England,' and first printed in 1797. The 
molto is from Beaumont and Fletcher's 
prologue to ' The Captain '— 

" This is nor comedy, nor tragedy, 
Nor bistorj." 

Argentine. A character in B. Web- 
ster's ' Wonderful Water Cure ' (jq.v.). 

Arg-us. A character in 'The Barber 
of Seville' (1818) {q.v.). (2) Argus, the 
Brilliant-eyed, is "King of the Peacocks," 
in Planche's fairy extravaganza so named 

Argryle (The Duke of). A character 
in various dramatizations of * The Heart of 
Midlothian' {q.v.). 

Ariadne. The central figure of (1") ' Ari- 
adne ; or. The Marriage of Bacchus : ' an 
opera by "P. P.," acted at Covent Garden 
" by the gentlemen of the Academy of 
Music," and printed in 1674. (2) ' Ariadne ; 
or. The Triumph of Bacchus : ' an opera in 
three acts, by Thomas D'Urfey {q.v.), un- 
acted, but printed in 1721 in a collection of 
poems. (3) ' Ariadne : ' a dramatic poem 
in five acts, bv Albany Wallace, printed 
in 1S26. (4) A play by Corneille {q.v.), 
adapted by J. Oxenford {q.v.), and first 
performed at the Princess's Theatre, Lon- 
don, on January 28, 1850, with Mrs. Mow- 
att as the heroine. Miss Fanny Vining 
as Phcedra, Davenport as Theseus, and J. 
Ryder as G^narus. The author " has altered 
the locale, and given a denouemen t of his own, 
making Ariadne drown herself as Sappho 
did, by jumping from a clitf." (5) A bur- 
lesque by Vincent Amcoxts {q.v.).— Ariadne 
also appears in Burnand's 'Theseus and 
Ariadne' {q.v.), and other classical bur- 

Ariadne. A character in Murphy's 
* Rival Sisters ' {q.v.). 

Ariane. A drama in four acts, founded 
by j\Irs. Campbell Praed {q.v.) on her novel 
entitled, 'The Bond of Wedlock,' and first 
performed at the Opera Comique Theatre, 
London, on February 8, 18SS, with Mrs. 
Bernard Beere as the heroine, H. Neville as 
her husband {Henry Lomax), Leonard Boyne 
as her lover {Sir Leopold d'Acosta), C. Marius 
as her father {Chevalier de Valence), Miss 
Laura Linden as an adventuress {Babette 
Steinbock), etc. ; produced in New York, with 
Mrs. Beere in the title part, in November, 
1892. See Airey Annie. 

Aribert. King of the Lombards, in 
Davenant's 'GoncUbert' (^-.t;.); father of 
Rhodalind {q.v.). 

Ariel. (1) An airy spirit in Sh.\.kespeare'S 

' Tempest ' {q.v.). He first appears in act i. 
sc. 2. He sings "Come unto these yellovs' 
sands" and "Full fathom five my father 
lies," in act i. sc. 2, and " Where'the bee 
sucks, there suck I," in act v. sc. 1. "It is 
evident," says Gervinus, "that Shakespeare 
intended to give to Frospero's favourite 
messenger the united power of all elemental 
spirits. At one time he appears as a sea- 
nymph, swimming and careering on the sea ; 
then as a fire-spirit who sets the ship on fire, 
and climbs like licking flame up the mast ; 
then as a spirit of earth, buried for Prosj^ro 
in the frozen veins of the earth ; his ruling 
nature, however, as his name implies, is that 
of a sylph, a spirit of the air. . . . He was 
formerly in the service of the witch Sycorax, 
for whose ' earthly and abhorred com- 
mands ' he was too delicate ; he slighted 
her behests, and she confined him, ' by help 
of her more potent ministers,' in a cloven 
pine ; . . . but, after twelve years' painful 
imprisonment, Prospiero's magic power set 
him free. For this benefit, the restoration 
of freedom, the highest Ariel knew, he gave 
to Prospero a service more suited to his 
gentle nature " (' Shakespeare's Characters '). 
"Shakespeare," says Hazlitt, "has, as it 
were by design, drawn off from Caliban the 
elements of whatever is ethereal and re- 
fined, to compound them in the unearthly 
mould of Ariel. Nothing was ever more 
finely conceived than this contrast between 
the material and the spiritual, the gross 
and delicate. Ariel is imaginary power, the 
swiftness of thought personified. When 
told to make good speed by Prospero, he 
says, ' I drink the air before me.' This is 
something like Puck's boast on a similar 
occasion, ' I'll put a girdle round about the 
earth in forty minutes.' But Ariel differs 
from Puck in having a fellow-feeling in the 
interests of those he is employed about." 
Longfellow tells us how 

" Ariel in tlie cloven pine tree 
For freedom 
Groans and jiyhs." 

Ariel is the "magic page from Shakespeare'^ 
magic volume," in the Brothers Brough'S 
'Enchanted Isle' {q.v.). See, also, Bur- 
nand's ' Ariel.' (2) Spirit of the ether in 
Lord Byron's ' Manfred ' {q.v.). (3) Spirit 
of the air in Planche's 'Vampire' {q.v.). 
(4) A character in J. Oxenford's ' Rape of 
the Lock' {q.v.) 

Ariel. A burlesque drama by F. C BuR- 
NAND {q.v.), first performed at the Gaiety 
Theatre, London, on October 8, 1883, with 
Miss E. Farren in the title part, Miss C. 
Gilchrist as Miranda, Miss P. Broughton as- 
Ferdinand, W. Elton as Caliban, and H. 
Monkhouse as Prospero. 

Arietta. A character in Planche and 
Dance's ' Puss in Boots' {q.v.). 

Ariette, in 'The Appeal' {q.v.), is be- 
trothed to Ethelstane. 

Arimanes. Ruler of the evil agencies 
in Lord Byron's ' Manfred ' {q.v.). 




Arinette. A character in 'The Little 

Ariodante and Genevora. An anony- 
mous play, " shewed before her Majestie on 
Shrove Tuesdaie," 15S2, by " Mr. Mulcasters 
children," and probably founded on ' The 
History of Ariodanto and Jeneura,' trans- 
lated from Ariosto by Peter Beverley, and 
published shortly before the play was acted. 

Ariomaiia,inDow>-ES' 'All Vows Kept' 
{q.v.), manies Trivoltio (q.v.). 

Arion ; or, The Story of a Lyre. 
A burlesque bv F. C. Burn and (q.v.), first 
performed at the Strand Theatre, London, 
on December 20, 1S71, "with a cast including 
E. Terry, H. Paulton, ]NIrs. Raymond, :Miss 
A. Thomson (Arion), Miss Topsy Venn, and 
Miss R. Cullen. 

Arion; or, A Leap for Life. See 
Plo w:\iAN, T. F. 

Aristaeus. A "sporting party " in H. J. 
Byron's ' Orpheus and Eurydice ' (q.v.). 

Aristides. A "jocular revolutionist 
citizen" in INIerivale's 'Son of the SoU' 


Aristippus ; or, Tlie Jovial Philo- 
sopher. A drama in one act, by Thomas 
Randolph ('7.r-.), " demonstrativelieproveing 
that ciuartes, pointes, and pottles, are some- 
times necessary authors in a scholar's li- 
brary," and " presented in a private shew." 
The scene Uesm the University of Cambridge. 
' ' The piece contains a considerable degTee 
of humour." It was first printed in 1630. 


Howard (-^.r.), first performed at Palmer's 
Theatre, New York, on November 14, 1892, 
with a cast including Miss Viola Allen, F. 
Bond, J. '.v. Piggott.^etc. 

Aristocratic Alliance (An). A 

comedv in three acts, founded by Lady 
Greville (q.v.) on Augiers ' Le Gendre de 
M. Poirier' (q.v.), and first performed at the 
Criterion Theatre, London, on March 31, 
1S94, A\-ith a cast including C. Wyndham, 
C. Groves, H. de Lange, J. G. Taylor, F. 
"Worthing, Miss M. Moore, Miss A. Hughes, 
and Miss E. Fowler. 

Aristodemus. (1) A monodrama printed 
in 'The Poetical Register' (1S02). (2) A 
tragedy in prose, translated by Favelli from 
the Italian of Monti, who had founded it 
on tlie fourth book of Pausanias. It was 
printed in li09. 

Aristomenes; or, The Royal 
Shepherd. A tragedy by Anne, Countess 
of WiNCHELSEA ; not acted, but printed in 

Aristophanes. Tlie complete works of 
this ffi'eat comic wi-iter have been trans- 
lated^ into English bv Mitchell (lSOO-2), 
Hickie (1S53), and Rudd (1SG7). See Birds ; 
Clouds ; Frogs ; Plutus ; Wasps. 

Aristophanes, The Eng-lish. A title 
given to Samuel Foote, the actor and dra- 
matist (q.v.). " Foote," writes Genest, " has 

been often called the modern Aristophanes, 
but not ^vith strict propriety ; for though he 
was entitled to that appellation from his 
wit, and though, like Aristophanes, he did 
not care what he said or whom he attacked 
to raise a laugh, Foote brought on the stage 
real persons under fictitious names, Aristo- 
phanes real persons -with their real names." 

Arkansas Traveller (The). A play 
bv Spencer, first performed at New York 
about 1871, with F. S. Chanfrau as Kit. 
" The play itself," says Brander Matthews, 
" is not remarkable, but in Kit we have a 
vivid and vigorous presentation of a simple 
and manly nature." Kit's wife and child 
are stolen from him, and he thereupon 
devotes himself to the destruction of the 
man by whom he has been robbed. 

Ark-wrig-ht's "Wife. A drama by ToM 
Taylor (q.v.) and John Saunders (q.v.), 
founded on the latter's novel, ' A Lion in the 
Path,' and first performed at the Theatre 
Royal, Leeds, in July, 1373, with C. Kelly as 
Ar'ku-right, Steele Mackaye as Peter Hayes, 
H. Ferrand as Hilkiah Larcson, and Miss 
Helen Barry as Margaret Hayes; produced 
at the Globe Theatre, London, in October 
of the same year, with C. Kelly and Miss 
Helen Barry in their original parts, Emery as 
Peter Hayes, E. W. Garden as Hilkiah Laiv- 
son, and Miss Daly as Nancy Hyde ; played at 
the Prince's Theatre, London, on July IC, 1SS3, 
for the benefit of C. Kelly, who assumed 
his original role; revived at the Prince of 
Wales's Theatre, London, on the afternoon 
of February 14, ISSS, with E. S. Willard as 
Peter Hayes and with INIiss Barry and H. 
Ferrand in their original parts. Arkwright, 
whilst trading as a barber, secretly invents 
and completes a spinning-machine, which 
Margaret, instigated by her father Peter, 
destroys. Her husband, indignant at her 
conduct, casts her off, and in due course 
rises to eminence and becomes Sir Richard. 
Margaret, who by-and-by returns, is enabled 
on one occasion "to save her husband's pro- 
perty from the mob, and so secures a for- 
giveness which ends in happy reconciliation. 

Arlequin. A character in Planche's 

' Love and Fortime ' (q.v.). 

Arlesienne (L'). See Love that 

Arline. The heroine of Balfe's 'Bo- 
hemian Girl' (q.v.). She figures in, and 
gives the title to, the following burlesques 
of the opera :— (I) ' Arline ; or. The Fortunes 
and Vicissitudes of a Bohemian Girl,' by 
the Brothers Brough, first performed at the 
Haymarket in April, 1351, with ]Miss Annie 
Roiner as Arline, Miss P. Horton as Thad- 
deus. Bland as Arnheim, Buckstone as 
Dedlshoof, H. Bedford as the Gii)sy Man, 
and INIrs. L. S. Buckingham as Florcstine. 
(2) ' Arline, the Lost Child ; or. The Pole, 
the Policeman, and the Polar Bear,' by H. 
Belltngham (q.v.) and W. BEST (q.v.), first 
performed at Sadler's "Wells, London, on 
July 23, 1SG4:.—A7-Iine is also the chief cha- 




racter in AV. S. Gilbert's ' Merry Zingara ' 
(q.v.)SLnd H. J. Byron's 'Bohemian Gyurl' 

"Arm, arm* arm> arm ! the scouts 
are all come in." First line of a song in 
Fletcher's ' Mad Lover' (q.v.)— 

" Keep your ranks close, and now your honours win." 

Arm.ada, The. " A romance of 158S," 
in tive acts, written by H. Hamilton and A. 
Harris, and first performed at Drury Lane 
Theatre, London, on September 22, 1388, 
with Leonard Boyne as the hero, Miss AVini- 
fred Emery as the heroine, Luigi Lablache 
as the "villain" (a Spanish don), Miss A. 
Neilson as Queen Elizabeth, and other rOles 
by Miss E. Brnce, Miss K. James, Miss M, 
Milton (as Fame), etc. In one of the scenes, 
Seymour Lucas's picture, ' The Game of 
Bowls on Plymouth Hoe,' was realized. 

Armadale. A play by Olive Logan, 
adapted from the novel of the same name 
by Wilkie Collins, and first performed at 
the Broadway Theatre, New York, in De- 
cember, 1S66, with Miss Kate Reignolds as 
Misis Givilt. The hero of this play, Allan 
Armadale, is aiso the hero of Wilkie 
Collins's dramatization of his own story — 
'Miss Gwilt' (g.v.). 

Armadillo. A valet in Bayle Ber- 
nard's ' Maiden's Fame ' iq.v.). 

Armado, Don Adrianode. A "fan- 
tastical Spaniard " in ' Love's Labour's Lost ' 
{q.v.), said to have been intended as a por- 
trait of John Florio, the philologist and 
lexicographer. His well-known dialogues 
with Moth are in act i. sc. 2, act iii. sc. 1. 
Armado also appears in act v. sc. 1. Boyet 
says of him (act iv. sc. 1)— 

"This Armado is a, Spaniard, that keeps here in court ; 
A phantasm, a Monarcho, and one that makes sport 
To the prince, and his book-mates." 

The allusion in ' IMonarcho ' is to an Italian 
lunatic who believed himself sovereign of 
the world. 

Armand. (1) Chevalier de Yaudray, in 
OXENFORD's ' Two Orphans ' {q.v.) ; in "love 
with Ilenriette (q.v.). A character in (2) 
Stirling Coyne's ' Old Chateau' (5. t\), and 
(3) the drama of ' The Violet ' (q.v.). 

Armand ; or, The Peer and the 

Peasant. A play in five acts, by Anna 
Cora Mowatt (q.v.), first performed at the 
Park Theatre, NeAV York, on September 27, 
1847, with Davenport as the hero and the 
authoress as the heroine (Blanche) ; first 
played in London at the Marylebone Theatre 
on June IS, 1849, with Davenport and Mrs. 
Mowatt in their original parts, H. T. Craven 
as Louis XV., J. Johnstone as Richelieu, 
J. W. Ray as Duke D'Antin, and Miss M. 
Oliver as Jaqueline. 

Armg-art. A dramatic poem by ;Mary 
Anne Cross (George Eliot), published in 


Armin, Robert. Actor and dramatist. 

born circa 1568, died circa 1611 ; apprenticed 
to a goldsmith, but afterwards pvotini and 
pupil of Richard Tarlton, the actor (q.v.). In 
Tarlton's ' Jests and News out of Purgatory ' 
(1611), Armin is called Tarlton's "adopted 
son." He appears to have made his debut 
at the Globe. "He is believed to have 
joined the lord chamberlain's players in 
1598, and to have accompanied them to 
Scotland in the following year." It is also 
thought that he played the part of Dogberry 
in succession to its first representative, 
"VViUiam Kemp (q.v.). In 1603 he figured 
among the actors to whom James I. granted 
his patent. In 1610 he was a member of the 
original cast of ' The Alchemist' (q.v.). He 
also played Mat. Flower dale in 'The London 
Prodigal' (q.v.). In 1609 he published his 
play entitled, 'The Two :Maids of More 
Clacke' (q.v.). 'The Valiant Welshman' 
(q.v.) is also attributed to him. In John 
Davies' ' Scourge of Folly,' Armin is charac- 
terized as " honest " and" gamesome," testi- 
mony being given to both his private and 
his public worth. See Langbaine's ' Account 
of the English Dramatic Poets' (1691), 
Payne Collier's ' Principal Actors in the Plays 
of Shakespeare' (1846), 'Dictionary of Na- 
tional Biography ' (1885), and Fleay's ' Bio- 
graphical Chronicle of tlae English Drama ' 

Arminius. A tragedy by William 
Paterson, "cast" for performance, but 
not acted (1739-40). Paterson, as James 
Thomson's amanuensis, " had copied out his 
principal's 'Edward and Eleanora' (q.v), 
and, as 'Arminius ' was in the sam« hand, 
it was forbidden, as being probably an 
equally objectionable piece by the same 
author ! The proliibition applied to Paterson 
was profitable, for he published his play by 
.subscription, and gained £1000 by it, not for 
the reason that it was a good, but because 
it was a forbidden, drama" (Doran). (2) 
' Arminius ; or, The Champion of Liberty : ' 
a tragedy by Arthur Murphy (q.v.), 
printed in 1798, but not acted. 

Armistice (The). Aplayby J. Howard 
Payne (q.v.), first performed at the Surrey 
Theatre in July, 1822, with John Reeve as 
Peter Smink (q.v.), and INIdme. Vestris as 
Ninette. The part of Peter was a favourite 
with J. B. Buckstone (q.v.). Of late years 
the piece has been played under the name 
of 'Peter Smink.' 

Armorel of Lyonesse ; or. The 
Cleverest ISdan in Town. A play 
adapted from Walter Besant's novel so- 
named, by W. Heron Browne and S. 
Boyle Lawrence, Opera Comique, London, 
December 30, 1890. 

Armourer (The). (1) An opera, words 
by Richard Cumberland (q.v.) and music 
by Warner, first performed at Covent Gar- 
den on April 4, 1793, with a cast including 
Quick, IMunden, Incledon, Blanchard, FaM-- 
cett, Harley, Johnstone, Mrs. Martyr, and 
Mrs. Harlowe. ' The Armourer ' was founded 
on a comic opera which Cumberland had 
written on the subject of Wat Tyler. The 



licenser objected to the work, however, and 
the author accordingly remodelled it. (2) 
An historical drama, by R. DODSOX, Bri- 
tannia Theatre, London, 'March, 1876. 

Armourer of Nantes (The). An opera 
in three acts, libretto (founded on Victor 
Hugo's ' Marie Tudor ') by J. V. Bridgeman, 
music by M. W. Balfe, first performed at 
Covent Garden Theatre, London, on Feb- 
ruary 12, 1863. 

Armourer's Daug-liter (The). A 
fairy extravaganza by H. T. Arden {q.v.), 
first performed at Cremorne on August 11, 
1866, witii W, Corri as Giles and Miss C. 
Parkes as Mark. 

Armourer's Escape (The) ; or, 
Three Years at Nootka Sound. A 
melodramatic sketch in two acts, by J. N. 
Barker {q.v.), founded on fact, and first 
performed at Philadelphia in March, 1817. 

Armroyd, Job and Nell. Characters 
in Watts Phillips' ' Lost in London ' {q.v). 

Arms and the Man. A "romantic 
comedy " in three acts, by G. Bernard Shaw 
{q.v.), first performed at the Avenue Theatre, 
London, on April 21, 1894, with a cast in- 
cluding Miss Alma Murray, Miss F. Farr, 
Mrs. C. Calvert, Yorke Stephens, B. Gould, 
and J. Welch. 

Armstrong-. A character in Coljlvn's 
•Iron Chest ' {q.v.). 

Armstrong-, John. Physician, drama- 
tist, and poet, born at Castleton, Roxburgh- 
shire, ajbout 1709, died September, 1779 ; 
author of ' The Forced Marriage,' a tragedy 
(printed 1770). 

Armstrong- the Shipwrig-ht. A 

play by J. T. Haines {q.v.). 

Armusia. One of the heroes of Flet- 
cher's ' Island Princess ' {q.v.), in love with 
Quisara {q.v.). 

Army of the North (The). A melo- 
drama by J. R. Planche {q.v.), produced at 
Covent Garden Theatre, London, on October 
29, 1831, with :Miss Taylor (Mrs. Walter Lacy) 
in the prmcipal female part. 

Armytag-e, Clifford and Harold. 

Characters in SiMS's ' Lights o' London ' 


Arnaud. (1) A Norman minstrel in R. 
Lac/'S ' Robert the Devil ' {q.v.). (2) A 
character in J. T. Haines' ' Idiot Witness ' 

Arncliffe, Sir Harry. The husband 
in Tom Taylor's ' Unequal Match ' {q.v.). 

Arne, Michael. Composer (born 1741, 
died about 1806) ; son of T. A. Arne {q.v.) ; 
wrote the music for the following pieces 
{q.v.):— 'The Fairy Tale' (1763), 'Hymen' 
(1764), ' Almena' (1764), 'Cymon' (1767), 'The 
Fathers' (1778), 'The Belle's Stratagem' 
(1780), 'The Choice of Harlequin' (1781), 
'The Positive jNIan' (1782), and 'Tristram 
Shandy' (1783). 

Arne, Miss. Daughter of Michael Arne 
(q.v.), and vocalist ; made her first appear- 

ance at Drury Lane in 1795 as PoUy in ' The- 
Beggar's Opera' {q.v.). 

Arne, Thomas Aug-ustine, Mus, 
Doc. Composer (bom 1710, died 1778) ; the 
librettist as well as composer of ' Artaxerxes ' 
(1762), ' The Guardian Outwitted ' (1764),. 
' The Rose ' (1773), ' The Contest of Beauty 
and Virtue' (1773), ' A Pasticcio ' (1773), and 
' Phoebe at Court ' (1776) ; also the reputed 
author and composer of ' Don Saverio ' (1750), 
and ' The Cooper ' (1772)— all of which see. 
Dr. Arne wrote the music for the following 
dramatic pieces {q.v.) :—' Rosamond' (1733), 
'The Opera of Operas' (1733), 'Dido and 
^neas ' (1734), ' The Fall of Phaeton ' (1736),, 
' Zara ' (1736), ' Comus ' (1738), ' The Judgment 
of Paris ' (1740), ' Alfred' (1740), ' The Blind 
Beggar of Bethnal Green ' (1741), ' Britannia ' 
(1743), 'Eliza' (1743), 'Thomas and Sallv' 
(1743), 'The Temple of Dullness' (1745),, 
' King Pepin's Campaign ' (1745), ' Neptune 
and Amphitrite' (1746), 'The Prophetess' 
(1759), ' The Sultan ' (1759), ' Olvmpiade ' 
(1765), 'The Ladies' Frolic' (1770), 'the Fairy 
Prince ' (1771), ' Elfrida ' (1772), ' Achilles in 
Petticoats ' (1773), ' May Day ' (1775), and 
' Caractacus' (1776). He at various times 
wi-ote incidental music for ' As You Like It ' 
(1740), 'Twelfth Night '(1741), 'The Merchant 
of Venice' (1742), 'The Tempest' (1746), 
' Romeo and Juliet ' (1750), ' Love in a Vil- 
lage ' (1762), ' King Arthur ' (1770), ' The, 
Tender Husband,' ' The Rehearsal,' ' The 
Rival Queens,' etc. Dr. Arne was appointed 
composer to Drury Lane in 1738, retained 
the post till 1742, and was reappointed to 
it in 1744. He was the brother of Mrs. 
Cibber {q.v.), and the father of Michael Arne- 
{q.v.). See Catgut, Dr. ; also, Grove's 
' Dictionary of Music and Musicians ' (1879),, 
and ' Dictionary of National Biography ' 
(1885). See Abel ; Judith. 

Arnheim. A character in Lord Byron's 
' Werner ' {q.v.). (2) Count Arnhehn is one of 
the personce in ' The Bohemian Girl ' {q.v.). 

Arnold. Son of Bertha, and deformed,, 
in Lord Byron's ' Deformed Transformed*" 

Arnold. The name of the author of a. 
piece called ' The Secret ; or, Nothing' (1807). 

Arnold, Charles. Actor and vocalist, 
born at Lucerne, 1854 ; joined the stage in. 
1872, and, after two seasons at New York, 
had several years' experience in Canada 
(1874) and at San Francisco (1878), followed 
by a visit to the West Indies (1881) and a 
tour of the United States (1882). His first 
appearance in Great Britain was as Tony in 
'My Sweetheart' {q.v.). He has since ap- 
peared as Eughne in ' Erminie ' {q-v.), Hans 
in ' Hans the Boatman ' {q.v.), and the hero 
of ' Rosedale ' {q.v.). 

Arnold, Cornelius. Author of 'Os- 
man,' a tragedy, published in a volume of 
poems (1757). 

Arnold, Henry Thomas. Dramatic 
writer, born 1840, died 1876 ; author of ' The- 
Armourer's Daughter,' ' Tlie Belle of the- 
Barleymow,' 'Bluebeard,' 'An Injured Fe- 
male,' ' Nell Gwynne ; or, The King and 




the Actress,' ' Princess Charming,' ' The 
Right-Fall Heir,' etc. ; best kno-mi under the 
pseudonym of " H. T. Arden." 

Arnold, Mattliew. Poet and prose 
-writer, born 1822 ; author of ' Empedocles 
on Etna' (1853) and 'Merope' (1858), dra- 
matic poems (q.v.). See also his essay on 
' The French Play in London ' (' Irish Essays 
and Others,' IS 3 2), and some fugitive thea- 
trical criticisms in the Fall Mall Gazette. 

Arnold, Mrs. Vocalist ; a gi-eat fa- 
vourite at Covent Garden ; afterwards sang 
in America, where she died. 

Arnold of Benthuysen, in Beau- 
mont and Fletcher's ' Beggar's Bush * 
(q.v.), disguises himself as a beggar and is 
'known as " Ginks." 

Arnold of "Winkelried; or, The 
Fig-ht of Sempach. A drama in five 
acts, by Mark Lemox (q.v.), first performed 
at the Surrey Theatre, London, on July, 
1836, with a cast including Butler as the 
hero, D. Pitt, R. Honner, and Mrs. R. 
Honner. It is written in blank verse. 

Arnold, Samuel, Mus. Doc. Born 
in London, August 10, 1740; died October 
22, 1802. He was appointed composer to 
Covent Garden Theatre in 17G3, and brought 
out his first opera there in 1765. In 1769 he 
purchased Marylebone Gardens, for which 
he wrote and produced several burlettas, 
but from which his losses soon compelled 
him to retire. The following is a list 
of the dramatic compositions for which 
he furnished music: — 'The Maid of the 
Mill ' (1765), ' Rosamond ' (1767), ' The 
Portrait' (1770), 'Mother Shipton' (1770), 
' The Son-in-Law ' (1779), ' Summer Amuse- 
ment ' (1779), ' Fire and Water ' (1780), 
'The Wedding Night' (1780), 'The Silver 
Tankard' (1780), 'The Dead Alive' (1781), 
' The Castle of Andalusia' (1782), ' Harlequin 
Teague' (1782), ' Gretna Green ' (1783), ' Hunt 
the Slipper' (1784), 'Two to One' (1784), 
"Here, There, and Everywhere' (1784), 
♦Turk and No Turk' (1785), 'The Siege of 
€uzzola' (1785), 'Inkle and Yarico' (1787), 
'The Enraged Musician' (1788), 'The Battle 
of Hexham' (1789), 'New Spain' (1790), 'The 
Basket-Maker' (1790), 'The Surrender of 
■Calais' (1791), 'Harlequin and Faustus' 
(1793), 'The Children in the Wood' (1793), 
'Auld Robin Gray' (1794), 'Zorinski' (1795), 
"The ^Mountaineers' (1795), '^Mao Pays the 
Reckoning ? ' (1795), ' Love and Money ' (1795), 
'Bamiian Dav' (1796), 'The Shipwreck' 
(1796), 'The Italian Monk' (1797), 'False 
and True' (1798), 'Throw Physic to the 
Dogs' (1798), 'The Cambro-Britons ' (1728), 
'Oi5i; or. Three-fingered Jack' (1800), 'The 
He view' (1801), 'The Corsair' (1801), 'The 
Veteran Tar ' (1801), ' The Sixty-third Letter ' 
(1802), and ' The Fairies' Revels ' (1802). See 
Grove's ' Dictionary of 3Iusic and Musicians ' 

Arnold, Samuel James. Theatrical 
■manager and dramatic author ; son of Dr. 
Samuel Arnold ; born 1774, died August 16, 
2852 ; joined his father in building the 

Lyceum Theatre, of which he became 
manager, and afterwards erected the English 
Opera House at a cost of £80,000. After 
leaving the Lyceum, Arnold was for three 
years manager of Drury Lane Theatre. He 
married Matilda, daughter of H. J. Pye, 
the laureate, and, in collaboration with her, 
wrote the comedy called ' The Prior Claim ' 
(1805). He was also the author of the follow- 
ing pieces :— ' Auld Robin Gray ' (1794), ' Who 
Pays the Reckoning?' (1795), 'The Ship- 
wreck ' (1796), ' The Irish Legacy ' (1797), 
'The Veteran Tar' (1801), 'Foul Deeds will 
rise' (1804), ' Up aU Night' (1809), ' Britain's 
Jubilee ' (1809), ' Man and Wife ' (1809), ' The 
Maniac' (ISIO), 'Plots' (1810), and 'The 
Americans ' (1811). Hazlitt ■s\Tote of him : 
" He does not get a single glimpse of life 
or nature, but as he has seen it represented 
on his own boards, or conned it over in his 
manuscripts. . . . His characters are the 
shadows of a shade ; but he keeps a very 
exact inventory of his scenery and dresses. 
. . . He writes with the fewest ideas pos- 
sible ; his meaning is more nicely balanced 
between sense and nonsense than that of 
any of his competitors ; he succeeds from the 
perfect insignificance of his pretensions, 
and fails to offend through downright 
imbecility " (' View of the Stage,' 1818). 

Arnold, "W. H. Author of ' The DevU's 
Bridge,' ' The Woodman's Hut,' and other 
dramatic pieces. 

Arnoldo, in Beaumont and Flet- 
cher's ' Custom of the Country ' (q.v.), is 
atfianced to Zenocia (q.v.). 

Around tlie "World in Eig-lity 
Days. A play produced at New York in 
June, 1885, and" again in August, 1SS6. See 
Round the World. 

Arpasia, in Rowe's ' Tamerlane,' is 
betrothed to Moneses (q.v.), but forced to 
marry Bajazet (q.v.). 

Arrah-na-Pog-ue ; or, Tlie "Wick- 
low "Wedding-. A drama by Dion Bouci- 
CAULT (q.v.), first performed at the Theatre 
Royal, Dublin, on November 7, 1864, with 
the author as Shaun the Post, Rignold as 
Beamish M'Coul, J. Brougham as Colonel 
O'Grad'j, Reynolds as Michael Feeny, Mrs. 
B. White as 'Fanny Pou'er, and Mrs. Bouci- 
cault as Arrah Meelish ; first performed 
(in London) at the Princess's Theatre, on 
INIarch 22, 1865, with Mrs. Boucicault in 
the title part, D. Boucicault as Shaiin the 
Post, John Brougham as Colonel O'Grady, 
Dominick MuiTay as Michael Feeny, H. 
Vandenhoff as the M'Coul, Miss M. OUver as 
Fanny Power, and F. Charles as Major Coffin; 
first performed in America at Niblo's Garden 
on July 12, 1S65, with T. H. Glenney as 
Shaun, W. E. Sheridan as Beamish, and Miss 
Josie Orton as Arrah. In 1866 the play was 
represented in Paris, at the Gaiety, as ' Jean 
la Poste, ou les Noces Irlandaises.' It was 
revived at the Adelphi in September, 1867 ; 
produced at Niblo's Theatre, New York, in 
1869, with Miss Rose Eytinge as Arrah and 
Dominick Murray as Feeny; revived at the 




Gaiety in June, 1S72, with Boucicault, Mrs 
Boucicault, Shiel Barry {Feeny), and W. | 
Rignokl (O'Grady), and at the Adelphi in 
August, 1876, -with J. C. "SVillianison and 
Miss Maggie Moore as Shaun and Arrah; 
reproduced at the Grand Opera House, New 
York, in 1879, with the author in the cast ; 
revived at the Adelphi Theatre, London, in 
Julv, 1885, with C.'.Sullivan as Shaun, Miss 
M. 'Rorke as Arrah; played at New Orleans 
in 1887, with O. Tearle as Shaun ; and re- 
vived at the Princess's Theatre, London, in 
August, 1891, with W. E. Shine as Shaun, 
Miss E. Terriss as Arrah, H. Neville as 
O'Grady, A. Dacre as Beamish, C. Ashford 
as Feeny, and Miss A. Roselle as Fanny. 
Henry Morley holds that it "is in the 
first two acts cleverly constructed and well 
written, but the interest does not pass into 
the third act, which is weak and strained, 
though it is supported by wliat is meant to 
be the gi-eat ' sensational' effect of a climb 
up an ivv-covered tower wall (' Journal of .a 
London Playgoer,' 1S66). See BETWEEN you 


Arraig-nment of London (The). A 
play by Richard DAB0RNE(5.u.)and Cvril 
TOURNEUR {q.v.), mentioned by the former 
in letters to Henslowe, dated June, 1613. 

Arraig-nment of Paris (The). A 

masque by George Peele (7. r.), represented 
before Queen Elizabeth, by the children 
of her chapel, before 15S2, and anony- 
mously printed in 1584. Francis Nash {q.v.), 
WTiting in 15S9, gave it as his opinion that 
this masque displayed Peele's "pregnant 
dexterity of wit and manifold variety of 
invention, wherein (me judice) he goeth a 
step beyond all that v^Tite." The work, ac- 
cording to Collier, " evinces much facility 
in the use of the English language," but, 
" in point of invention, does not deserve 
any extraordinary degree of praise, since 
Peele has done little more than dramatize, 
and put into agreeable and flowing verse, 
the ajiologue of the ' Judgment of Paris.' 
It derives'the title of ' The Arraignment of 
Paris ' from the circumstance that, towards 
the close, the Trojan shepherd is brought to 
trial before Jove for having adjudged the 
apple of discord to Venus." " Colin and 
Hobbinol in it are, of course, Spenser and 
Harvey . . . Diggon, I think, Churchyard ; 
Paris and (Enone, Leicester and Lady Shef- 
field ; Helen being the Countess of Essex " 

Ai'-Rivals (The). See Rivals, The. 

Arrong-e (L'). See Way 10 the 

Arrowsmith, "William. An M.A. of 

Cambridge ; author of ' The Reformation,' a 
comedy (1673). See Langbaine's ' Di'amatic 

Arsaces. A character in Mottley's 
' Antiochus' {q.v.). 

Arsaces. A tragedy by William Hod- 
son ; not acted, but printed in 1775. It is 
founded on the ' Ezio' of Metastasio. 

Arsenic. " A dead take-in," in ' The 
Philosopher's Stone' {q.v.). 

Arsinoe, Q,ueen of Cyprus. An 
opera 'sratten by Peter M0TTEUx('7.f.), and 
composed by Clayton, performed at Drury 
Lane on January 16, 1705. This was the 
first effort to establish, in England, opera 
on the Italian model. " If this attempt," 
said the composer, " shall be a means of 
bringing this manner of music to be used 
in my native country, I shall think my 
study and pains very weU employed." Mrs. 
Tofts was the ■prima donna in this instance. 
(2) ' Arsinoe ; or. The Incestuous Marriage : ' 
a tragedy by Andrew Henderson ; "not 
acted^ but printed in 1752. 

Art. (1) A drama by Charles Reade 
{q.v.), adapted from Fournier's 'Tiridate, ou 
Comedie et Tragedie,' and first i)erformed at 
the St. James's Theatre, London, in February, 
1855, with Mrs. Seymour as Nance- Oldfield, 
and Miss E. Brunton (Robertson) in a minor 
part; revived, under the title of 'Nance 
Oldfield,' at the Lyceum in 1SS3, with Miss 
Genevieve Ward as Nance and W. H. Vernon 
a.s Nathayi Olduorthy ; again revived at the' 
Lyceum in May, 1S91, with Miss Ellen Terrj 
as Nance and T. N. Wenman as Nathar, 
Oldworthy. See Actress by Daylight 
Comedy and Tragedy; and Tragedi 
Queen. (2) A comedietta by Cunnixghaj! 
BRlDG>LiN {q.v.), first performed at the 
Bijou Theatre, Paignton, in August, 1874. 

Art and Artifice; or, Woman's 
Love. A drama in five acts, by J0H> 
Brougham {q.v.), produced at New Yort 
in June, 1859. As the preface says, " th( 
leading incident in this drama is historic- 
namely, the abandonment by Quentin Matsy 
of his trade of blacksmith in order to com 
mence the study of painting, inspired by hi; 
love for a painter's daughter, whom he'ulti 
mately won." In the original cast, F. B 
Conway was 2Iatsys and Mrs. Conway AlyU 
von Ticilt, the author playing 2foritz Wylde. 

Art and Love. A dramatic sketch ii 
one act, by A. W. Dubourg {q.v.), first pei 
formed at the Opera Comique, London, oj 
February 17, 1877 ; revived at the Avenu 
Theatre,' London, on the afternoon of Jun 
24, 1890, with Miss WalLis (Mrs. Lancaster 
and Arthur Stirling in the cast. 

Art and Nature. A comedy in fiv 
acts, by the Rev. James Miller, owin 
something to the ' Arlequin Sauvage ' of D 
risle, the ' Flateur' of Rousseau, and MoHert 
and first performed at DruryLane on Februar 
16, 1738, with Griffin as Sir Simon Dupe, Mr; 
]MiUs as Flaminia, MUls as Truemore, Qui 
as Courtly, and Cibber, jun., as Julio. Th 
piece " was damned," says Genest, " on tb 
first night. The templars had taken an ui 
reasonable prejudice against MUler for h: 
farce of ' The Coffee-House ' [q.v.], and seei 
to have been determined to damn any piec 
that was known to be his." See Alpharei 

" Art is a power that will not t) 



denied."— Fletcher's 'Humorous Lieu- 
tenant ' (song). 

Art of Acting-, An Essay on the. 
A discourse in prose, by Aarox Hill (g.u.), 
opening Avith the assertion that " the first 
dramatic principle " is as follows : — "To act 
a passion well, the actor never must attempt 
its imitation, 'till his fancy has conceived so 
strong an image, or idea, of it, as to move 
the same impressive springs within his 
mind, which form that ijassion, when 'tis 
undesigned, and natural." The writer then 
proceeds to explain, in detail, how an actor 
should express joy, grief, fear, anger, pity, 
scorn, hatred, jealousy, wonder, love ; con- 
cluding with a series of questions and 
answers on the subject-matter of the essay. 
See Actor, The. 

Art of Acting: (The). "Part I. De- 
riving Rules from a New Principle, for 
Touching the Passions in a Natural Man- 
ner. An Essay of General Use, to Those, 
who hear, or apeak in Public, and to the 
Practisers of many of the Elegant Arts ; As 
Painters, Sculptors, and Designers : But 
Adapted, in Particular, to the Stage : with 
view to quicken the Delight of Audiences, 
And form a Judgment of the Actors, in their 
Good, or Bad, Performances." A poem by 
AARON Hill (q.v.), published in 1746, with 
a dedicatory preface to the Earl of Chester- 
field. The work is rather rhapsodical than 
methodical, the following being one of the 
most coherent passages :— 

"Why was the Actor stain'd, by Law's Decreet 
Lost Time's Recoverer ! Truth's Awakener, He ! 
Passion's Refiner ! Life's shoal Coast survey'd — 
The wise Man's Pleaser, and the good Man's Aid: 
Precept and Practice, in One Teacher join'd, 
Bodied Resemblance of the copied Mind : 
Nature confirms, Art dignifies his Claim, 
And only Cunt's low Crawl defiles his name. 
If but by Comprehension we possess, 
And every Greater Circle holds the Less, 
No Rank's high Claim can make the Player's look small, 
Since, acting Each, He comprehends 'emalL" 

See Actor, The. 

Art of Managrement (The) ; or, 
Trag-edy Expelled. A farce in one act, 
by Charlotte Charke (g.v.), "performed 
once at the Concert-room in York-buildings," 
in 1735. This farce was a bitter satire on 
Fleetwood, the manager of Drury Lane, with 
whom Mrs. Charke had quarrelled, and who 
is made to figure in the piece as Squire 
Brainless. Headpiece is Theophilus Cibber, 
and Mrs. Tragic is Mrs. Charke herself. 

"Art thou poor, yet hast thoti 
g'olden slumbers ? " First line of a song 
in ' The Pleasant Comedy of Patient Gris- 
sell ' {q.v.)— 

" sweet content! " 

Artaban. Son of Artemisa, in RowE'S 
'Ambitious Stepmother ' iq.v.). 

Artabanes. Father of Arhaces {q.v.), in 
Arne's ' Artaxerxes ' {q.v.). 

Artan. A demon in * The Imposture 
Defeated ' {q.v.). 

Artaxaminous. King of Utopia, in 
Rhodes' ' Bombastes Furioso ' {q.v.). 

Artaxerxes. (1) An opera in three acts, 
the libretto adapted from" Metastasio, the 
musicby Dr. T. A. Arne {q.v.) ; first performed 
at Covent Garden Theatre on February 2, 
1762, with Beard as Artabanes, Tenducci as 
Arhaces, Peretti as Artaxerxes, Miss Brent 
as Mandane, etc. Artabanes, having kiUed 
Xerxes, seeks to throw the guUt on his son 
Arbaces, whom he also accuses of seeking to 
poison Artaxerxes, Artabanes himself being 
in this case also the guilty person. Even- 
tually Artabanes is banished. Arbaces is in 
love Avith Mandane, the sister of Artaxerxes. 
'Artaxerxes ' was an experiment,inasmuch as 
it was composed "after the Italian manner, 
with recitative instead of spoken dialogue." 
Arne, we read, " crowded many of the airs 
with florid divisions, particularly those in 
the part of Mandane, which he composed for 
his pupil. Miss Brent." 'Artaxerxes' was 
frequently revived in the latter years of the 
last, and the early years of the present, 
century— notably at Covent Garden in 1831, 
with Miss Sherriff as Mandane and Braham 
as Artabanes. (2) An opera translated from 
Metastasio by John Hoole, and printed in 

Artaxerxes. Son of Memnon, and hus- 
band of Amestris, in RowE's 'Ambitious 
Stepmother' {q.v.). 

Artemisa. The heroine of RowE's 
' Ambitious Stepmother' {q.v.). 

Artemisia. A character in Planche's 
'An Old Offender '(g.u.). 

Artful Cards. A farcical comedy by 
F. C. BURNAND {q.v.), adapted from 'La 
Cle' by MM. Duru and Labiche, and 
first performed at the Gaiety Theatre, 
London, in February, 1877, with J. L. Toole 
as Spicer Rumford, A. Bishop as Sir Hare- 
cutt Shortleigh, H. Westland as Fred Flutter, 
Miss Henderson as the Countess Asteriski, 
and Mrs. Leigh as Mrs. Rumford ; revived 
at Toole's Theatre, London, in March, 1892. 
Rumford is " a weak gentleman with a foolish 
fondness for dissipation," who, unknown to 
his wife, visits the Countess Asteriski, a Pohsh 
adventuress, and loses a good deal of money 
at play. The Countess's friends are all 
swindlers, and, the police entering the 
house, these "artful cards" pretend to be 
engaged in musical performances. 

Artful Dodg-e (The). A farce in one 
act, by E. L. Blanchard {q.v.), first per- 
formed at the Olympic Theatre, London, on 
February 2, 1842, with G. Wild as Demos- 
thenes Dodge, Fitzjames as the Rev. Fred 
FitzFudge, Tumour as Gregory Grudge, Miss 
Arden as Susan Smudge, Rogers as Nudge, 
and Walton as Budge; revived at Drury 
Lane (with other entertainments) for the 
benefit of Mrs. Blanchard, on the afternoon 
of June 2, 1S90, with A. Williams as Dodge. 

Artful Husband (The). A comedy by 
W. Taverner {q.v.), first performed at Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields on February 11, 1717, with 



'Keene as Wimvife, Mrs. Rogers as Mrs. 
Winwije, INIrs. Knight as Lady Upstart, 
Mrs. Thurmond as Belinda, and Elrington 
as Sir Rarry Freelove. The piece has two 
concuiTent plots. The first has to do with 
the extravagant doings of Mrs. Winwife. 
In order to cure her of them, Wimvife 
pretends to be nearly ruined, and his wife 
at once offers to retire into the country. 
The idea of this was taken from Shirley's 
'Lady of Pleasure' (q.v.). The second plot 
has for its centre Lady Upstart, who is 
induced to maiTy a Sir Modish Pert. Sir 
Modish is, however, only Belindain disguise, 
and Lady Upstart is glad to dissolve the 
marriage for a consideration named by 
Belinda, who is in love with, and now 
man-ies, Sir Harry. This notion is borrowed 
from ' The Counterfeit Bridegroom ' (g.f •)• 
Among the other characters are Stockwell, 
Frank Flash, and Decoy, all of which see. 
Altered by Colman— the episode of Winwife 
and his spouse being wholly omitted—' The 
Artful Husband' was reproduced at the 
Haymarket on May 18, 177S, under the title 
of 'The Female Chevalier,' the new title 
being suggested probably by the case of the 
Chevalier d'Eon, then notorious. On May 1, 
1795, Taverner's comedy was again repro- 
duced, this time at Covent Garden, and 
under the new name of ' The Bank-Xote ; 
or. Lessons for Ladies,' W. Macready being 
the adapter. The piece was played at New 
York in 1797. See Artful Wife. 

Artful Wife (The). A comedy by W. 
Taverner (g.v.), intended as a pendant to 
'The Artful Husband' (q.v.), and first per- 
formed at Lincoln's Inn Fields on December 
3, 1717-18, with ]Mrs. Rogers as Lady Absent, 
Bullock, jun., as Sir Francis Courtal, Keene 
as Lord Absent, etc. The "artful wife" is 
Lady Absent, who, neglected by her hus- 
band and pursued by Sir Francis, an-anges 
that Sir Francis shall be discovered making 
love to her at a place of assignation. Lord 
Absenfs jealousy is aroused, and Sir Francis 
is made to marry a girl whom he has 

Arthiope. A character in Davexant's 

• Unfortunate Lovers ' (q.v.). 

Artliur ; or, TheHi-diddle-diddles 
of tlie King". Henry Jlorley, writing in 
his ' Journal of a London Playgoer,' under 
date of April, 1860, says: "There is an 
appearance in advertisements of a burlesque 
by somebody of fashion, who has written 
^ Arthur ; or, The Hi-diddle-diddles of the 
King.' " 

Arthur and Emmeline. See Arthur, 

Arthur, John. Actor and dramatist, 
died April, 1772 ; performed at Covent 
Garden and Drury Lane between 1737 and 
1758, and at Dublm in 1758-9. " In 1760 he 
seems to have been manager of the Bath 
company." Among his characters were 
.Shylock, Touchstone, Polonius, Shalloiv, Sir 
Hugh Evans, Stephana (Dry den's 'Tempest'), 
Fondleivife ('The Old Bachelor'), Lord 

Froth ('The Double Dealer'), Scrub ('The 
Beaux' Stratagem'), Traj^panti (' She Would 
and She Would Not '), Moneytrap (' The Con- 
federacy'), etc. He was " a very good copier 
of nature in some peculiarities of humour " 
(Genest). He was also the author of ' The 
Lucky Discovery ' {q.v.). See Davies' ' Dra- 
matic Miscellanies' (1783-4), the ' Biographia 
Dramatica' (1812), and Genest's 'English 
Stage' (1832). 

Arthur, King*. This famous legendary 
monarch has been the leading personage in 
many dramatic pieces :— (1) 'Arthur's Show :' 
an interlude, mentioned by Justice Shallow 
in 'King Henry IV.,' pt. 2, act iii. so. 2 ; 
"very popular in Shakespeare's age," and 
probably based on Malory's 'Morted' Arthur.' 
(2) 'The Misfortunes of Arthur' (1587) 
(q.v.). (3) ' The Life and Death of Arthur, 
King of England : ' a play by Richard 
Hathaway {q.v.), "acted by the Lord 
Admiral's servants" at the Rose Theatre in 
April, 1598. Fleay suggests that this may be 
identical with 'Arthur's Show.' (4) 'King 
Arthur ; or, The British Worthy :' a " dra- 
matic opera," words by John Dryden, music 
by Henry Purcell, acted at the Queen's 
Theatre in 1691, and printed in the same 
year. " This play is a kind of sequel to the 
'Albion and Albanius' of the same author. 
. . . The whole affair of the Enchanted 
Wood and other wonders of Osmond's art, 
are borrowed from Tasso. . . . The contrast 
of character between Philidcl, a gentle 
aerial spirit, and Grimbald, a fierce earthy 
goblin, engaged on the adverse party, is not 
only well disguised, but executed -nith the 
hand of a master " (' Biographia Dramatica '). 
Downes says that the work was ' ' excellently 
adorn'd with scenes and machines. . , , 
The play and musick pleas'd the court and 
city" (' Roscius Anglicanus '). Altered by 
David Garrick, and with additional music 
by Dr. Arne, ' King Arthur' was revived at 
Drury Lane in 1770 ; in 1784 it was repro- 
duced at that theatre in a revised form, 
under the title of ' Arthur and Emmeline,' 
and with Kemble and Miss Farren in the 
principal rdles; it was seen at the Lyceum 
Theatre, London, in July, 1827, when Pur- 
cell's music was given, and when the cast 
included Pearman, Thorne, Phillips, Miss 
Paton, and Miss Kelly ; and there is further 
record of its being performed at Drury 
Lane Theatre in November, 1842, when the 
part of Philidel was taken by Miss P. Horton. 
(5) ' Arthur, Monarch of the Britons : ' a 
tragedy by William Hilton ; not acted, 
but printed among the author's poetical 
works (1776). (6) 'King Arthur; or, The 
Days and Nights of the Round Table : ' an 
extravaganza by William Brough {q.v.), 
brought out at the Haymarket Theatre 
in 1863, with Miss Louise Keeley as the 
King, Miss Wright as Guinevere, Miss H. 
Lindley as Sir Launcelot, Miss Romer as 
Vivien, and Compton as Sir Key. In this 
piece Guinevere, before she is wedded to 
Arthur, is captured by Cheldric, the Saxon 
invader, from whom, however, she is re- 
captured by the aid cf Vivien as the wielder 




of Merlin's waiul. (7) 'King Arthur: a 
play in verse by J. COMYNS Carr (q.v.), 
Lyceum Theatre, London, January 12, 1895, 
with H. Irving as Arthur, Miss E. Terry as 
Guinevere, J. Forbes-Robertson as Lancelot, 
r Cooper as Mordred, S. Valentine as 
Merlin, .Miss G. Ward as Morgan Le Fay, 
Miss Ashwell as Elaine, etc. (8) 'King 
Arthur ; or, Launcelot the Loose, Gm- 
ever the Square, and the Knights of the 
Round Table, and other Furniture : ' a bur- 
lesque by W. :M. Akhurst.— A'?»i7 Arthur 
is also a character in Fiklding's 'Tom 
Thumb' (q.v), E. L. Blanchard'S 'Three 
Perils,' H. J. Byron's 'Jack the Giant- 
Killer' C*?.?;.), the burlesque of ' The Lanca- 
shire Witches ' Qj.v.), Paulton and Pascal's 
'Cymbia' (q.v.), and Richard-Uenry S 
•Lancelot the Lovely ' {q.v.). 

Arthur, Prince, figures in Shake- 
speare's ' King John,' and G. A. A 
Beckett's burlesque ' King John (with the 
benefit of the Act) ' {q.v.). 

Arthur, The Misfortunes of. See 
Misfortunes of Arthur, The. 

Arthur's Show. See Arthur, King. 

Art-i-chok. Caliph of Jerusalem, in 
Planciie's 'Seven Champions of Christen- 
dom' {q.v.). 

Article 7 (L'). See Shylock and Co. 

Article 47 (L') ; or, Breaking- the 
Ban. A drama in three acts, adapted from 
the French of Adolphe Belot by Henry L. 
Williams {q.v.), and produced at the Fifth 
Avenue Theatre, New York, on April 2, 1872, 
with H. Crisp as Duhainel, G. Parkes as 
Mazilier, L. James as Delille, J. Lewis as 
Potain, D. II. Harkins as the Judge, Miss 
Clara Morris as Cora, Miss Linda Dietz as 
Marcelle, and INIrs. G. H. Gilbert as Mdme. 
DuhameL See Cora. 

Article 231 (L'). See Last Straw, The. 

Artifice (The). (1) A five-act comedy by 
Mrs. Centlivre {q.v.), first performed on 
October 2, 1722, with Mrs. Younger as 
Louisa, Mills as Ned Freeman, Mrs. Horton 
as Olivia, Wilks as Sir John Freeman, W. 
Wilks as Faimvell, Mrs. Thurmond as Mrs. 
Headless, Harper as Tally, Mrs. Oldfield 
as Mrs. Watchitt, and Griffin as Watchitt. 
No fewer than three "artifices" are made 
use of in this play. One is that which is 
adopted by Louisa, who has been seduced 
by Ned, but who, by persuading him he is 

Eoisoned, induces him to marry her, and to 
and over to his brother. Sir John, not only 
Olivia, but the estates which he has wrong- 
fully withheld from him. The second arti- 
fice is that of Faimvell, who, by means of it, 
carries off the widow Headless from Tally ; 
whilst the third is that adopted by Mrs. 
Watchitt in order to allow of her lover es- 
caping from her husband. This last artifice, 
however, does not succeed. (2) A comic 
opera in two acts, by William Augustus 
Miles {q.v.), first performed at Drury Lane 

on April 14, 1780, with Parsons, Lamash, 
Bannister, etc., in the cast. The king in Daniel's 
' Doctor Bolus ' {q.v.) ; in love with Poggy- 
lina {q.v.). 

Artist's Wife (The). A "petite 
comedy " in two acts, by Gilbert Abbott 
A Beckett {q.v.), first performed at the Hay- 
market on July 28, 1838, with J. B. Buckstone 
as Andrew, the artist's servant. The title 
role. Lady Charlotte Clermont, was played by 
Miss Tavlor. The comedy was produced at 
the Park Theatre, New York, in September, 

Arts and Hearts. A prose comedy 
in three acts, by H. B. Cooper, adapted 
from Julian Hawthorne's story of 'Pauline,' 
and printed in 1882. 

Arundel St., Strand ; 117. See One 
Hundred and Seventeen. 

Arva, The Knig-ht of. See Knight 
OF Arva. 

Ar vedson. The fortune-teller in Auber's 
' Gustavus III.' 

Arvida. Friend of Gustavus Vasa, in 
Brooke's play of that name {q.v.). 

Arvirag-us. (1) Younger son of Cymbe- 
\ line, in Shakespeare's play {q.v.). (2) A 
I character in ' The Successful Pirate' {q.v.). 

Arvirag-us and Philicia. A play in 
two parts, by Lodowick Carlell {q.v.), 
acted at the Cockpit and Hampton Court 
in 1636, and printed in 1639. It was revived 
at Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1672, with a pro- 
logue by Dryden. 

As de Trefle (L'). See Ace of Clubs. 

As Good as Gold. A comedietta by 
C. F. COGHLAN {q.v.), first performed at the 
Lyceum Theatre, London, on December 18, 

As in a Glass. See Ourang-Outang, 

As in a Lookingr-Glass. (1) A play 
in four acts, founded by F. C. Grove on 
F. C. Philips' novel of that name, and first 
performed at the Opera Comique, London, 
on May 16, 1887, with Mrs. Bernard Beere as- 
Lena Despard, H. Standing as Captain For- 
tinbras, C. Marius as Count Dromiroff, A. 
Bucklaw as Algie Balfour, and Miss Eva^ 
Sothern as Miss Vyse ; played in the English 
provinces in 1887, with Miss L. Villiers as- 
Lena; first produced in America at Fifth 
Avenue Theatre, New York, September 19, 
1887, with Mrs. Langtry as Lena; revived 
at Manhattan Opera House, New York, No- 
vember 14, 1892, with Mrs. Beere and C. 
Marius in their original roles, and W. Barry- 
more as Fortinbras. (2) Another adapta- 
tion, by T. Sidney-, was produced at Frome, 
Dorsetshire, in August, 1S87.— Two other 
dramatic versions of the story have been 
produced in America— one, by L. Marston^ 
in 1889. 




As it Should Be. A play by W. C. 
OULTON (q.v.), first performed at the Hay- 
market Theatre on June 3, 17S9, with Powell 
and Mrs. Powell in the cast. The plot is 
taken from No. 1 of 'The Busy Body.' 
Fidget desires to marry his daughter C'elia 
to Lord Megrim, but in the end she espouses 
her lover, Wimvorth. The play was first 
performed in America in 1791. See Sparkle. 

As Larg-e as Life. A farcical piece in 
three acts, by Arthur Shirley {q.v.)\ 
Terry's Theatre, London, May 13, 1890. 

As Like as Two Peas. A farce in 
one act, by Herbert Lille, first performed 
at the Haymarket on June 30, 1S54, with 
Buckstone, Compton, Mrs. Fitzwilliam, and 
Mrs. Buckingham, in the cast. 

As Merry as May Be. A play by 
Hathaway, IIoughto.x, Day, and Smith, 
acted at Court in 1602. 

As Plain as Can Be. A play per- 
formed before Queen Elizabeth and her 
Court between July 14, 1567, and Llarch 3, 

As the "World G-oes. A play by 
ThojIas Horde, jun. 

As-tu tue le Mandarin ? See Case 
OF Conscience. 

As You Find It. A comedy by 
Charles, Earl of Orrery, first performed 
, at Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1703, with Pack 
as Jack Single, Dogget as Sir Abel Single, 
Mrs. Lee as Chloris, Verbruggen as Hariley, 
Betterton as Bcvil, Mrs. Bracegirdle as 
Orinda, jNIrs. Barry as Eugenia, Powel as 
Ledger, and Bowman as Sir Pert. Jack 
marries Chloris, to the disgust of his father, 
Sir Abel, who has himself proposed to her. 
.Hartley neglects his wife, but, meeting her 
by chance at a masked baU, reforms. ^Levil 
marries Orinda. 

As You Like It. A comedy by William 

Shakespeare {q.v.), founded, as regards the 
main features of the plot, upon T. Lodge's 
prose fiction, ' Rosalynde, Euphues' Golden 
Legacie,' which was published in 1590, and 
was itself based in part on the Cook's Tale 
of Gamelyn (wTongly ascribed to Chaucer). 
Jacques, Touchstone, and Audrey are wholly 
the creation of Shakespeare, who also modi- 
fied Lodge's story in certain details. As the 
play is not mentioned by Meres in his ' Pal- 
ladis Tamia ' (1598), and as one of the lines 
in it (" Who ever loved, that loved not at first 
sight ? ") is quoted from Marlowe's ' Hero 
and Leander ' (also published in 1598), it may 
be assumed that the work was not wTitten 
till after that date. The reference to it in the 
Stationer's Register is supposed to apply to 
1600, and its composition may, therefore, be 
referred to the interval between the two 
years named. It was first printed in the 
folio of 1623, and has been published fre- 
quently in a separate form. Theobald edited 
it in 1741, the Covent Garden stage version 
was issued in 1786, and Kemble's edition of 
it appeared in 1815. Of its early stage-his- 
tory little is known. On January 9, 1723, 

there was acted at Drury Lane an adaptation 
of the comedy, perpetrated by Charles John- 
son, and called ' Love in a' Forest,' with 
Cibber as Jacques, WUks as Orlando, Booth 
as the banished Duke (here called Alberto), 
Mills as Adam, Thurmond as Oliver, Cory as 
Amiens, T. Cibber as Le Beau, INIrs. Booth 
as Bosalind, Mrs. Thurmond as Celia, etc. 
From this compilation, Touchstone, Audrey, 
William, Corin, and Phoebe were omitted, 
whUst passages from ' Richard II.,' ' Much 
Ado about Nothing,' and ' Twelfth Night,' 
together with the interlude from ' A Mid- 
summer Night's Dream,' and lines from the 
adapter's own pen, were inserted. Among 
many alterations, Jacques was represented 
as making love to Celia, and marrying her in 
the end. The adaptation was published in 
the year of performance. Sixteen years later 
(1739) one " J. C." published a comedy called 
' The Modern Receipt ; or, A Cure for Love," 
which he described as " altered from Shake- 
speare," and w^hich was a species of modern- 
ized paraphrase of ' As You Like It.' The 
scene was laid in Liege and Arden, and 
Rosalind, Orlando, Celia, Jacques, and Adam 
appeared as Camilla, Vincentio, Julia, Marcel- 
lus, and Fidelio respectively. Shakespeare's 
lines w^ere occasionally used, but generally 
re-written or amplified in prose. In this ver- 
sion, also, Jacques, as Marcellus, has wit- 
combats with Celia (as Julia), and pairs off 
with her at the close. In 1856 George Sand 
translated and adapted the play to the 
French stage, following both Johnson and 
" J. C." in making Jacques the lover of 
Celia. An additional scene, written by 
Joseph Moser, is to be found in the European 
Magazine (1809). The play has been trans- 
lated into many European languages. It 
was revived at Drury Lane in December, 
1740, with Quin as Jacques, Woodward 
as Sylvius, Mrs. Piitchard as Rosalind, 
Mrs. Clive as Celia, and 3Irs. Egerton as 
Audrey ; at the same theatre in November, 
1747, with Macklin as Touchstone, Shuter 
as William, and Mrs. Woflfington as Rosa- 
lind; at the .same theatre in October, 1767, 
with King as Touchstone, Palmer as Orlando, 
Mrs. Dancer (:Mrs. Barry) [the first to sing 
the Cuckoo Song, taken from 'All's Well 
that Ends Well '] as Rosalind, and Mrs. 
Baddeley as Celia; at Covent Garden in 
April, 1771, with G. A. Stevens as Touch- 
stone, Smith as Orlando, :Mattocks as Amiens, 
and Mrs. Bulkley (Mrs. Barresford) as Rosa- 
lind ; at the same theatre in January, 1775, 
with Barry as Jacques, Lewis as Orlando, 
Shuter as Touchstone, and Mrs. Mattocks as 
Celia; at the same theatre in December, 
1779, with Quick as Touchstone, Henderson 
as Jacques, and ]Miss Younge as Rosalind ; 
at the Haymarket in July, 1783, with Edwin 
as Touchstone, Ben.sley as Jacques, Bannis- 
ter, jun., as Orlando, J. Aickin as Adam, 
and Miss Frodsham as Rosalind ; at Drury 
Lane in April, 1785, with Palmer as Jacques, 
J. Aickin as the banished Duke, and Mrs. 
Siddons as Rosalind; at the same theatre 
in April, 1787, with Kemble as Orlando 
and Mrs. Jordan as Rosalind; at Covent 
Garden in February, 1789, with Aickin as 



Jacques and Miss Wallis as liosaliiid ; at 
the same theatre in November, 1789, with 
Harlev as Jacques, Holman as Orlando, and 
Mrs. Pope as Rosalind ; at Drury Lane in 
May, 1797, with Bannister, jun., as Touch- 
stone, Barrymore as Orlando, Miss Mellon as 
Gelia, and iliss Pope as Audrey ; at Covent 
Garden in October, 1S05, with Fawcett as 
Touchstone, Kemble as Jacques, C. Kemble 
as Orlando, Blanchard as William, Miss 
Smith as Rosalind, Miss Brunton as Celia, 
and Mrs. Mattocks ?i^ Audrey ; at the Ly- 
ceum Theatre, London, in September, 1811, 
with Miss Duncan as Rosalind and Wrough- 
ton as Jacques ; at the same theatre in 1828, 
with Miss Jarman (Mrs. Ternan) as Rosa- 
lind ; at Drury Lane in October, 1842, with 
jMacready as Jacques, Ryder as the exiled 
2)«l-e, Anderson as OrZa?uZo, Phelps SiS Adam, 
Keeley as Touchstone, Mrs. Kisbett as Rosa- 
lind, Mrs. Stirling as Celia, and Mrs. Keeley 
i\s Audrey; at the Princess's Theatre, Lon- 
don, in February, 1845, with Miss Cushman 
as Rosalind; at the Hay market Theatre, 
London, in November, 1845, with ^liss H. 
Faucit as the heroine and J. Anderson as 
Jacques; at the City of London Theatre in 
1845, with Vandenhoff and Miss Vandenhoff ; 
at Drury Lane in January, 1850, with Van- 
denhoff as Jacques and W. H. Angel as 
Touchstone ; at the Princess's in February, 
1851, with Kean, Alfred Wigan, and Mrs. 
Kean; at the Mai-ylebone Theatre, London, 
in October, 1854, with Mrs. Wallack as 
Rosalind, Miss Cleveland as Celia, Edgar 
as Orlando, and W. Wallack as Jacques; at 
the Haymarket Theatre, London, in June, 
1855, with Barry Sullivan as Jacques; at the 
same theatre in September, 1856, with W. 
Farren as Orlando, W. H. Chippendale as 
Adam, Compton as Touchstone, Howe as 
Jacques, Miss Booth as Rosalind, Miss i\I. 
Oliver as Celia, and Jlrs. Fitzwilliam as 
Audrey; at Sadler's Wells, London, in 1S57, 
with jNIrs. C. Young (Mrs. H. Vezin) as Rosa- 
lind and Phelps as Jacques; at tlie same 
theatre in September, 1860, with II. Vezin 
as Orlando, Miss Fanny Josephs as Celia, 
and L. BaU as Touchstone ; at the Maryle- 
bone Theatre, London, on April 24, 1861, with 
Miss Marriott as Rosalind; at the Princess's 
Theatre, London, in February, 1862, with 
Miss C. Leclerq as Rosaliyid, Miss R. Le- 
clerq as Celia, Miss M. Harris as Audrey, 
Widdicomb as Touchstone, and J. Ryder as 
Jacques ; at the Queen's Theatre, London, in 
February, 1S71, with Mrs. Rousby as Rosa- 
lind, W. Rousby as Orlando, H. Marston as 
Adam, and J. Ryder as Touchstone ; at Drury 
Lane in December, 1871, with Miss Nelson 
as Rosalind, T. C. King as Jacques, J. B. 
Howard as Orlando, and Miss F. Addison as 
Celia; at the Op<ira Comique, London, in 
February, 1S75, with Mrs. Kendal as Rosa- 
lind, W. H. Kendal as Orlando, A. Cecil as 
Touchstone, H. Vezin as Jacques; at the St. 
James's Theatre, London, in February, 1878, 
with Miss Ada Cavendish as Rosalind, J. D. 
Stoyleas roztc/is^o?!^, H. Forrester as Jacgwes, 
and Lin Rayne as Orlando ; at the Hay- 
market Theatre, London, in 1879, with Miss 
A. Neilson as Rosalind; at Manchester 

in 1879 (two performances), with ?*Iiss Faucit 
and Miss Wallis alternately as the heroine, 
L. Wingfield as Orlando, Tom Taylor as 
Adam, and H. Merivale as Touchstone; at 
the Imperial Theatre, London, on February 
25, 1880, with Miss Litton as Rosalind, Miss 
Helen CressweU as Celia,^liss Sylvia Hodson 
as Audrey, Kyrle Bellew as Orlando, Lionel 
Brough as Touchstone, H. Vezin as Jacques, 
and W. Farren as Adam; at the same the- 
atre in September, 1SS2, with 3Irs. Langtry 
as Rosalind, and in October, 1SS2, with INIiss 
Calhoun as the heroine ; at the Gaiety The- 
atre, London, in April, 1SS3 (matinee), with 
INIiss Wallis as Rosalind, J. H. Barnes as 
Jacques, W. H. Stephens SisAdam, C. Groves 
as TouchstoJie, a,nd G. Alexander as Orlando; 
at Coombe House, Kingston-on-Thames 
(forest scenes only), in July, 1SS4, ^vith Lady 
A. Campbell as Orlando; at the St. James's 
Theatre, London, in January, lSS5,with Mrs. 
Kendal as Rosalind, Miss L. Diets as Celia, 
W. H. Kendal as Orlando, J. Hare as Touch- 
stone, H. Vezin as Jacques, J. Maclean as 
Adam, and J. F. Young as the banished 
Buke [incidental music by Alfred Cellier] ; 
at Stratford -on -Avon in August, 1885, 
with ]Miss Mary Anderson as the heroine ; 
at Charlton Park, Middlesex (forest scenes 
only), in July. 1SS6, with F. Rodney as Or- 
lando and Miss A. Leighton as Rosalind; 
at the Crystal Palace in September, 1886 
(matinde), with jNIiss Marie de Grey as 
Rosalind and H. B. Conway as Orlando ; at 
the Shaftesbury Theatre, London, in Octo- 
ber, ISSS, with INIiss Wallis as Rosalind, 
Miss A. Rose as Celia, Mrs. E. Saker as 
Audrey, Forbes Robertson as Orlando, A. 
Stirling as Jacques, W. Fan-en as Adam, 
W. Mackintosh as Touchstone ; at the St. 
James's Theatre, London, on February 24, 
1890, with iNIrs. Langtry as Rosalind, L. 
Cautley as Orlando, F. Everill as Adam, 
C. Sug'den as Touchstone, A. Bourchier as 
Jacqu^es, Miss A, M'Neil as Celia, and Miss 
M. Lea as Audrey [in this revival the 
Masque of Hymen was represented] ; at the 
Shaftesbury Theati'e, on the afternoon of 
June IS, 1891, with INIrs. P. Campbell as 
Rosalind, F. Worthing as Orlando, Nutcombe 
Gould as Jacques, and Miss A. Leighton 
as Audrey ; and at Daly's Theatre, London, 
in April, 1894, with Miss A. Rehan as 
Rosalind, Miss S. Carlisle as Celia, INIiss 
Catherine Lewis as Audrey, W. Farren as 
Adam, and J. Craig as Orlando. ' As 
You Like It' was played at New York in 
July, 1786; and again in June, 1796, with 
Hallam as Touchstone; in January, 1S50, 
with Burton as Touchstone, Chippendale 
as Adam, and Miss Cushman as Rosa- 
lind ; in June, 1853, with Wallack as 
Jacques and INIiss Keene as Rosalind; in 
1869, with Mrs. Scott Siddons as Rosalind, 
G. Clarke as Orlando, and D. H. Harkins 
as Jacques ; in May, 1879, with Miss Ada 
Cavendish as Rosalind, J. Gilbert as Adam, 
and Miss Effie Germon as Audrey ; in Sep- 
tember, ISSO, with Miss Rose Coghlan as 
Rosalind, H. M. Pitt as Orlando, and 
Osmond Tearle as Jacques; in 18S6, with 
Mdme. Modjeska as Rosalind and M. 




Barrymore as Orlando ; in 1S87 (at the 
Union Square Theatre), with :\Iiss Rose 
Coghlan as Rosalind; in 18S9, with Louis 
James as Orlando and Miss Marie Wain- 
wright as Rosalind; and in 1889-90 (at 
Daly's Theatre, New York), with Miss Ada 
Rehan as Rosalind, John Drew as Orlando, 
G. Clarke as Jacques, C. Fisher as Adam, 
and J. Lewis as Touchstone [this cast appeared 
at the Lyceum, London, in 1890]. ' As You 
like It' was played entirely by women in 
New York in the autumn of 1893, and in 
London and the English provinces in the 
spring of 1894. In the latter instance the 
cast included Miss F. Ivor as Rosalind, Miss 
A. Ferrar as Orlando, Miss C. Moreland as 
Adam, Miss L. Belmore as Audrey, and 
Miss B. Selwyn as Celia. "In none of 
Shakespeare's plays," says Tom Taylor, 
" are romance, drama, and poem so ex- 
quisitely combined as in ' As You Like It ; ' 
none calls up such a series of rich and 
lovely pictures, ranging from palace to forest, 
with their animated groups of court mtcs- 
tlers and woodland hunters ; none dallies so 
charmingly with love-making, and so seasons 
the sauciness of its play with the fervour of 
its passion. Where else shall we look for 
such happy harmonizing of two moods of 
folly, like that of Jacques, the blas6 senti- 
mentalist and cynical Epicurean, with that 
of Touchstone, the sententious shooter of 
sharp bolts, the licensed whipper of affecta- 
tions, the motley mocker of the time ; such 
fine contrast of despotic injustice in the 
usurper, with philosophic use of adversity, 
and profitable study of nature, in the exile ? 
Who ever so lovingly united adventurous 
gaiety, wit, humour, and resistless high 
spirits, with feminine gentleness, sweetness, 
affection, and good sense, as Shakespeare in 
Rosalind and Celia? so married love's jest 
and earnest as in Rosalind and Orlando ? so 
beautifully brought out the devotion and 
faithful service in age, in contact with gi'ate- 
ful and protecting affection in youth, as in 
Adam and his young master?" "Tome," 
says Miss Helen Faucit (Lady Martin), '"As 
You Like It ' seems to be essentially as much 
a love-poem as ' Romeo and Juliet,' with this 
difference— that it deals M'ith happy love, 
while the Veronese story deals with love 
crossed by misadventure and crowned with 
death. It is as full of imagination, of the 
glad rapture of the tender passion, of its 
impulsiveness, its generosity, its pathos. 
No ' hearse-like airs,' indeed', come wailing 
by, as in the tale of those 'star-crossed 
lovers,' to warn us of their too early tragic 
' overthrow.' All is blended into a rich 
harmonious music, which makes the heart 
throb, but never makes it ache." 

Ascanio. Son of Don Henrique, in 
Beau:viont and Fletcher's 'Spanish 

Curate' (q.v.). 

Ascensio Domini. The title and sub- 
ject of the twentieth of the Chester plays 


Ascot. A farcical comedy in two acts, by 
Percy FENDALL(g.t'.), first performed at the 

Theatre Royal, Oldham, on October 13, 
1879 ; first played in London at the Novelty 
Theatre, on March 29, 1883, with Miss- 
Florence Marryat and Gilbert Farquhar in 
the cast. 

Ashbury, Joseph. Actor and thea- 
trical manager ; born in London, 1638 ; died 
1720 ; was educated at Eton, and entered 
the army ; took part in 1659 in the seizure 
of Dublin Castle for the king ; was made a 
lieutenant at the Restoration, and in 1662 
was appointed deputy master of the revels 
to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Twenty 
years later he became master of the revels- 
and the local theatrical patentee. In 1691 
he played lago with amateurs in Dublin^ 
and in the following year revived ' Othello ' 
at the Orange Street Theatre, with a Lon- 
don company which included Wilks. " By 
skilful management, and by encouraging 

Sromising histrionic talent, Ashbury," says 
►utton Cook, " secured for the Dublin stage 
a great reputation. He himself was an ex- 
cellent actor." " I had not the pleasure," says 
Chetwood, "of knowing this great man but 
till the latter part of his life ; yet, notwith- 
standing his great age, I have seen him 
perform several parts with the utmost satis- 
faction. ... I have seen him acquit him- 
self in the part of Careless, in ' The Com- 
mittee,' so well that his years never struck, 
upon remembrance. And his person, figure, 
and manner in Don Quixote were inimitable."' 
See Chetwood's ' General History of the^ 
Stage' (1749), Hitchcock's 'Historical View 
of the Irish Stage' (17S0), and Genest's^ 
' English Stage ' (1832). 

Ashby Manor. A play in two acts, by 
William Allingham (q.v.), published in 

Ashe, Nicholas. Author of ' Panthea/ 

a tragedy (1803). 

Ashfield, Farmer, in Morton's ' Speed' 
the Plough' (q.v.), is the husband of Dame, 
and fath'er of Susaii, Ashfield. "Behave' 
pratty " is his favourite exhortation. His 
wife is the lady who displays so much anxiety 
as to what her neigbbo'ur, Mrs. Grundy 
(q.v.), will say. Leigh Hunt said of Emery's 
Ashfield that it was "manly and attractive 
c^ respect" (' Critical Essays,' 1807). 

Ashford, Charles. Actor, bom at 
Birmingham, 1850 ; made his first appear- 
ance on the stage at Nottingham in 1871. 
His London debut took place in April, 1877^ 
at the Olympic Theatre, as Welsh in Reade's. 
'Scuttled Ship.' Among his other "ori- 
ginal" parts are Neptune in Lecocq's 'Sea 
Nymphs,' Babillard in Offenbach's ' Creole,' 
Goho in Planquette's ' Cloches de Corneville,' 
Pouimrd in ' Les Mousquetaires,' Ficardeau 
in ' La Belle Normande,' Mufile'in Offenbach's 
' La Boulangere,' M'Gruder in Solomon's 
' Claude Duv^l,' and Nicholas in Bucalossi's 
* Manteaux Noirs.' In 1877 he played 
Sampson Burr in ' The Porter's Knot ' at the 
Criterion, London ; in 1886 Swafi'terton in 
' Noah's Ark' at the Royalty ; in ItsOl Michael 
) Fee ay in ' Arrah-na-Pogue "at the Princess's ; 



and in 1S93 Perlcyn Middlewlck in ' Our Boys ' 
at the Vaudeville. 

Ashley, Henry Jefferies. Actor, died 
1890 ; made his debut at Glasgow, and 
first appeared in London in ISGO, at the St. 
James's Theatre, where he remained for two 
years. Subsequently he played a seven 
years' engagement at the Adelphi Theatre, 
creating, among other parts, that of William 
in Reade's ' Dora.' At the Criterion Theatre 
he was the original representative of Geoffrey 
Gordon in ' The Great Divorce Case,' Josldn 
Tuhbs in ' Pink Dominos,' and similar 7-6les. 
He also "created " the parts of the Marquis 
de Font Sable in ' Madame Favart,' the Due 
des Jfs in ' Olivette,' Don Brasiero in ' Ma- 
jiola,' Brdbazon Sikes in ' The Merry Duchess,' 
Tancred in ' Falka,' Jules Frimitif in ' La 
Cosaque,' Sir Mulberry Mullitt in ' Indiana,' 
Vavasour in Reece's 'Robinson Crusoe,' 
Dr. D. in Cotsford Dick's operetta of that 
name, Walker Slope in 'Yetah,' Lotds XV. 
in Wills's 'Pompadour,' Bicoquet in Plan- 
iquette's ' Paul Jones,' and Col. Sombrero in 
Planquette's 'Captain Therese.' He was 
seen in the provinces as the hero of Pinero's 

Ashmore, Miss. See Sparks, Mrs. 

Ashore and Afloat. A nautical drama 
in three acts, by C. H. Hazlewood {q.v.), 
first performed at the Surrey Theatre, Lon- 
don, in 1864, with J. Fernandez as ycwton 
Barnard, T. Thorne as Billy Bilberry, and 
Miss G. iPauncefort as Ruth Ringrose. 

Ashton. The Ashton family, including 
Sir William and his wife, his son Henry, 
and his daughter Lucy, figure in the 
English versions of ' Lucia di Lammermoor,' 
J, W. CalcraI'T's ' Bride of Lammermoor ' 
iq.v.), H. J. Byron's ' Lucia di Lammer- 
moor' (burlesque) {q.v.), Palgrave SIMP- 
SON'S ' Master of Ravenswood ' (q.v.), and 
H, Merivale's ' Ravenswood ' {q.v.). 

Ashton, Robert. Dramatist, and 
native of Ireland ; author of ' The Battle 
of Aughrim ; or. The Fall of Monsieur St. 
Ruth ' (1727), and an unacted comedy, ' Love 
is the Conqueror.' 

Asinaria. A comedy by Plautus (b.c. 
■254-184), translated into English blank verse 
by Thornton, Warner, and Colman (1769-74). 
See also the versions by Cotter (1827) and 
Riley (1S52). 

Ask no Questions. A burietta in 
two acts, by Charles Selby {q.v.), adapted 
from Bayard and Picard's 'Mathias I'ln- 
valide ' (Varit^tes, Paris, 1837), and first per- 
formed at the Olympic Theatre, London, on 
October 24, 1838, with W. Farren as Mathias, 
Oxberry as Gimblet, and INIrs. Orger, Selby, 
and Yining in other parts ; first played at 
New York in 1847. 

Asmodeus. The chief personage in 
the following dramatic pieces : (1) ' Asmo- 
deus in New York:' a "satirical squib," 
performed at New York in April, 1S40, with 
Mitchell in the title part. (2) ' Asmodeus, 

the Little Demon ; or, The Devil's Share : ' a 
comic drama in two acts, by Thomas Archer 
(q.v.), adapted from Scribe's 'Part du 
Diable,' and performed at the Surrey The- 
atre, London, on June 12, 1843, with Mrs. 
R. Honner in the title part— that of Carlo, 
an orphan and wandering minstrel, assum- 
ing the character of Asmodeus ; produced 
at New York in 1854, with Miss A. Robert- 
son (Mrs. Boucicault) as Carlo, and in 1855 
with Miss G. Hodson in that part. (3) 
• Asmodeus, the Devil on Two Sticks ; or, 
The Force of Friendship : ' a burlesque pro- 
duced at the Adelphi Theatre, London, on 
April 25, 1859, with J. L. Toole in the title 
part, Jliss Woolgar as Don Cleophas Zam- 
bullo, Paul Bedford as Don Fernando, and 
Miss Kate Kelly, Miss Mary Keeley, and 
Miss Eliza Arden in other parts. 

Asmodeus. A character in Albert 
Smith's ' Alhambra' (?.r.). 

Asotus. Son of Cleon in Massinger's 
' Bondman' (q.v.). 

Aspacia. A tragedy in three acts, by 
Mrs. Hughes, printed in ' Moral Dramas 
intended for Private Representation ' (1790). 

Aspasia. A character in Johnson's 
' Irene ' (q.v.). 

Aspatia. The betrothed wife of Amintor 
(q.v.), in Beaumont and Fletcher's ' Maid's 
Tragedy ' (qv.). Her death gives the title to 
the play. Hazlitt says that the character 
is " a beautiful sketch of resigned and heart- 
broken melancholy." Lamb observes that 
"Aspatia is a character equally difficult, 
with Helena, of being managed with grace. 
She too is a slighted woman, refused by the 
man who had "once engaged to marry her. 
Yet it is artfully contrived that while we 
pity we respect her, and she descends with- 
out degradation." 

Aspen, House of. See House of 

Aspen. (1) Miles G. Aspen is the hero 
of Bayle Bernard's ' Nervous Man' (g. v.). 
(2) Sir Harry Aspen figures in ' The Gazette 

Aspic. A character in Morton's ' Edu- 
cation ' (q.v.). 

Aspin. A comic servant in Savage's 
' Love in a YeU ' (q.v.). 

Aspinwall, Stanhope. Author of 
' Rodogune ; or, The Rival Brothers ' (1765). 

Asprand. A tragedy performed at the 
Sahsbury Theatre, March 20, 1805. 

A.S.S. A farce in one act, first per- 
formed at the Lyceum Theatre, London, on 
April 23, 1853, with F. :Matthews as Diogenes 
Hunter, ]Mrs. Macnamara as Mrs. Hunter, 
and Miss Wvndham as Sophia; revived at 
the Criterion, August 13, 1S87, with W. 
Blakeley as Diogenes. 

Assassin (L'). See Hush-Money'. 

Assassin Labourer (The). A play, 
performed in New York in li:47. 



Ass-ass-ination. A serio-comic ex- 
travaganza by Theodore Hook (g.r.), per- 
formed privately at Orange Hall, near 
"Windsor, on January SO, ISIO. 

Ass-Dealer (The). A comedy trans- 
lated from Plautus by Richard AYarner, 
and printed in 1774; "taken from a Greek 
play called ' Onacos,* written by Demophi- 

AssemlDlyCThe); or, Scotch Refor- 
mation. A comedy by " a Scots gentleman " 
(Dr. Archibald Pitcaime), wi-itten in 1692, 
and first printed in 1722. It was reprinted 
in 1766, and Genest holds that "it is clear 
from the preface" to that edition "that it 
was composed by more than one person. 
The authors were" Jacobites, and the comedy 
is a severe satire on the Presbytery. There 
is a love episode which enlivens the play." 

Assig-nation (The); or, Love in 
a Nunnery. A comedy in five acts, by 
John Drydex (q.v.), first performed at 
the Theatre Royal in 1672, with ;Mohun as 
the Duke of Mantua, Kynaston as Fre- 
derick (his son), Hart as Aurelian, Burt as 
Camillo, Cartwright as Mario, ilrs. Reeve as 
Ascanio, Haynes as Benito (g.v.),Mrs. James 
as Sophronia, Mrs. Marshall as Lucretia, 
Mrs. Knapp as Hi2)poUta, Mrs. Boutell as 
Laura, and Mrs. Coxe as Violetta.. "It 
succeeded ill in the representation," admits 
Di-yden in his preface (1673). Langbaine 
endeavom-s to show that it owed "some- 
thing to the 'Roman Comique' of Scarron, 
but Saintsbury characterizes the. charge as 
"preposterous." He adds: "Almost all the 
incidents are forced, the characters are feebly 
marked and hardly at all worked out, the 
dialogue is much below the level of ' Marriage 
k la Mode ' or ' The Mock Astrologer,' and 
the song ' Long between Love and Fear ' is 
almost the only redeeming feature in the 
play." The scene (satirized in the second 
edition of 'The Rehearsal') in which 
Frederick pretends to be HI, is in act iv. 
'The Assignation' was revived at Drury 
Lane in July, 1716. (2) ' The Assignation : ' a 
comedy in five acts, by Sophia Lee (q.v.), first 
performed at Drury Lane on January 23, 1S07. 
The cast included EUiston, Bannister, 
Wroughton, H. Siddons, Mathews, Miss 
Pope, Mrs. H. Siddons, etc. "It was only 
performed once, the public thinking that 
much of the satire was aimed at pubUc 
characters, and therefore naturally evincing 
displeasure." (3) ' The Assignation ; or, 
Right at Last : ' a musical piece in two acts, 
by Fisher, first performed at Drury Lane 
on December 12, 1812. The cast included 
Knight, Lovegrove, Miss Kelly, etc. In 
this piece a Spanish lady has two admirers, 
so hke each other that she cannot distin- 
guish one from the other. (4) ' The Assig- 
nation ; or, AVhat will my Wife say ? ' a 
drama in two acts, by Gilbert Abbott a 
Beckett (q.v.), first performed at the St. 
James's Theatre, London, on September 29, 
1837, with Harley, Miss Allison, and ^Nldme. 
Sala in the cast. 

Assinico (or Assinego). A clown or 

fool in the "extemporal" play ' Tamar Cam ' 
(q.v.). The part was played by Gabriel 
Singer (q.v.). 

Assommoir (L'). The English drama- 
tizations of this famous work by ]M. Zola 
have been numerous. In 1S79 there appeared 
two plays called ' L' Assommoir ; or. The 
Curse of Drink ' — one by W. Sidney, at 
Glasgow, in August ; the other by J. Foote, 
at Dewsbury, in September. For other 
English adaptations, see the references to 
' Del. Trem.,' 'Destroyed by Drink,' ' Drink,' 
' Gin,' ' Worship of Bacchus,' etc. Au- 
GUSTIX Daly's version of ' L' Assommoir' 
was produced at the Olympic Theatre, New 
York, in 1879, with !Miss M. Granger as 
Gervaise, ]\Iiss Emily Rigl as Virninie, and 
Miss Ada Rehan as Big Clemence (afterwards 
as Virginie). 

" Assume a virttie, if you have it 
not." — 'Hamlet,' act iii. sc. 4 (Ramlet to 
the Queen). 

Assumption of the Virg-in (The). 
A "mystery" performed in Lincoln Cathe- 
dral in June, 14SS. 

"Assurance doubly sure, I'll 
raake." — 'Macbeth,' act iv. sc. 1. 

" Assurance of a man, To give the 
world." — 'Hamlet, act iii. sc. 4. 

Astaroth. Spirit of the earth in Lord 
Byrons ' Manfred ' (q.v.). See Astoroth. 

Astarte, in Lord Byron's ']\Ianfred' 
(q.v.), is the lady beloved by the hero. She 
figures in A BECKETT'S 'Man-Fred' as Ann 
Starkie (q.v.). 

Asteria. (1) The queen's confidante in 
Dryden's 'Secret Love' (q.v.). (2) A cha- 
racter in J. S. Coyne's ' All for Love ' (q.v.). 

Astley, Hamilton, actor, was in the 
original casts of ' Estranged ' (1881), Gilbert's 
'Foggerty's Fairy' (1881), 'Cupid in Camp' 
(1S82), Nisbet and Rae's ' Cousin Johnny ' 
(1885), • The Skeleton ' (1SS7), etc. 

Astlej^, Philip. Equestrian and thea- 
trical manager ; bom 1742, at Xewcastle- 
under-Lyme ; died in Paris, 1814. The son 
of a cabinet-maker, he was brought up to 
the trade, but when about seventeen joined 
the army, and became, we are told, " rouoh- 
rider and breaker-in." After seeing service 
abroad, he obtained his discharge, and gave 
exhibitions of horsemanship at Lambeth and 
in various parts of the provinces, occasionally 
adding to his means by cabinet-making. In 
1770 he erected in Lambeth a wooden un- 
roofed circus, where performances were given 
during the daytime. The building, enlarged 
and otherwise improved, was named "The 
Amphitheatre Riding House," and opened 
in 17S1 for evening representations. Two 
years afterwards Astley was imprisoned for 
not having a Licence ; but that was soon 
gi-anted to him, and on receiving it he 
redecorated his theatre and called it "The 
Royal Grove." Later he established a circus 
at Paris, but, the Revolution intervening, it 




was utilized as barracks. About this time 
Astley rejoined the army, and Avhilst abroad 
j was informed of the destruction of the 
I Eoyal Grove by fire. He promptly engaged 
' the old Lyceum for his performances, and 
began to rebuild his theatre. This was 
opened in 1794, and in 1798 rechristened, by 
permission, " Astley's Royal Amphitheatre." 
Unfortunately, it was burned down in 1S03, 
at a loss of £25,000. A new building was 
opened in 1804, but Astley now retired from 
the enterprise in favour of his son, and 
turned his attention to the erection of an 
amphitheatre on the other side of tlie 
Thames. The result of his labours was the 
Olympic Pavilion, built on the site of the 
existing Olympic Theatre, and licensed for 
! "music, dancing, burlettas, pantomimes, 
i and equestrian exhibitions." By this, it 
I is said, he was a loser to the amount of 
: £10,000. In 1812 he let the pavilion to 
[ Elliston, and two years afterwards he died. 
f His son (died 1821) was also a celebrated 
i equestrian performer. His wife is described 
! as "a minor actress of much merit." In 
' Records of a Veteran ' we read that ' ' Poor 
old Astley used to talk of a ' krokudile wat 
stopped Halexander's harmy, and when cut 
hopen had a man in harmour in its hintel- 
lects.' He (Astley) had two or three hard 
words that he invariably misapplied. ' Pes- 
tiferous' he always substituted for 'pusil- 
lanimous.' and he was wont to observe that 
he should be a ruined man, for his horses 
ate most vociferously." See De Castro's 
'Memoirs' (1824), Brayley's 'Theatres of 
London ' (1833), and ' Dictionary of National 
Biography ' (1885). 

Astley's AmpMtlieati'e. See Lon- 
don Theatres. 

Astolfo. Brother of Leandro in D. Jer- 
ROLD'S ' Devil's Ducat ' (q.v.). 

Aston, Anthony. Actor, dramatist, 
and miscellaneous writer ; was educated as 
an attorney, and became an actor towards 
the end of' the reign of William III. ; gave 
a musical and dramatic entertainment, called 
'The Medley,' in the English provinces, 
and in 1717 performed at the Globe and 
Marlborough taverns in Fleet Street. He 
was announced to perform at Lincoln's Inn 
Fields Theatre in 1722. In 1735 he peti- 
tioned and spoke against the proposed bill 
for regulating the stage, and both petition 
and speech were printed in the same year. 
Chetwood, in his ' History ' (1749), speaks 
of Aston as " travelling still, and as well 
known as the post-horse that carries the 
maC" Aston was the author of ' A Brief 
Supplement to CoUey Gibber, Esq., his 
Lives of the Famous Actors and Actresses ' 
(1748). He also wrote ' Love in a Hurry,' 
comedy (about 1709), and ' Pastora ; or. The 
Coy Shepherdess ' (1712). ' The Fool's Opera ; 
or. The Taste of the Age' (printed about 
1731) is attributed to him ; it was prefaced 
by "a sketch of the life of INIr. Anthony 
Aston." See Chet wood's ' History of the 
Staee' (1749), 'The Thespian Dictionary' 
(1805), and Genest's ' English Stage' (1S32). 

Aston, Joseph. Dramatist, journalist, 
and miscellaneous writer ; born in Man- 
chester, 1762 ; died 1844 ; was the author of 
'Conscience,* a comedy (1815); 'Retribu- 
tive Justice,' a tragedy ; and ' A Family 
Story,' a comedy. His other prose works 
related mainly to Manchester. See 'Dic- 
tionary of National Biography ' (1885). 

Aston, "Walter. Author of 'The Re- 
storation of King Charles the Second ; or. 
The Life and Death of Oliver Cromwell,' an 
unacted ballad opera, printed 1733. 

Astor Opera House. See New York 


Astorax. King of Paphos in Beau- 
mont and Fletcher's 'Mad Lover' (q.v.). 

Astoroth. Spirit of fire and Prince of 
Grenada, in R, Lacy's 'Robert the Devil' 
(q.v.). See Astaroth, 

Astounding- Phenomenon (An). A 
farce, in which C. J. Mathews appeared. 

Astrabel. Daughter of Brazzo, and 
married to Beraldo, in W. Dunlap's ' Italian 
Father ' {q.v.). 

Astraea. The name by which Aphra 
Behn {q.v.) is alluded to by Pope (in his 
' Imitations of Horace ')— 

"The stage how loosely does Astrsea tread ! " 
]\Irs. Behn herself adopted the name, which 
is the title of a French romance by D'Urfe 

Astraea; or. True Love's Mirror. 
A play by Leonard Willan, founded on 
D'Urfe's romance, and printed in 1651. (2) 
' Astrsea Appeased : ' a dramatic piece, trans- 
lated by Francis 0liva.ri from the ItaUan 
of Metastasio {q.v.). 

Astragalus. "King of the Alps" in 
BucKSTONE's drama of that name {q.v.). 

Astrag-o. A physician in Davenant's 

' Gondibert' {q.v.). 

Astrologer (The). See Albumazar. 

Astronomer (The). A farce by Amph- 
lett, performed at Wolverhauipton'in 1802. 

" At heaven's gates she claps her 
wings."— Lyly, ' Alexander and Cam- 
paspe.' "She" is the lark. So Shake- 

"Hark, hark I the lark at heaven's gate sings. 

And Milton— 

" Ye birds 
Tliat singing up to heaven's gate ascend." 

At Home. (1) An anonymous farce, first 
performed at Covent Garden on February 
25, 1813, with Mathews as Romeo rMiitall, 
Liston as Cajytain Dash, and other parts by 
Blanchard, Farley, Emery, Miss S. Booth, 
and Mrs. Davenport. Captain Dash gave 
an "At Home," at which iMathews burlesqued 
the well-known " amateur of fashion," 
"Romeo" Coates (g.v.), under the name of 
Romeo Rantall {q.v.). There is also a slight 
love story in the piece. See Drill. (2) 
The title given by Charles Mathews 




(q.v.) to entertainments started by him in 
1818, See his ' Memoirs ' (1839). 

At Last. A play by Paul Merritt 

(q.v.), first performed at Wallack's Theatre, 
New York, on December 30, 1878, with a 
cast including Lester Wallack, C. F. Cogh- 
lan, Miss Rose Coghlan, and Miss Effie 
Germon. (2) ' At Last ; or, A New Life : ' 
drama by L. Clarence, Great Grimsby, 
September 17, 1883. (3) 'At Last :' come- 
dietta by H. Go UGH and A. M. Edwards, 
Bristol, March 19, 1886. 

At Sixes and Sevens. A comedietta 
in one act, by J. Maddison Morton (q.v.). 
The characters include Colonel, Mrs., and 
Hector Scrimmage, and Teddington Locke 
(a barrister). 

Atalanta; or, The Three Golden 
Apples. A burlesque by Francis Tal- 
FOURD (q.v.), entitled, in full, ' An Entirely 
New Classical Love-Story, originally sug- 
gested by Ovid, under the name, or rather 
apple-ation, of Atalanta ; or. The Three 
Golden Apples,' and first performed at the 
Haymarket Theatre, London, on April 31, 
1857, with Miss M. Oliver in the title part. 
Miss M. Wilton as Cupid, Mrs. Poynter as 
Missisarris, Chippendale as Schoenus, Comp- 
ton as Paidagogos. " I made a decided hit 
in my part," writes Mrs. Bancroft in her 
memoirs. The piece was revived at the 
Haymarket in July, 1870. (2) ' Atalanta : ' 
a travesty on the same subject, by G. P. 
Hawtrey (q.v.), was produced at the Strand 
Theatre, London, on November 17, 1888, 
with W. F. Hawtrey as Schoenus, F. Wyatt 
as Hipj^omenes, Fleming Norton as Socrates, 
T. Squire as Lysimachus, Miss Alma Stanley 
as Aphrodite, and Miss M. Linden as Ata- 

Atalanta in Calydon. A dramatic 
poem by Algernon Charles Swinburne 
(q.v.), published in 1864. Lowell says of 
this work that " the choosing a theme 
which ^schylus had handled in one of his 
lost tragedies is justified by a certain 
^schylean flavour in the treatment. The 
chorus has often an imaginative lift in 
it, an ethereal charm of phrase, of which 
it is the highest praise to say that it re- 
minds us of him who soars over the other 
Greek tragedians like an eagle." 

" Atalanta's better part. "—' As You 

Like It,' act iii. sc. 2. 

Ataliba. The Inca of Peru, against 
whom Pizarro, in Sheridan's play (q.v.), 
wages war. 

Atall. (1) Sir Positive At-all is one of 
" the impertinents " in Shad well's ' Sullen 
Lovers' (g.w.). Sir Robert Howard is said 
to have been the original of this character. 
(2) Sir Harry Atall, and his son, figure in 
Cibber's ' Double Gallant ' (q-v.). 

Atav GrtQl. A play founded by G. 
Almar (q.v.) on a romance by Eugene Sue, 
and first performed at the Royalty Theatre, 
London, on November 12, 1861, with a cast 

including Miss Ellen Terry and David 

Atchi ! A comedietta in one act, by J. 
Maddison Morton (q.v.), first performed at 
the Prince of Wales's Theatre, London, on 
September 21, 1868, with H. J. ]\Iontagu as 
Lord Adonis Fickleton, W. Blakeley as Sir 
Martin Mayduke, W. J. Hill as Larkins, Miss 
Carlotta Addison as Lady Maj/duke, and Miss 
Augusta Wilton as Emily Har grave. The 
piece derives its name from a new snuff 
which Sir Martin Mayduke has invented, 
and which makes everybody sneeze at the 
wrong moment. 

Athaliah. (1) An ixnacted tragedy by 
W. Dunco:mbe, translated from the 'Athalie ' 
(q.v.) of Racine, and printed in 1724 and 
1726. (2) An unfinished tragedy by TnoiLiS 

Athalie. A tragedy by Racine (1690), 
translated into English by Knight (1822). 
See Athaliah. 

Athanasia. A character in Kenney's 
'Benyousky ' (q.v.). 

Atheist (The); or, The Second 
Part of the Soldier's Portune. A 
comedy by Thomas Oxway (q.v.), fii-st per- 
formed at Dorset Garden, and printed in 1684, 
when it was revived at the Theatre Royal, 
with Underbill as the hero (Daredevil), Bet- 
terton as young Beaugard, Leigh as old 
Beaugard, and other characters by Mi'S. 
Barry, etc. "It is not a bad play," says 
Genest, " but very inferior to ' The Soldier's 
Fortune' [q.v.]. . . . The epUogue is a cut on 
the city and the Whigs." 

Atheist's Tragedy (The); or, The 
Honest Man's Reveng-e. A play by 
Cvril Tourneur (q.v.), acted, probably, 
in 1603, and printed in 1611 and 1792. The 
atheist is D'Amville, who helps Charle- 
mont, his nephew, to go abroad, and 
then marries his son Rousard to Charle- 
mont's lady-love, Castabella. Then, Charle- 
mont being supposed to be dead, his father, 
Montferrers, makes a will in favour of 
D'Amville, who thereupon kills him and 
takes his estates. Eventually, Charlemont 
returns : Rousard dies, D'Amville acciden- 
tally kills himself, and Charlemont and Cas- 
tabella are united. The underplot has to 
do with the love affairs of Levidulcia, the 
wife of Belforest, and is taken largely from 
Boccaccio. See the Retrospective Review, 
vol. vii. 

Atheling-, Edgar. See Edgar Athe- 


Athelney, Dr. and Ted. A colonial 
bishop-elect, and his son, in Gilbert's 
' Charity' (q.v.) 

Athelstan. A tragedy by Dr. John 
Browne, first performed at Drury Lane on 
February 27, 1756, with Garrick in the title 
part, Murphy as Gothmund, Mrs. Cibber as 
Thyra, and 'Ross, Jefferson, etc., in other 
characters. Thyra, daughter of Athelstan, 
is captured by the Danes, whose commander. 



•Gothmiind, threatens her virtue. Athelstan, 
going to Thyra's tent to kill Gothmimd, 
stabs his daughter by mistake, and dies of a 
broken heart. See Ethelstan and Turn- 

Athelwold. (1) A tragedy by Aaron 
Hill (q.v.), first performed at Drury Lane 
on December 10, 1731, with BridgeA\-ater in 
the title part, Mrs. Booth as Elfn'd, and 
other roles by Mills, Theophilus Gibber, and 
Mrs. Gibber. Hill had dealt -s^ith the sub- 
ject in a previous play. See Elfrid. (2) 
A tragedy by W. Smith, performed at Drury 
Lane in "May, 1843, with W. G. Macready in 
the title part, Anderson as Udgar, Phelps as 
Dunstan, and Miss H. Faucit as Elfrida. 

Athelwold. (1) A character in Mason's 
■• Elfrida ' {q.v.). (2) Earl of Northumberland, 
in adaptations of ' Gatherine Howard ' {q.v.). 

Athenais. Daughter of Movlinet, and 
wife of Due de BU<jn.y, in ' The Ironmastei ' 

Athenian CaiDtive (The). A tragedy 
in five acts, by Sir T. X. Talfourd {q.v.), first 
performed at the Haymarket Theatre, April 
28, 1S38, with Miss llelen Faucit as Creusa, 
Mrs. Warner as Ismene, INIacready as Thoas, 
Warde as Creon, Anderson as Hyllus, and 
Howe as Lycus. Macready, after reading 
the work, wrote (January, 1838): "No one 
could believe it to be by the author of 
* Ion ; ' it has nothing of "it but its faults 
of style exaggerated." 

Athenian Coffee-house (The). An 
anonymous comedy mentioned in Whincop's 
catalog\ie, and supposed by the authors of 
the 'liiographia Dramatica' to be identical 
with the piece called ' The New Athenian 
€omedy ' (in ' The British Theatre ')• 

Atherly Court. A play by John 
Brougham {q.v.), produced at the Union 
Square Theatre, New York, in .January, 
1873, with Mark Smith as Fanner Grace. 

Atherstone, Edwin. Poet and drama- 
tist, born 1788, died 1872 ; wrote three 
dramatic works — ' Pelopidas ; or. The De- 
liverance of Thebes,' ' Philip,' and ' Love. 
Poetry, Philosophy, and Fact'— published 
in 1888, with a preface by his daughter. 

Atherton, Alice. Actress, died 1S99 ; 
•appeared in London in the following parts : 
—Tessy in H. Paulton's ' The Babes ' (1884), 
Charlie Cott in ' Blackberries ' (1886), Tommy 
in 'The Goming Clown' (1836), Agatha in 
Warren's 'Modern Wives' (18S7), Ivv in 
Melford's play of that name (1887), Katti 
in Fawcett's play of that name (18SS), the 
Chevalier in Burnand's ' Airev Annie ' (1888), 
Collie Parker in Goffin's 'Ru"n Wild' (1888), 
Daisy in ' Cycling' (ISSS), Aladdin in Byron 
and Chevalier's burlesque (ISSS), Mimi May- 
Jieiv in Warren and Edouin"s ' Our Daughters ' 
(1891). Ladn Bettn Vane in Thomas and 
Barry's ' A Night's Frolic ' (1891), Jeffie in 
"Hans the Boatman' (1891-2), Clairette in 
•Trooper Clairette' (1893), Ruby in 'Binks' 

(1894), and Jane Shore in Richard-Henry's 
' Jaunty Jane Shore ' (1894). 

Athlete (The). See Man and Wife. 

Athos. One of the " three musketeers * 
in C. Rice's play of that name {q.v.). He 
figures also in J. and H. Paulton's bur- 
lesque, ' The Three Musket-Dears ' {q.v.). 

Atkins. Actor and manager at Belfast 
and Newry. INIrs. Siddons, Chen-y, and 
other actors and actresses appeared imder 
his auspices. See 'The Thespian Dictionary' 

Atkins, Edward. Actor, born 1819, 
died April 8, 1S83 ; made his debut in 
London in 1861, at Drury Lane ; played 
Polyphemus in ' Acis and Galatea ' at 
the Olympic Theatre, London, in 1863 ; 
Autolycus in ' The Winter's Tale ' at 
Drury Lane, in 1878 ; and the following 
original parts : — ./ffl?n<'.s Dalton in 'The 
Ticket of Leave Man ' at the Olympic, in 
1863 ; David Michaelmas in ' Black and 
White ' at the Adelphi, in 1869 ; Marat in 
•Corinne' at the Lyceum, in July, 1872; 
Warwick in Du Terreaux' ' Last of the 
Barons,' in the same year ; and Savage Mike 
in ' The Detective ' at the Mirror, in 1875, 

Atkins, Mrs. Actress and vocalist; 
daughter of ^Nlrs. Warrell {q.v.) ; a pupil of 
Rauzzini, and admired at Bath before she 
made her debut in London, at the Hay- 
market, in 1797. She was afterwards en- 
gaged at Govent Garden. See ' The Thes- 
pian Dictionary ' (1805). 

Atkins, "Will, appears in the various 
burlesques of ' Robinson Crusoe' {q.v.). 

Atkinson, Joseph. Dramatist, born in 
Ireland, 1743 ; died ISIS ; was for some time 
in the army ; author of ' The Mutual De- 
ception,' a comedy (178.5), ' A Match for a 
Widow,' an opera (1787), and ' Love in a 
Blaze,' a comic opera (1800). See 'The 
Thespian Dictionary ' (1805). 

Atkinson, Miss. Actress ; made her 
London d6but at Sadler's Wells Theatre in 
September, 1853, as the Queen in 'Ham- 
let.' She afterwards appeared there in 
the following parts :— The Queen in 'Peri- 
cles ' (1854), Hermione in ' The Winter's 
Tale' (1855). Katherine in 'The Taming of 
the Shrew ' (1856), Olivia in ' Twelfth Night ' 
(1857), Young Mrs. Lambert in ' The Hypo- 
crite' (1858). i»/r.<;. Woodville in 'The Wheel 
of Fortune ' (1858), Francesca in Taylor's 
'Fool's Revenge ' (1859), Josephine in ' Wer- 
ner' (1860), Fmilia in 'Othello' (1861). 
Portia in 'Julius CcTsar' (1861), Goneril in 
« King Lear ' (1861), and Elvira in ' Pizarro ' 
(1862). She was also seen at the New West- 
minster in 1863 as Meg Murdockson in 'The 
Trial of Effie Deans,' at Drury Lane in 1864 
as Duchess of Ferrara in Falconer's ' Night 
and Morning ' and the Queen in ' Gymbe- 
line,' and at the same theatre in 1865 as 
Constance in ' King John.' 

Atkinson, Thomas. Dramatist and 




divine, born 1600, died 1639 ; presumalily 
the author of the manuscript Latin tragedy- 
called 'Homo' {q.v.). He held successively 
the livings of South Warnborough in Hamp- 
shire, and Islip in Oxfordshire (1637-8). He 
•wrote two Latin poems. See Wood's ' Athe- 
nae Oxonieuses.' 

Atonement. A romantic drama in a 
prologue and four acts, founded on Victor 
Hugo's 'Les Miserables' (q.v.) by W. MUS- 
KERRY {q.v.), and first performed at the 
Victoria Theatre, London, on August 31, 
1872 ; revived at Sadler's Wells on Septem- 
ber 14, 1872 ; played at Manchester in 1877 
in ten "tableaux." 

Atreus and Thyestes. An unacted 
tragedy (1821), adapted by Sinnett from the 
French of Crebillon. See Thyestes. 

Atrocious Criminal (An). Afarcein 
one act, by J. Palgraye Simpson {q.v.), first 
performed at the Olympic Theatre, London, 
on February 18, 1867, with a ca.- - including 
J. Clayton, Mrs. Stephens, Miss Amy 
Sheridan, and Miss E. Farren. 

Atropos. One of the three destinies in 
Lord Byron's ' Manfred ' {q.v.). 

Attack of th.e Dilig-ence (The). See 
Amherst, G. A. 

Attewel, George. Actor ; a member 
of Henslowe's company, and perhaps the 
father of Hugh Atwell {q.v.). 

Attic Story (The). A farce in one act, 
by J. Maddison Morton {q.v.) ; played at 
Drury Lane in 1842, with Selby as Captain 
Carbi7ie, Keeley as Gabriel Poddy, Mrs. 
Selby as Mrs. Carbine, and Mrs. Keeley as 
Mrs. Poddy ; performed at New York in the 
following year. 

Attila, the Last of the Huns. A 

drama performed at the Bowery Theatre, 
New York, in April, 1839. 

Attwood, Thomas. Musician, born in 
London, November 23, 1765 ; died 1838 ; fur- 
nished the music for ' The Prisoner ' (1792), 
' The Mariners ' (1793), ' Caernarvon Castle ' 
(1793), 'The Adopted Child' (1795), 'The 
Poor Sailor ' (1795), ' The Smugglers ' (1796), 
' The Mouth of the Nile ' (179S), ' The Devil 
of a Lover ' (1798), ' A Day at Rome ' (1798), 
♦The Castle of Sorrento' (1799), 'The Red 
Cross Knights' (1799), 'The Old Clothes- 
man ' (1799), ' The INLagic Oak ' (1799), ' True 
Friends' (1800), 'The Dominion of Fancy' 
(1800), 'H Bondocani' (1801), 'St. David's 
Day ' (1801), and ' The Curfew ' (1807). See 
' Dictionary of Music ' (1879), and ' Dictionary 
of National Biography ' (1885). See ESCAPES, 
The ; Guy Mannering. 

At'well, Hugrh. Actor ; one of the " chil- 
dren of her Majesty's Revels" in 1609, and 
a member of the cast of Jonson's ' Epicene' 
In that year. He belonged also, at one time, 
to Alleyn's company. W. Rowley published 
in 1621 "a funeral eligy" on the death of 
Atwell, whom he described as " servant 

to Prince Charles." The elegy concluded 
with the following epitaph : — 

" Here lyes the man (and let no lyars tell). 
His heart a Saints, his toung a silver bell ; 
Friend to his friend he stood : by Death he fell ; 
He changed his Eugh, yet he remains At-welL" 

The name is spelt " Attawell " and " Atte- 
wel " {q.v.). See ' The Alleyn Papers ' (1843), 
and Collier's ' Dramatic Poetry ' (1831-79). 

Auher, Daniel Francois Esprit. 
A French composer (1784-1871), some of 
whose operas have been performed in Eng- 
land, both in English and Italian ; for ex- 
ample : ' Masaniello ' (1S29), ' Era Diavolo ' 
(1831), 'The Bronze Horse' (1836), 'The 
Crown Diamonds' (1844), and 'The Black 
Domino' (1861). 

Auberg-e des Adrets (L'). See 
Roadside Lnn, The; Robert Macaire; 
Two Murderers. 

Auhert, Mrs. To this lady is ascribed 
' Harlequin Hydaspes ' {q.v.). 

Aubin, Mrs. Author of 'The Merry 
Masqueraders ' {q.v.). 

Aubrey. (1) Augusta Auhrey is the 
heroine of Cumberland's ' Fashionable 
Lover' {q.v.). {2,) Madame Aubrey is a lead- 
ing character in P. Edwards and L. Wal- 
LACK'S ' Honour before Wealth' (g.-y.). (3) 
Mr. and Mrs. Aubrey are characters in ' A 
Curious Case ' {q.v.). 

Aubrey, Kate. Actress, born at Staf- 
ford ; made her first appearance at Derby 
in 1874. Her London dtibut took place ii: 
December, 1876, at tlie Court Theatre 
where, in 1878, she "created" the par: 
of Sophia in Wills's ' Olivia.' She Avas iu 
the first cast of Cellier's ' Nell Gwynne.' 
Among the other roles she has played are 
Rosa Dartle in ' Little Em'ly,' Fanny' Banter 
in ' New Men and Old Acres,' and Pedro iu 
' Girofld-Giroflu.' 

Auchindrane; or, The Ayrshire 
Tragedy. A play in three acts, by Sii 
AYalter Scott {q.v.), published in 1830 
with a preface detailing the historical facts 
on which it is founded. 

Auction (The). A farce by Theophilu< 
Cibber {q.v.), adapted from Fielding's ' His 
torical Register ; ' played at the Haymarket 
and printed in 1757. 

Auction of Pictures (The). A mono; 
log-ue by Samuel Foote {q.v.), given b: 
him at "the Haymarket in April, 1748. li' 
the course of this entertainment, which wa: 
a satire on the prevailing rage for the an 
tique, the comedian introduced imitation 
of several public characters, including th' 
famous Orator Henley. 

Audley, Lady and Robert, figur 
in the various dramatizations of Mis 
Braddon's 'Lady Audley's Secret' {q.v.'. 
They are also among the 'personce of H. J 
Byron's pitce d'occasion, ' 1863 ' {q-v.). 

Audran, Edmond. A French com 
poser (died 1901), many of whose works hav 




leen performed in England. See Cigale, La ; 
jILLETtf, ; Gra.\d Mogul, Le ; Indiana; 
JLivETTE ; Mascotte, La ; Miss Decima ; 
?0UPEE, La ; Toledad, La. 

Audrey. A country wench in 'As 
You Like It' (q-v.). She first appears in 
let iii. so. 3. "I am not fair," she says, 
'and therefore I pray the gods make me 
lonest." She is beloved by William, but is 
jspoused by Touchstone, who describes her 
IS "an ill-favoured thing, sir, but mine 

Aufait, Mr. Achilles. A character 
n R. B. Peake's ' Lying in Ordinary ' {q.v.). 

Aug^arde, Amy. Actress and vocalist, 
.iorn 1868 ; created the role of Ladu Anne 
Terningham in A. Cellier's 'Doris' (g. v.); 
aas played in London Lydia in Cellier's 
Dorothy ' (q.v.), Madame Lange in ' La FUle 
le Madame Angot ' (^i-V-), etc. 

Aug-ier, Emile. The following works of 
:his French dramatist (1820-1889) have been 
idapted to the English stage : ' Cigue' (1844), 
L'Aventuriere (1848), 'Gabrielle' (1849), 
Le Gendre de M. Poirier' (1855), ' Les 
Fourchambault ' (1878), and 'Le Mariage 
rOlynipe' (1897)— all of which see. His 
Lionnes Pauvres '(1858) was adapted under 
.;he title of ' A False Step,' but was refused 
i licence by tlie English censor (187S). 
I'M. Augier," says Brander Matthews, 
('inherits the best traditions of French 
i^omedy. He is a true child of Beaumar- 
■■;hais, a true grandchild of ]Moliere. He has 
■;he Gallic thrust of the one, and something 
)f the broad utterance of the other and 
p-eater" ('French Dramatists of the Nine- 
);eenth Century'). " M. Augier," says Dut- 
.;on Cook, "is nothing if not didactic; he 
IS witty and eloquent ; the stage is to him 
.something of a pulpit, and he finds in Paris 
;ittentive and admiring audiences of his 
Jioral essays by reason of the striking illus- 
trations that accompany them " (' Nights 
it the Play'). See Barrister, The. 

' Augurs, The Mask of, was performed 

at Court on Twelfth Night, 1622, and again 
Dn aiay 6, 1622. It was by Ben Jonson. 
"Prince Charles," says Fleay, "led the 
augurs. The prototype of Vangoose, the 
Britain born, who speaks all languages in 
iU Enghsh, ought to be discoverable, but I 
cannot discover him." 

Aug-usta. (1) The name under fwhich 
London is personified in Dryden's ' Albion 
and Albanius' {q.v.). (2) Mother of Gus- 
tavus Vasa, in Brooke's play of that name 
iq-v.). (3) A character in Taylor's ' Our 
American Cousin' {q.v.). 

Aug-usta ; or, The Blind Girl. A 

drama in three acts, first performed at Drury 
Lane on January 14, 1823, Mith Cooper, 
Knight, S. Penley, Mrs. Davison, and Mrs, 
W. AVest in the oast. 

Aug-ustus Caesar. A play printed in 
1687. 'Augustus' is the name, also, of a 
tragedy by Edward Biddle, one act of 
which was printed in 1717. 

Aug-vistus and Giilielmus; or, 
The Villag-ers. A melodrama by W. A. 
Holland, acted at the Haymarket in March, 

Auld Acquaintance. A one-act play 
by Joseph Dilley {q.v.), first performed at 
St. George's Hall, London, on March 23, 1878, 
with a cast including F. H. INIacklin and 
Miss B. Henri ; revived at the Vaudeville 
Theatre in lSSO-1. 

Auld Lang- Syiae. (1) A comedy- 
drama in three acts, by G. L. Gordon {q.v.), 
first performed at the Princess's Theatre, 
Edinburgh, in November, 1877 ; in London, 
at the Park Theatre, on May 27, 1878. (2) 
A play in one act, by Lorma Leigh, Lad- 
broke Hall, London, June, 1891. (3) A 
comedietta by Basil Hood, Prince of Wales's 
Theatre, London, November 5, 1892, 

Auld Man and his "Wife (The). An 
interlude by Sir David Lindsay, printed in 

Auld Kobin Gray. (1) A musical 
piece in two acts, by Samuel Arnold {q.v.), 
first performed at the Haymarket Theatre, 
London, on July 29, 1794, with C. Kemble as 
Jamie, Miss Leak as Jenny, Suett as Robin, 
and other parts by Fawcett, Miss De Camp, 
and Mrs. Bland. The piece "ends with 
Jamie's return, rich and faithful, in time to 
prevent Jenny's marriage with the good old 
man." (2) A ballet, first performed at Drury 
Lane on May 13, 1814. (3) A musical piece 
by Jonathan Blewitt, (4) A drama in 
one act, adapted from Theuriet's ' Jean 
Marie' by George Roy, and first performed 
at the Imperial Theatre, London, on Sep- 
tember 22, 1883. See Daddy Gray. 

Aulularia. A comedy by Plautus 
(B.C. 254-184) ; played before Queen Eliza- 
beth at Cambridge in 1564 ; translated into 
English blank verse by Thornton, AVarner, 
and Colman (1769-1774). See also the trans- 
lations by Cotter (1827) and Riley (1852). 

Aung-ier Street Theatre. See Dub- 
LIN Theatres. 

Aunt Charlotte's Maid. See OUB 
French L^vdy's Maid. 

Aunt in Virg-inia (An). A farce per- 
formed at the Park Theatre, New York, in 
May, 1828, with Maywood as Mrs. Clatter- 

Aunt Jack. A farce in three acts, by 
Ralph R. Lumley {q.v.), first performed at 
the Court Theatre, London, on July 13, 1889, 
with Mrs. John Wood in the title rdle, and 
A. Cecil, Eric Lewis, AV. Grossmith, Miss R. 
Filippi, and ]Miss F. AA'ood in other parts ; 
produced in New York, at 'the Madison 
Square Theatre, on October 31, 1889, with 
Mrs. Agnes Booth in the title part, sup- 
ported by J. H. Stoddart, E. M. HoUand, F. 
Robinson, and L. Massen; revived at the 
Court Theatre, liondon, in November, 1891, 
with Mrs. J.AA'ood, supported by E. Righton, 
G. Giddens, H. Reeves - Smith, Seymour 
Hicks, Miss S. A'aughan, and Miss E. 



Auntie. A " farcical piece " in three acts, 
by H. J. Byron (q.v.), performed at Toole's 
Theatre on March 13, 1SS2, with J. L. Toole 
as Bunny, Miss Emily Thorne in the title 
part (Mrs. Draaooner), and other rules by E. 
w. Garden, E."©. Ward, J. Billington, Miss 
Winifred Emery, Miss Effie Liston, and 
Miss EUza Johnstone. 

Aunt's Advice. A comedietta, adapted 
from 'Livre III. Chapitre I.' by E. A. 
SOTHERN (g.r.), and first performed at the 
Haymarket Theatre, London, in December 3, 
1861, with the author as Captain Leslie, 
Howe as Arundel, and Miss M. Oliver as 
Mrs. Arundel; revived at the Shaftesbury 
Theatre, London, in 1SS9, with E. S. Willard 
and Mrs. Willard as Captain Leslie and 
Mrs. Arundel. See BOOK III. Chapter I. ; 
Novel Expedient, A; Subterfuge, A., 

Aura. A character in Johnson's ' Coun- 
try Lasses,' 

Aurelia. (1) Duchess of Pietro Jacomo 
in Marston's 'Malcontent' (q.v.). HazUtt 
says that "the part of Aurelia, a dissolute 
and proud-spirited woman, is the highest 
strain of IMarston's pen." (2) Aurelia, in 
Mrs. Cextlivre's ' Perjured Husband' (q.v.), 
is in love with Count Bassino. 

Aurelio and Miranda. A play in five 
acts, by J. Boaden (q.v.), founded on M. G. 
Lewis's novel ' The Monk,' and first per- 
formed at Drury Lane on December 29, 
1798, with Kemble as Aurelio, ^Mrs. Siddons 
as Miranda, Mrs. Powell as Agnes, Barry- 
more as Raymond, and other parts by Ban- 
nister, .iun., C. Kemble, Wewitzer, Archer, 
Mrs. Bland, etc. Aurelio is a monk, with 
whom Miranda has fallen in love, and 
whom she attends in the guise of a boy. 
'^^llen she reveals her sex, Aurelio recipro- 
cates her affection, and, being released from 
his vows, is enabled to mai-ry her. Agnes 
and Raymond are in love, and the adventures 
of Agnes in a nunnery form the underplot. 
"A ludicrous circumstance," says Genest, 
" took place on the first night. In the fifth 
act, when Mrs. Siddons took the child from 
Mrs. Powell, there happened to be some 
hissing. Mrs. Siddons, not liking this, made 
her exit more rapidly than usual. In her 
hurry she struck the wooden child so 
violently against the door she was going 
through, that the head came tumbling down 
the stage. ]Mrs. Powell had to say "imme- 
diately, ' Immortal power, preserve my 
chUd.' " 

Aureng-ze'be ; or, The Great Mogrul. 
A tragedy by John Dryden (^.r.), probably 
acted in the spring of 1675, and printed in 
that year. The first cast included Hart as 
Aurengzebe, ISIohun as the Emperor, Mrs. 
Marshall as Kourmahal, Kynaston as Morat, 
Mrs. Cox as Indamora, and Mrs. Corbet as 
Melesinda. The scene is in Agra in 1660. 
The Emperor desires his son Aurengzebe to 
resign to him Indamora, the captive queen 
with whom both are in love. Aurengzebe 
refuses, and the Emperor thereupon con- 

nives with his other son Morat, and Aureng' 
zebe is put in confinement. Nourmalial, the 
Empress, loves him, but he rejects her ad 
vances, and she attempts to poison him. 
The Emperor and Morat quarrel ; the former 
makes friends with Aurengzebe, and the 
last-named defeats the forces of his brother, 
Avho dies of his wounds. His wife, Mele- 
sinda, commits suicide ; Xourmalial Yioi'ions, 
herself and dies mad ; and Aurengzebe and 
Indamora are made happy. Davies describes 
the piece as the author's "last and most 
perfect rhyming tragedy. The passions are 
strongly depicted, the" characters well dis- 
criminated, and the diction more famUiai 
and dramatic than in any of his preceding 
pieces" ('Dramatic Miscellanies'). "The 
verse used," says Scott, "is of that kind 
which may be most easily applied to the 
purposes of ordinary dialogue." It is ir 
this tragedy that we find the well-knowr 
description of life— 

" When I consider life, 'tis all a cheat," etc — 

which is placed in the mouth of the hero 
"Nor," says Scott, "is the answer of Nour 
mahal inferior in beauty " — 

" 'Tis not for nothing that we life pursue," etc. 

Praise is given by Scott to the lines on virtue 
also spoken by Aurengzebe — 

" How vain is virtue, which directs our ways," etc. 

' Aurengzebe ' was revived at Drury Lane i 
February, 1708, with Powell as the here 
Betterton as the Emperor, Booth as Moral 
Mrs. BaiTy as Kourmahal, Mrs. Rogers a 
Indamora, and Mrs. Porter as Melesinda 
at the same theatre in November, 1709, wit 
Mrs. Bradshawas Indamora; and again a, 
Drury Lane in December, 1721, with WUk 
as Aurengzebe, Mills as the Emperor, Mr:' 
Porter as Nourmahal, Mrs. Oldfield as Indt 
mora, and Mrs. Younger as Melesinda. St 
Prince of Agra. 

Auricomous. A character in Bouc 
CAULT and Planche'S 'Babil and Bijor 

Aurora. A character in Burnand 
' Olympic Games' (q.v.). 

Aurora Floyd. This novel by Mi: 
Braddon has been dramatized several time 
in the form of (1) a play by C. S. Cheltna 
(q.v.), produced at the Princess's Tlieatr 
London, on March 9, 1863, with Miss An 
Sedgwick in the title part, H. Vezin as Joh 
Mellish, G. Belmore as Stephen Hargreave 
and R. Roxby as James Conyers. (2) A plf 
bv B. Webster, jun. (q.v.), first perform* 
at the Adelphi Theatre on March IS, 186 
with Miss Avonia Jones as the heroin 
John Billington as Mellish, B. Webster ; 
Hargreaves, and Paul Bedford, R. Rome 
J. L. Sefton, and Mrs. Billington in oth. 
parts. (3) A play by W. E. Suter (g.r.), pr 
duced at the Queen's Theatre on April 
1863, with C. Sennett as Hargreaves. (4) ' 
play by C. H. Hazlewood (q.v.), first pe 
formed at the Britannia Theatre on Api 
21, 1863. (5) A play by J. B. Ashley ai 




Jtril Melton, produced at the Imperial 
riieatre in August, 1885. 
Auster. Spirit of the storm, in Lord 
iYRON's ' Manfred' (q.v.). 
■ Austerlitz. (1) Colonel Austerlitz is a 
haracter in C. Selby's * Marcelllne ' {q.v.). 
2) Sergeant Austerlitz figures, in Mrs. 
Core's ' Maid of Croissez ' {q.v.). 

. Austerlitz ; or, The Soldier's 
Bride. A melodrama in three acts, by 
ToHN Thomas Haines {q.v.), first performed 
i the Queen's Theatre, London ; played at 
■^ew York in January, 1845. See Dead or 


' Austin. Actor and manager ; performed 
'it Druvy Lane under Garrick's management, 
md was afterwards manager at Chester. 
5ee ' The Thespian Dictionary ' (1805), and 
Senest's ' English Stage ' (1832). 

Austin. The name adopted by the Lord 
3f Clarinsal, in Jephson's 'Count of Nar- 
oonne' {q.v.), when he became a monk of 
ISt. Nicholas. 

Austin, Mrs. Elizabeth. Vocalist ; 
born in J]ngland ; made her debut a,t Dublin, 
appeared at Drury Lane in 1822 as Rosetta 
in ' Love in a Village,' went to America in 
1827, and left it in 1835. Among her parts 
were Ariel, llosina, Diana Vernon, Lucy 
Bertram, Clara (' The Duenna'), and Ajwllo 
(' Midas '). See Ireland's ' New York Stage ' 

Australia ; or, The Bushrang-ers. 

A drama of Colonial life, by A. G. Stanley 
and W. Archer {q.v.), Grecian Theatre, 
London, on April 16, 1881. 

Author (An) figures in PlanchjS'S ' Mr. 

Buckstone's Voyage Round the Globe ' {q.v.). 

Author (The). A comedy in two acts, 
by Samuel Foote {q.v.), first performed at 
Drury Lane on February 5, 1757, with Foote 
himself as Cadwallader, Bransbyas old Cape, 
Ross as young Ca2:)e, Yates as Vamp, INIrs. 
Clive as Mrs. Cadicallader, and Miss Barton 
as Arabella. Young Cape is an author and 
in love with Arabella, whom he is not rich 
enough to marry. He believes his father to 
be dead, but old Cape " discovers himself," 
and the loving couple are united. In this 
piece Foote pourtrayed, in the persons of 
Cape and Vamp {q.v.), the relative positions 
held by the A^Titers ajid the publishers of 
the time. As Mr. Cadwallader, he gave so 
perfect and so ludicrous an imitation of a 
Mr, Ap-Rice, a well-known AVelsh gentle- 
man, that the latter applied for and ob- 
tained the intervention of the lord cham- 
Vierlain. The piece was first played in 
America in 1787, with Hallam as Cadxval- 

Author and the Bookseller (The). A 

" dramatic piece " by Charlotte M'Carthy, 
printed in 1765. 

Author's Farce (The), and The 
Pleasures of the Town. A pi^ce d'occa- 
eion by Henry Fielding {q.v.), produced at 

the Haymarket in March, 1780, and aimed aft 
the prevailing craze for Itahan opera. Luck- 
less, the author, writes a "farce," called 
' The Pleasures of the Town.' He dubs it 
"a puppet-show," and expresses the hope 
that it will expel opera and farce as they 
have expelled tragedy and comedy. " One 
of the scenes lies in the Court of Nonsense. 
Signior Optera, Don Tragedio, Sir Farcical 
Comtek, Dr. Orator, Monsieur Pantomime, 
and Mrs. Novel pay their respects to Non- 
sense. She thanks them all, but gives the 
preference to Signior Opera." Among the 
characters in the farce are Mrs. Moneywood, 
Witmore, Bookwright, Marplay, etc. Witmore 
says : " When the theatres are puppet-shows 
and the comedians ballad-singers ; when 
fools lead the town, wou'd a man think to 
thrive by his wit ? If you must write, WTite 
Nonsense, WTite Operas, write Entertain- 

Author's Triumph (The); or, The 
Managrer Manag-ed. A farce which 
" should have been acted" at Lincoln's Inn 
Fields on April 14, 1737, in which year it 
was published. " Dramatick offers a play 
to a Manager. He rejects it without reading 
it. Dramatick complains to Meccenas. Me- 
coinas gives the Manager and the players. 
a jobation. At the conclusion Dramatick 
marries Clara" (Genest). 

Authors (The). A dramatic satire in two 
acts, by Lindesius Jones, printed in 1755. 

" Authors' Nights." It is not certain 
when English dramatists began to accept 
the "overplus" of a day's receipts as a por- 
tion of the payment for their work. We reaci 
that in 1613 Robert Daborne {q.v.) received 
for his 'Bellman of London' {q.v.) £12 and 
" the overplus of the second day ; " and it 
would seem, from a passage in Denham's 
prologue to his 'Sophy' (g.y.) — produced 
about 1642 — that, at that time, the author's. 
" day " was either the second or the third. 

" Gentlemen, if you dislike tlie play. 
Pray make no words on't till the second day 
Or third be liass'd." 

By-and-by the third day came to be in- 
variably devoted to the playwTight, and 
eventually several days were assigned to 
him. " The first that had two nights," we 
are told, " was Southern ; and the first that 
had three was Rowe." When Goldsmith 
produced his "Good-natured Man," the 
third, sixth, and ninth performances were 
" appropriated to the author," and the result 
was £400. "Authors' Nights" no longer 
exist. See Collier's ' Dramatic Poetry ' 
(1879) and Dutton Cook's ' Book of the Play ' 

Autolycus. " A rogue " in ' The Win- 
ter's Tale' {q.v.). He enters in act iv. sc. 3, 

" AVhen daffodils begin to peer," 

and describes himself as "a snapper-up of 
unconsidered trifles." Professor Dowden, 
calls Autolijcus " most charming of rogues," 
and says "the sly knavery of Autolycus has 
nothing in it that is criminal ; heaven is his 




accomplice. ' If I had a mind to be honest, 
I see Fortune would not suffer me ; she drops 
booties into my mouth.'" Autolycus also 
figures in W. Brough's burlesque 'Perdita' 

Automaton (The). A piece played at 
Niblo's Garden, New York, in 1S3S. 

Autreval, The Countess d'. See 

D'AuTREVAL, Countess. 

"Autumn hath all the summer's 
fruitful treasure." First line of a song 
in Nash's ' Summer's Last Will and Testa- 
ment ' {q.v.)— 

" Short dnvs, sharp days, long nights come on apace ; 
Ah, who shall hide us from the winter's face ? " 

"Autumn leaves, autumn leaves, 
lie strewn around us here." First 
line of a song in DICKENS'S 'Village Co- 
quettes' iq.v.). 

Aux Printemps. See Six Months 

Avalanche (The) ; or, The Trials of 
the Heart. A romantic drama in three 
acts, bv A. Harris {q.v.), first performed at 
the Surrey Theatre, London, on October 3, 
1854, with Creswick as Frangcis Martel, 
H. Widdicomb as Pierre, and Vollaire as 
Flashenhaussen ; produced at the Bowery 
Theatre, New York, in 1855, 

Avarice and Ostentation. A comedy 
"from Goldoni," printed in the Theatrical 

Avenger (The); or. The Moor of 
Sicily. A drama played at the Lafayette 
Theatre, New York, in August, 1826, with 
Burroughs as John di Procida. (2) 'The 
Avenger:' a play by George W. Lovell 
iq.v.), first performed at the Surrey Theatre, 
London, in 1S35, with Butler in the chief 
part. (3) ' The Avenger ; or. Love's Trials : ' 
a drama performed at the Bowery Theatre, 
New York, in September, 1850, with J. 
W^allack, jun., as Blackbourn, and Mrs. 
"Wallack as Philip. 

Aveng-er's "Vow (The). A play by 
Charles P. Clinch (q.v.), produced at New 
Y''ork in February, 1824, with Maywood as 

Avengers (The). A play by Richard 
Penn Smith, performed in America. 

Aventuriere (L'). A comedy by Emile 
Augier (q.v.), adapted by T. W. Robertson 
(q.v.) under the title of ' Home ' (q.v.), by 
L. S. OUTRAM under that of 'Late Love' 
(q.v.). by H. St. Maur under that of ' What 
a Woman ' (q.v.), and by Edward Rose 
under that of 'The Adventurers' (q.v.). It 
was performed (in the original French) at 
the Prince of Wales's Theatre, London, on 
May 11, 1880 ; Miss Genevieve Ward being 
the Clorinde, Miss Hebert the Celie, H. 
Beerbohm Tree the Monte Prade, H. Wigan 
the Dario, M. ISIarius the Don Annibal, and 
H. St. Maur the Fahrice. 

Aventurine. A character in C. Z. 
Barneit's ' La Polka' (q.v.). 

Avenue Theatre. See London The- 

Averay, Robert. Author of ' Britannia 
and the Gods in CouncU,' a dramatic piece, 
printed in 1756. 

Aveug-le (L'). A drama in five acts, by 
MM. Anicet-Bourgeois and D'ENNERY.first 
performed at the Gaite, Paris, on March 21, 
1S57, with Laferriere as the son and Menier 
as the hunchback Doctor. This work has 
been adapted to the English and American 
stages under the titles of 'Blind,' ' Duprez 
and Son,' ' Fortune's Fool,' ' Four Stages 
of Life,' ''Struck Blind,' and 'Taken from 
Memory,' all of which see. 

Avocat d'un Grec (L'). See Retained 
for the Defence. 

Avondale, Lord. A character in Mor- 
ton's ' School of Reform ' (q.v.). 

Avonmore, Lord, A character in 
Falconer's ' Family Secret ' (q.v.). 

Awakening-. See Tears, Idle Tears. 

Awakening (The). A comedy in three 
acts, by Arthur Benham (q.v.), first per- 
formed at the Garrick Theatre, London, on 
October 1, 1892, with a cast including Miss 
E. Burney, Miss V. Feathorstone, :\Iiss N. 
Boucicault, H. Waring, Sant Matthews, 
and A. Elwood. (2) A play in four 
acts, by C. Haddon Chambers (q.v.), 
St. James's Theatre, London, February 6, 
1901, with a cast including G. Alexander, 
H. B. Irving, Miss Granville, Miss Julie 
Opp, Miss orKingston, and Miss Fay Davis. 

Awaking. A one-act piece by Campbell 
Clarke (q.v.), founded upon the ' Marcel ' of 
ISI^NI. Sandeau and De Courcelle, and first per- 
formed at the Vaudeville Theatre, London, 
on December 14, 1872, with John Clayton as 
Victor Tremaine, H. Wigan as Dr. Merrideiv, 
and Miss F. Brough as Constance Treraaine. 
In this piece, a father, having accidentally 
shot one of his children, loses his reason, 
and, in order to "awake" him from his 
melancholy state, those about him make 
believe that the catastrophe was but the 
creation of a fancv disordered by brain fever. 
See Tears, Idle Tears. 

"Away, delights; go seek some 
other dwelling." First line of a lyric in 
Fletcher's ' Captain ' (q.v.). 

Away with Melancholy. A farce 
in one act, founded by J. Maddison Morton 
(q.v.) on ' Un homme entre deux airs,' and 
first performed at the Princess's Theatre, 
London, on March 13, 1854, with David 
Fisher r.s Windsor Broicn, and other parts 
by H. Saker, Miss M. Daly, etc.; played at 
Burton's Theatre, New York, in the same 

Awful Bise in Spirits (An). An 
extravaganza by Tom Taylor (q.v.), first 
performed at the Olympic Theatre, London, 
on September 7, 1863. This was a skit on 
the "ghost" manifestations of Pepper and 
Dii-cks, who were burlesqued as Kepper 




Atkins) and Quirclcs (H. Wigan). Among 
he ofhev personce were the Bleeding Nun of 
Andenburg (Miss Hughes), Fdchardson's 
V,host (R. Soutar), Mrs. Veal (Mrs. Stephens), 
lolly Brown (Miss Lydia Foote), the Shade 
f Shakespeare (H. Neville), etc. 

Awkward Mistake (An). A farce by 
OSEPH Derrick iq.v.). 

Axalla. A character in Rowe's ' Tamer- 
ine' iq.v.). 

Ayer, Harriet Hubbard. Adapter 
f ' The Widow,' a comedy (q.v.). 

' Ayliff, Mrs. Actress ; was the original 
fiss Prue in Congreve's 'Love for Love' 

Ayliffe, John. Comedian, born 1803, 
■lied 1S47 ; played Antimony in Smith's 
Lessons for Gentlemen,' Bartolo in 
^lunket's ' Minerali,' etc. 

Aylmer de la Eoclie, in Stow's 
I Templar' iq.v.). 

\ Aylmer, Marg-aret. See Elmore, 


j Aylmere ; or, The Kentish Rebel- 
ion. A tragedy by R. T. Comiad (q.v.), 
h'st performed at the Franklin Theatre, 
■few York, in May, 1841, with Forrest as 
iylmere (Jack Cade). The play was after- 
wards revised and brought out as ' Jack 

[ Aymon, The Castle of. See Castle 
;)F Aymon. 

'. Aynesworth, Allan. Actor ; made 
■lis debut at the Hay market in 18S7. He 
las figured in the original casts of ' The 
Jean's Daughter ' (1888), ' Aunt .Jack ' (1889), 
The Cabinet INlinister ' (1S90), ' The Volcano ' 
1891), 'The Late Lamented' (1891), 'The 
'rusaders ' (1891), ' A Bohemian ' (1892), ' An 
American Bride' (1892), 'The Orient Ex- 
,3ress ' (1893), ' The Lackey's Carnival ' (1900). 

Ayr [Scotland]. See ' Recollections of 
i^yr Theatricals,' by James Morris (1872). 

Ayre, "William. Translator of Tasso's 
Amintas'X^'.v.), and of ' Merope,' a tragedy 

Ayres, James. Author of 'Sancho at 
:;ourt' (q.v.), and 'The Kiss Accepted and 
-ieturned ' (q.v.). See ' The British Theatre.' 


Ayrshire Tragedy (The). 


Ayrton, William (born in London, 

-/ 77 ; died 1858), was the " honorary " literary 
md musical critic of the Morning Chronicle 
rem 1813 to 1826, and WTote gratuitous 
nusical notices for the Examiner from 1837 
-0 1851, besides contributing largely to the 
Rarmonicon from 1823 to 1834. He Avas the 
luthor of articles on music in the ' Penny 
Cyclopaedia,' the chapter on music in the 
Pictorial History of England,' and the 

musical explanations in the ' Pictorial 
Shakespeare.' He edited the ' Musical 
Library ' (1834) and ' Sacred INIinstrelsy.' 
See ' Imperial Dictionary of Biography ' and 
' Dictionary of Music and Musicians.' 

Ayrtoun, Marg-aret, actress, who 
made her debut at the Haymarket in 1884. 
has played Susan Mountford in a revival of 
Hey wood's ' Woman Killed with Kindness ' 
(1887), the title parts of ' Airey Annie ' (q.v.) 
and ' Tra-la-la-Tosca ' (q.v.), Mrs. Christison 
in Jones's ' Dancing Girl ' (q.v.), etc. 

Ayscoug-h, Georg-e Edward. Dra- 
matist, died October 14, 1779 ; son of Dean 
Ayscough, and at one time in the army ; 
was the author of 'Semiramis,' a tragedy 
(1776) (q.v.). He also edited the works of 
Lord Lyttleton (1774). See the ' Biogi-aphia 
Dramatica' (1812) and Genest's 'Account of 
the EngUsh Stage ' (1832). 

Ayscoug-h, Samuel. Librarian and 
index-maker, born 1745, died 1804 ; was the 
first to compUe a concordance to Shake- 
speare's plays, in the form of a " copious 
index to the remarkable passages and 
words," printed at the end of an edition of 
the dramatic works published in 1790. The 
index was afterwards published separately, 
and was reissued at intervals until super- 
seded by the ' Concordance ' of Mrs. Cow- 
den Clarke (q.v.). See Nichols' 'Literary 

Ayton, Richard. Dramatist and mis- 
cellaneous writer, born in London, 1786 ; 
died 1823 ; was the author of two farces, 
produced at Covent Garden, and of various 
adaptations from the French, brought out 
at the English Opera House. See Edinburgh 
Magazine, vol. x. See, also. Rendezvous. 

Aytoun, "William Edmonstotine. 
Poet and prose writer (1813-1S65) ; author 
of ' Firmilian ' (1815), wliich see. See, also, 
the ' Life ' by Martin (1867). 

Azael, the Prodigal. A drama, 
founded by E. Fitzball (q.v.) on 'L'Enfant 
Prodigue ' of Scribe and Auber, and first per- 
formed at Drury Lane Theatre, London, on 
February 19, 1851, with J. R. Anderson in 
the title part, Vandenhoff as Reuben, Miss 
F. Vining as Jejjhtele, Emery as Ameno2jMs, 
and Mrs. Walter Lacy as Nefte ; produced at 
New York in June, 1851, with F. Conway as 
AzaHl. Azael, the son of Reuben, and cousin 
of Jephtele, whom he loves, is living a happy 
pastoral life, when, by the arts of Amenophis 
and Nefte, he is lured away to Memphis. 
There, being found in the Sacred Temple, 
he is sentenced to death ; but he escapes, 
and, after many wanderings, is induced by 
a dream to return to his home. Some of 
Auber's music was used at Drury Lane. 
Edmund Yates refers to the play, in his 
' Recollections,' as " a tolerably close ver- 
sion of the scriptural story, in which John 
Cooper played a high priest with much 
pompous unction." (2) A burlesque of 
' Azael ' was produced at the Olympic 
Theatre in November, 1S51. 




Azaziel. An angel in Lord Byron's 
• Heaven and Earth ' (g.r.), beloved by Anah 

Azema. A character in Gilbert's 
•Palace of Truth' (q.v.-). 

Azim al Barmeki. A romantic drama, 
produced at the National Theatre, New 
York, in September, 1S5S, with 3Idme. 
Ponisi in the 

Azor and Zemira ; or, Tlie Mag-ic 
Rose. An opera in three acts, by Spohr, 
adapted to the English stage, and produced 
at Covent Garden Theatre in April, 1S31. 

Azor, Prince. See Beast, The. 

Azncena, a gipsy, figures not only in 
the English versions of Verdi's 'H Trova- 
tore ' (q^v.), but in W. Travers's drama with 
that title (q.v.), and in H. J. Byron's bur- 
lesques on the subiect (q.v.). A play called 
' Azucena ; or, The Gipsy's Oath,' was pro- 
duced at Barnum's Museum, New York, in 
February, 1S65. 

Azurine. A spectacular play, produced 
at Niblo's Garden, New York, December 25, 

Azurine. A character in Planche's 
'King Charming ' (^.y.)- 

"Bab, Lady." A maid-servant in 
•High Life Below Stairs' (5. i\), who adopts 
and is known by the name of her mis- 
tress. She reads only one book, " which 
is Shikspur." 

Bab-Ballad-Mong-er(The); or, Tlie 
Mysterious Musician and the Duke 
of Dis-Guisebury. A burlesque by 
Frank Lindo, introducing travesties of 
'The Ballad-Monger ' (g.r.)and 'The Dancing 
Girl' (q.v.), and first performed at the Opera 
Comique, July 30, 1892. 

Baba, All, the hero of the familiar 
nursery tale, figures in Colman jun.'s 
'Forty Thieves '^(g. I'.) and A Beckett's 
' Open Sesame ' (q.v.). See Ali Baba. 

Babble, Jeremiah. A character in 
POCOCK'S 'Anything New?' (q.v.). 

Babble Shop (The). A travesty, by 
Edayard Rose (q.v.), of ' The Bauble Shop' 
(q.v.); produced at the Trafalgar Square 
Theatre, London, on March 30, 1893, with 
A. Play fair, W. H. Day, J. Willes, and CyrU 
Maude in the cast. 

Babblebrook, in C. S. Cheltnam's 
'Lesson in Love' (q.v.), is nicknamed 
' Tlie Newspaper,' because so full of gossip. 

Babes (The). See Babes i.\ the 

Babes and Beetles. See Babes 1: 
THE Wood (Tom Taylor). 

Babes in the "Wood (The). Thi: 
familiar nursery tale has been the subjec 
of many comic plays. Among these ma 
be noted (1) 'The Babes in the Wood: 
pantomime by J. B. Buckstone, 1856 
(2) 'The Babes in the Wood and th 
Good Little Fairy Birds : ' burlesque b 
H. J. Byron (q.v.), first performed at th 
Adelphi Theatre, London, on July 18, 1855 
with MissWoolgaras Sir Rotdand 3[acassa: 
J. L. Toole and^Miss Kate Kelly as Tomm 
and Sallij (the babes), Paul Bedford e 
Smith (the first ruffian), W. H. Eburne 2] 
the Famil'i Physician, and Mrs. Billingto. 
as Lady Macassar. (3) ' The Babes in tt, 
Wood :"' pantomime by G. A Beckett (q.v.' 
Covent Garden, December, 1867. (4) ' Tt 
Babes in the Wood : ' pantomime by ( 
Lander, Sadler's Wells, December, 187 j 
(5) 'The Babes in the Wood:' pantomin| 
by T. Mead, Elephant and Castle Theati' 
London, December, 1873. (6) ' The Babes 
tlie Wood : ' pantomime by C. RiCE, Cove: 
Garden, December, 1874, with F. Gould ; 
Sir Rollingstone, J. Wainwright as Gru 
grabber the Greedy, Miss Annie Goodall 
Walter, Miss Catherine Lewis as Phcehe, ai 
Miss Rebecca Isaacs as Mother Bunch. ( 
' The Babes in the Wood : ' pantomime 
C. Merion, Greenwich, December, 18" 

(8) ' The Babes in the Wood : ' burlesque 
G. L. Gordon and G. W. Anson, Prin 
of Wales's Theatre, Liverpool, April, 18' 

(9) ' Our Babes in the Wood ' (q.v.), by F. 
Burnand (1877). (10) 'The Babes in t 
Wood :' pantomime by Frank Hall, PI: 
harmonic Theatre, London, December, IS 

(11) ' The Babes, or Whines from t 
Wood: ' an extravaganza by Harry Pault 
(q.v.), first performed at the Theatre Roy 
Birmingham, on June 9, 1S84 ; first produc 
in London at Toole's Theatre, on Septeml 
9, 1884, with W. Edonin and Miss Al 
Atherton as " the babes " (Dolly and Tess 
L. Brough as Bill Booty, and Miss G. Hunt 
as Ralph Reckless; revived at the Nove 
Theatre, London, in January, 1886, with 
Edonin, L. Brough, and Miss Atherton 
their original parts, and Miss H. Verr 
as Ralxjh; again revived at the Stra 
Theatre, London, in February, 1895, w 
W. Edonin and Miss Atherton, D. James 
Rowland Buttre, J. J. Dallas as Booty, i 

(12) ' The Babes in the Wood : ' burles( 
by G. Capel (q.v.'), Douglas, Isle of M 
July, 1884. (13) ' The Babes in the Woo' 
pantomime by G. Thorn, Grand, Islingt 
December, 1890. (14) 'The Babes in 1 
Wood : ' burlesque by T. Ramsdale, Ale • 
shot, Surrey, August, 1891. (15) ' - ' 
Babes in the Wood : ' burlesque by M. Bi C 
and B. Wyke, Rhvl, Wales, Septeml , 

1891. (16) ' The Babes in the Wood : I 
Bold Robin Hood : ' pantomime by . 
Lennard (q.v.), Crystal Palace, Deceml,, 

1892. (17) 'The Bonnie Babes in > 
Wood : ' pantomime by T. Craven, Vi - 
hurst, Holloway, December, 181)4. ( ) 
'The Babes in the Wood:' pantomime V 



"NViLTON Jones, Pavilion Theatre, London, 
December, 18D4. 

Babes in the "Wood (The). A comedy 
in three acts, by Tom Taylor (q.v.), first 
performed at the Haymarket Theatre, Lon- 
don, on November 10. 1860, with J. B. Buck- 
stone as Jeremiah Beetle, H. Compton as 
SUdell, Chippendale as the Earl ofLazenhy, 
"VV. Farren as Frank liushton, Miss A. Sedg- 
wick as Larhj Blanche Rushton, and Mrs. 
■\Vilkinsas3/r.9. Beetle. "As first performed," 
says Henry Morley, "the play was a good 
deal longer than ' Hamlet.' " It was per- 
formed for the first time in America at the 
New Metropolitan Theatre. New York, in 
April. 1861, with J. S. Clarke as Beftle, J. H. 
Stoddart as Lord Lazenby, and ^Irs. F. S. 
Chanfrau as Mrs. Beetle. It was revived 
with W. H. and Mrs. Kendal as Frank 
and Lady Blanche ; also as ' Babes and 
Beetles,' at the Strand Theatre, in 1877, with 
J. S. Clarke as Beetle, W. H. Vernon as Frank, 
J. G. Grahame as Sir Gcorye Loosestrife, 
Miss L. Venne as Lady Blanche, and Miss 
Sallie Turner as Mrs. Beetle ; again at the 
Strand Theatre in December, 1882, under 
the title of 'Eloped; or. Babes and Beetles,' 
with J. S. Clarke as Beetle, R. C. Carton 
as Frank, Miss Turner as Mrs. Beetle, T. P. 
Haynes, F. Mervin, etc. 

Babet. A character in Dibdin's ' Boni- 
facio and Bridgetina' {q.v.). 

Babil and Bijou. A "fantastical 
spectacle in eighteen tableaux, divided into 
five acts and a prologuial scene," by DiON 
BOUCICAULT {q.v.) and J. R. Planche {q.r.), 
first performed at Covent Garden Theatre, 
London, on August 29, 1872, with Miss 
Annie Sinclair as Bijou, Mrs. Howard Paul 
as Mistigris, INIiss Helen Barry as Princess 
Fortinhraase, Joseph Maas as Phassilis 
(Prince of Lutetia), L. Brough a.s Auricomus, 
and AVainwright as Typocompos ; revived at 
the Alhambra in 18S2, with Miss Con- 
stance Loseby and Harry Paulton in the 

Babillard. (1) A bombardier in R. B. 
Peake's ' Comfortable Lodgings ' {q.v.). (2) 
A character in Offenbach's ' Creole ' {q.v.). 

Babiole. An opera in three acts, Avritten 
liy MM. Clairville and Gastineau, composed 
by Laurent de Rilld, and first performed at 
the Bouffes Parisiens in January, 1S7S ; 
produced, with libretto by R. Reece {q.v.), 
at the Prince's Theatre, ^Manchester, on 
March 10, 1879, with Miss Pattie Laverne 
in the title part, H. Hallam as Alain, E. 
Rosenthal as Casimir de Perigneux, and 
W. G. Bedford, J. E. Beyer, and H. Collier 
in other parts. 

Baby. (1) A farcical comedy in three 
acts, by R. Soutar and F. Herbert. Alex- 
andra Theatre, Southend, July 17, 1890. (2) 
_ Baby ; a Warning to Mesmerists : ' a farce 
in one act, by Lady Greville, founded on 
«ne of Max Adeler's " Elbow Room " stories; 
iheatre Royal, Brighton, October 31, 1890 ; 
played at Terry's Theatre, London, in April, 
1891, as ' The Baby.' (3) ' Baby : ' farce in 


one act, by J. E. Cowell, 

December 24, 1892. 

Babylon, New. See New Babylon. 

Baccarat ; or, The Knave of 
Hearts. A play by \\. E. Suter {q.v.). 
first performed at Sadler's Wells on March 
4, 1865, with T. Mead as Rousscll (the chief 
Ivnave of Hearts), Walter Joyce as Henri, 
iNIiss Marriott as Baccarat, Miss E. Beau- 
fort as Violante, and Miss L. Willmore as 

Baccastoppa, Easa di. Captain of a 
steamer in the brothers Brough's 'En- 
chanted Isle' {q.v.). (The). A tragedy translated 
from Euripides by R. Potter (1781). See 


Bacchanalians (The). A tragedy trans- 
lated from Eiiripides by Michael Wod- 
HL'LL (1782). See Bacch.e. 

Bacchides. A comedy translated from 
Plautus by Thornton, Warner, and Col- 
man (1760-74). 

Bacchus, the god of wine, figures in 
W. Leman Rede's ' Cupid in London ' {q.v.), 
H. J. Byron's ' Cupid and Psyche ' {q.v.), 
and .7. Graves's ' Cupid ' {q.v.). See Feast 
of Bacchus. 

Bacchus and Ariadne. A ballet first 
produced at Drury Lane on May 9, 1798. 

Bach, Emil. See Irmengarda. 

Bachelette. The niece of the curt5 in 
W. T. MONCRiEFF's 'Perourou' {q.v.). 

Bachelor of Arts (The). A comic 
drama in two acts, translated from the 
French by Augustus Harris, sen., and 
adapted to the English stage by C. J. 
Mathews, under the nom de guerre oi • Pel- 
ham Hardwick' {q.v.); first performed at 
the Lyceum Theatre, London, on November 
23, 1853, with C. J. Mathews as Harry 
Jasper, and other parts by F. Matthews, 
Basil Baker, and Miss Frances Hughes ; 
produced at Wallack's Theatre, New York, 
in January, 1854, with Lester Wallack as 
Jasper ; revived at the Criterion Theatre, 
London, in May and June, 1888, with C. 
Wyndham as Jasper. 

Bachelor's Buttons. A farce in one 
act. by E. Stirling {q.v.), first performed at 
the Strand Theatre, London, on May Id, 
1837, with Mrs. Stirling as Emily Wilton, 
who, during the piece, assumes the charac- 
ters of a female romp, a maid-of-all-work 
{Dolly Dumps), and a sportsman. The piece 
was played at the Park Theatre, New York, 
in August, 1839, with Mrs. W. Creswick as 

Bachelor's Hall. A farce by G. L. 
Gordon {q.v.), first performed at the Prince 
of Wales's Theatre, Liverpool, on January 
13, 1877 ; revived at the Opera Comique, 
London, on April 21, 1877. 

Bachelor's Torments. See Rod- 
^YELL, J. T. G. 



Bachelor's Vow (A). A play by Mrs. 
Alfred Phillips (q.v.). 

Bachelor's Wife (A). A comedy by 
Frederick Watson (7 i-.), performed at 
Burton's Theatre, New York, on January 11, 
1S58, with Brougham as Maywood, C. J. 
Mathews as Riyhy, and Mrs. Davenport 
(Mrs. Mathews) as Mrs. Righy. See 
Bachelors' Wives. 

Bachelors. (1) A farcical comedy, in a 
prologue and three acts, by A. A. Aldred ; 
produced at New Cross Hall, London, on 
June 18, 1SS4. (2) A comedy in three acts, 
by Hermann Vezin (q.v.) and Robert 
Buchanan (g.r.), adapted from Benedix's 
' Ein Lustspiel,' and first performed at the 
Havmarket Theatre. London, on September 
1, isS4, with C. Brookfield as Beethoven 
Bromley, H. B. Conway as Charles Lovelace, 
and C. Coote, Miss K. Munroe, Miss J. 
Gwynne, and Miss M. A. Victor in other 
parts ; revived at the Opera Comique on 
August 9, 1886, with H. Vezin as Bromley, 
W. Herbert as Lovelace, and Miss F.Chal- 
grove, Miss Sothern, and Mrs. W. Sidney. 
See Bachelors, The ; Our Bachelors. 

Bachelors (The). (1) A play translated 
from the (ierman of Iffland ; unacted, but 
printed in 1799. (2) A comic opera, words 
by C. H. :M. Wharton, music by A. Taylor, 
performed at the Prince's Theatre, Man- 
chester, June 8, 1885. 

Bachelors, The Island of. See 
Island of Bachelors, The. 

Bachelors' Wives ; or, The Engr- 
lish at Brussels. An operetta, the words 
by S. Beazley {q.v.), the music by Kears, 
first performed at the Lyceum Theatre, 
London, on July 16, 1S17. (2) ' Bachelors' 
Wives : ' a farce in three acts, by F. Bous- 
field. Strand Theatre. London, December 
15, 18S6. See Bachelor's Wife, A. 

" Back and side go bare, g-o hare." 

First line of a song in Bishop Still's 
' Gammer Gurton's Needle ' {q.v.). 

"But belly, God send thee good ale enough, 
Whether it be new or old." 

The song, says Warton, "has a vein of 
ease and huuiour which we should not 
expect to have been inspired by the 
simple beverage of those times." Whether 
it was, or was'not, written by Bishop Still, 
is not certain. Dyce, in his edition of 
Skelton's works, prints a song, very similar, 
which he ascribes to a date earlier than 
that of the printing of the comedy. The 
differences between'the two songs are, says 
Robert Bell, "very curious and interesting, 
but the most striking point of variance is 
the omission [in Dyce's version] of the verse 
refeiTUig to Tyb, Gammer Gurton's maid, 
which suggests" the probability that the song 
may have been originally an independent 
composition, of which Bishop Still availed 
himself, adapting it to the comedy by cur- 
tailments and a new verse with a personal 
Back in Five Minutes. A comedietta 

by H. T. Johnson; Parkhurst Theatre, 
HoUoway, London, February 16, 1891. 

Backbite, Sir Benjamin. Nephew 
of Crabtree, in Sheridan"s 'School for 
Scandal' {q.v.). 

Backing- the Varmints. A farce by 
G. L. Gordon {q.v.), produced at the Opera. 
Comique, London, August 7, 1875. 

Backwoodsman (The); or, The 
Gamecock of the Wilderness, was 

produced at the Park Theatre, New York, 
on March 12, 1846, with Marble as Samjjson 

Bacon, Delia. American writer, born 
1811, died 1859 ; author of ' The Bride of 
Fort Edward,' a drama (1839) ; also of ' The 1 
Philosophy of the Plays of Shakspere Un- 1 
folded' (1857). "She died a lunatic," says I 
R. Grant White, "and I believe in a lunatic j 
asylum." See Hawthorne's ' Our Old Home' 
and Mrs. Farrar's ' Recollections.' Also, j 
Bacon-Shakespeare Controversy. 

Bacon, James. Author of 'The Ameri- 
can Indian '(1795). 

Bacon, Mrs. See Poole, Miss. 

Bacon, Phanuel, D.D. Dramatic 
writer and poet, born 1700, died 1783 ; vicar 
of Bramber (Sussex) and rector of Baldei 
(Oxfordshire); author of the following 
plays (g.r.):—' The Taxes,' ' The Insignif 
cants,' 'The Tryal of the Time-Killers,' 'The 
Moral Quack,' and 'The Oculist,' all printed 
in 1757, and published in a volume undeil 
the collective title of ' Humourous Ethics.! 
See ' Biographia Dramatica ' (1812), Wai/t'jf 
' Bibliotheca Britannica ' (1824), Genest'i 
'English Stage' (1832), and the 'DictionarjJ 
of National Biography ' (1885). 

Bacon-Shakespeare Controversy 

(The). The theory that Francis Bacoi 
Viscount St. Alban"s, was really the authc 
of the plays hitherto ascribed to Willi 
Shakespeare was first broached by Mis 
Delia Bacon {q.v.) in Putnam's Maaazm 
for January, 1556. It was afterwards elabc 
rated by "her in a volume called 'Tl 
Philosophy of Shakspere's Plays Unfolded 
(1857), for which Nathaniel Hawthorne wrot 
a preface, without, however, approving tl 
"philosophy." For some years the theori 
languished, but it was once more advocatei 
by Nathaniel Holmes in ' The Authors! ' 
of Shakespeare ' (1867), by Appleton 3Iorg 
in ' The Shakespearean Myth ' (ISSl), and I] 
Mrs. Pott in ' The Promus of Formularif 
and Elegancies of Francis Bacon, illustratfl 
and elucidated by passages from Shak| 
speare ' (1S83). Then in ISSS came ' The Gre;, 
Cryptogram,' by Ignatius Donnelly, wl 
argued that Bacon's claim to the plays w 
asserted by that writer in the form of 
cryptogram running through the text of tl 
dramas. Among subsequent books on t, 
subject may be named 'The Bacon-Shat 
speare Question,' by U. Stopes (1888), Sir 
Martin's ' Shakespeare or Bacon ' (188 
Wigston's 'Bacon v. Phantom Shakespee 



(1891), Mrs. Pott's 'Bacon and his Secret 
Society ' (1891) and ' Did Francis Bacon write 
" Shakespeare " ? ' (1893), Owen's ' Bacon 
Cipher Story ' (1893), and ' The Shakespeare- 
Secret,' translated from the German of 
Edwin Bormann by Harry Brett (1895). See, 
further, the books by W. H. Smith (1856 and 
1884), Mrs. Windle (1881), W. D. O'Connor 
(1886), C. C. Cattell (1888), E. Eeed (1891), 
G. James (1893), O. Loosen (1893), T. S. E. 
Dixon (1895), Mrs. Gallup (1900), G. C. 
Bompas (1902), and Lord Penzance (1902). 
The controversy is thus summed up by 
Richard Grant White: "It is as certain 
that William Shakespeare wrote (after 
the theatrical fashion and under the the- 
atrical conditions of his day) the plays 
which bear his name, as it is that Francis 
Bacon wrote the ' Novum Organum,' the 
'Advancement of Learning,' and the 'Es- 
says.' The notion that Bacon also wrote 
' Titus Andronicus,' ' The Comedy of Errors,' 
'Hamlet,' ' King Lear,' and ' Othello,' is not 
worth five minutes' serious consideration by 
any reasonable creature " {Atlantic Monthly, 
April, 1883). 

Bad Barg-ain (A). A comedietta by 
Sydney Grundy, played in the English 
provinces in 1879. 

Bad Boys. A comedy in three acts, 
adapted by Clement Scott {q.v.) from MM. 
Gondinet and Civrac's ' Clara Soleil ' (Vaude- 
ville, Paris, February, 1885), and first per- 
formed at the Comedy Theatre, London, on 
April 29, 1885, with C. D. Marius, R. C. 
Carton, A. Roberts, E. Rose, P. Corapton, 
Miss Violet Cameron, Miss M. Bell, Miss 
Tilbury, Miss C. Grahame, and Miss L. 
Claremont in the cast ; afterwards trans- 
ferred to the Opi^ra Comique. 

Bad Lot (A). (1) A farcical comedy in 
three acts, by Harry Paulton and " Mos- 
TYN Teude," Opera House, Northampton, 
June 24, 1S87. (2) A play by Charles 

Bad Penny (A). A drama in one act, 
by W. LESTOCCi. first performed at the Vaude- 
ville Theatre, London, on the afternoon of 
July 13, 1SS2. 

Baddeley, Robert. Actor, born (it is 
said) 1732, died 1794 ; was at different times 
cook to Lord North and Foote. the actor 
iq.v.), and afterwards valet to a private gen- 
tleman. During his travels with the last- 
named he acquired a knowledge of foreign 
languages which was afterwards of much 
use to him as a performer, enabling him to 
take " broken- English " parts with much suc- 
cess. He appeared at Drury Lane previous 
to 1761, in which year he played at the Smock 
Alley Theatre, Dublin. In 1763 he again 
went to Drury Lane, with which theatre, 
aud with the Haymarket, he remained con- 
nected till his death. He was married to 
Sophia Snow in 1764. He was the original 
representative of Canton in ' The Clandes- 
tme MaxYidigQ,' Fulmer in • The West Indian,* 
Br.Druidin ' The Fashionable Lover,' Spruce 
m 'The School for Wives,' Lory in 'The 

Trip to Scarborough,' Moses in ' The School 
for Scandal,' FroUck in ' The Humourist.' Me- 
dium in ' Inkle and Yarico,' Crotchet in ' The 
Box-Lobby Challenge,' etc. Among his other 
parts were Sir Francis Gripe in ' The Busy- 
body ' (1761-2), Polonius (1763-4), Dr. Caius 
0-7Q3-i), Surly in ' The Alchemist' (1766-7), 
Brainworm in ' Every Man in his Humour ' 
(1767-8), Papillion in 'The Lyar' (1767-8), 
Fag in * The Rivals ' (1776-7), Vamp in ' The 
Author' (1781), Pu fin ' The Patron ' (1781), 
and Fluellen (1789-90). Wewitzer says that 
"the first character he happened to appear 
in, it was necessary he should wear a sword. 
Foote, seeing him thus equipped, imme- 
diately exclaimed, ' Ha, Baddeley, I am 
heartily glad to see you in the way of com- 
plete transmigration— you have turned your 
spit into a sword already ! ' " Michael Kelly 
says: "He had a habit of smacking his 
lips always when speaking. In allusion to 
this, Charles Bannister said to him one day, 
' My dear Baddeley, everybody must know 
that you have been a cook, for you always 
seem to be tasting your words.' " In * Tha 
Theatre ' (1771) we read that 

" Baddeley can never miss 
A crouching Frenchman or a flattering Swiss ; " 

and Hugh Kelly, in 'Thespis' (1766), is, 
equally flattering about his " foreign foot- 
men." On the other hand, Williams, in his 
• Children of Thespis ' (1786), speaks of the : 
actor as being "slovenly" and "rushing 
through his parts." By his will, datetl 
1792, he left a house at Moulsey "to be 
used as an asylum for decayed actors 
and actresses," with a provision that when 
the property was worth £360 a year pensions 
were to be bestowed. He also bequeathed 
money to the fund for the relief of indigent 
persons connected with Drury Lane Theatre, 
aud £3 per annum for the purchase of cake 
and wine to be dispensed to the Drury 
Lane company on Twelfth Night— a cere- 
mony which is still performed. See Genest's 
' English Stage ' (1832), Dutton Cook's ' Hours 
with the Players' (1880), the Theatre for 
September, 1880, etc. 

Baddeley, SopMa {nde Snow). Actress 
and vocalist, wife of R. Baddeley ; born 
1745, died 1786; is thought to have made 
her d6hut in 1764, probably as Cordelia. She 
appeared at Drury Lane in 1765 as Ophelia, 
and in 1767 as Desdemona and Dame 
Kitely ; and among her other parts were 
Hero, Jessica, Miranda^ Olivia, Celia, 
Portia (' Julius Coesar '), the Lady in 
' Comus,' Mrs. Beverley ('The Gamester'), 
Leonora ('The Revenge'), Statira ('Alex- 
ander the Great'), Julia ('The Rivals'), 
Bosetta ('Love in a Village'), Clarissa 
('Lionel and Clarissa'), etc. She was 
the original Harriett in 'The School for 
Rakes,' Miss Marchmont in * False Delicacy,' 
and Miss Willoughhy in 'A Word to the 
Wise.' Boaden says that as Imogen " her 
beautiful countenance used to excite the 
greatest interest," while George III. and 
Queen Charlotte were so delighted with 
her Fanny in ' The Clandestine Marriage ' 
that they ordered Zotfany to paint her in 




that character. Hugh Kelly, in 'Thespis, 
speaks of 

"The gentle Baddeley, whose form, 
Sweet as her voice, can never faU to charm." 
As a singer she was popular at Ranelagli 
and Vauxhall. Her moral irregularities led 
to her being separated from her husband, 
and she was so extravagant in money mat- 
ters that she frequently had to fly from her 
creditors. In her later years she took to 
drinking laudanum, the quantity she con- 
sumed being, says Wilkinson, " mcredible. 
Towards the end she became, physically, a 
wreck-a fact alluded to by Pasquin (q.y.) 
in his " poem," ' The Children of Thespis 
(1787). She left the London stage in 1781, and 
her last appearances were at York in 1783 
and Edinburgh in 1783-4. See, also, INIr.s. 
Baddeley's ' Memoirs ' (1781), Wilkinson s 
^ Wandering Patentee ' (1795), Gait's ' Lives 
oi the Players' (1831), Genest's 'English 
.Stage' (1832), Dutton Cook's 'Hours with 
ihe Players ' (1881), etc. 

Baddeley, W. St. Clair. Author of 
the following poetical dramas :—' George 
Villiers, Duke of Buckingham ' (1878), ' The 
Jlaughter of Jepthah' (1879), and 'John 
Dudley, Duke of Northumberland ' (1879). 

Badg-er, Squire. A character in 
Fielding's ' Don Quixote in England ' (q.v.). 
■Hee Squire Badger. 

Badoura. The heroine of Belling- 
« \M and Best's ' Prince Camaralzaman ' 
■iq.v.), and of H. J. BYRON'S 'Camaral- 
zaman' (q.v.). 

Badroulbadour, the Princess, figures in 
plays on the subject of ' Aladdin ' (g.v.). 

Bag- of Gold (The). A play, first per- 
formed at the Olympic Theatre, London, 
on June 27, 1852, with a cast including W. 
Farren, Diddear, Hoskins, Shalders, and 
Mrs. Walter Lacy. 

Bag-atelle. (I) The valet in J. 
O'Keefe's 'Poor Soldier' (q.v.). (2) A 
prima donna in FaRNIE's ' Loo ' (q.v.). 

Bag-g-s. (1) A steward, afterwards a 
money-lender, in Bayle Bernard's ' Far- 
mer's Story ' (q.v.). (2) A postman in B. Ber- 
nard's ' St. Mary's Eve ' (q.v.). (3) A clerk 
in Stirling Coyne's ' Wanted, 1000 Young 
Milliners' (q.v). (4) A character in Sulli- 
van's ' Beggar on Horseback' (q.v.). (5) The 
Great Baggs, in Albery's 'Apple Blossoms' 
iq.v.), is" "a travelling comic singer, who 
delights in practical jokes and slang wit- 

Bag-ot. A " creature" of ' Pvichard II.' 
in Shakespeare's play of that name. 

Bag-ot, A. Gr. Dramatic writer ; author 
of 'Which?' (1886) and 'The Widow' 
(1890) ; also co-author, with F. R. Bagot, 
of ' The Rubber of Life ' (1885). 

Bag-s, Jem. The "wandering min- 
strel " in H. Mayhew's farce of that name 
Bag-slia-w. A character in J. M. Mor- 

ton's ' Grimshaw, Bagshaw, andBradshaw* 

Bag-shot. A thief in Farquiiar's 
' Beaux' Stratagem ' (q.v.). (2) Baron Bag- 
shot, in Planche'S ' Puss in Boots ' (q.v.), ia 
" Great Grand Huntsman and Lord High 

Bailey, Abraham. Lawyer, and 
author of ' The Spightful Sister,' a comedy 

Bailey, Master, figures in E. Stir- 
ling's 'Martin Chuzzlewit' (q.v.). "The 
chaps calls me Old Bailey and Top Boots " 
(act i. sc. 5). 

Bailie (The) is a prominent figure in the 

' Cloches de Corneville' (q.v.). 

Bailie Nicol Jarvie. See Jarvie, 
Bailie Nicol. 

Bailiff (The). A comedietta in one act, 
bv Fred. W. Broughton, Theatre Royal, 
Bath, April 5, 1890 ; at the Royalty, London, 
in May, 1890 ; and at Toole's, London, in 
July, 1890. 

Baillie, Joanna. Dramatic writer and 
poet, born at Bothwell, Lanarkshire, 1762, 
died 1851 ; published the following :— ' A. 
Series of Plays,' including ' Count Basil,' 

• The Trya],' and ' De Montfort ' (1798) ; ' A 
Series of Plays,' including ' The Election,' 
' Ethwald,' and 'The Second Marriage' 
(1802) ; * Miscellaneous Plays,' including 

♦ Rayner,' ' The Country Inn,' and ' Con- 
stantine Paleologus ' (1804) ; ' The Family 
Legend ' (1810) ; ' A Series of Plays,' includ- 
ing ' Orra,' ' The Dream,' 'The Siege,' and 
' The Beacon ' (1812) ; ' The INIartyr ' (1826) ; 

' The Bride ' (1828) ; and ' Dramas,' includ- 1 
ing ' Romiero,' ' The Alienated Manor,' ' 
' Henriquez,' ' The Separation,' ' The Strip 
line;,' ' The Phantom,' ' Enthusiasm,' ' Witcl 
cralt,' ' The Homicide,' ' The Match,' ' Th^ 
Martyr,' and ' The Bride '—the two 
being reprints (1836). Of the above playg 
(all of which see), the following have been 
performed :— ' Constantino Paleologus ' (re^ 
christened ' Constantino and Valeria '), 
Montfort,' ' The Election,' ' The Familj 
Legend,' ' Hatred,' ' Henriquez,' and ' Sej 
ration,' all of which see. Miss Mitfor 
ascribed to IVIiss Baillie's tragedies 
boldness and grasp of mind, a tirmnes 
of hand, and resonance of cadence tt 
scarcely seem within the reach of a female 
writer'"' ('Recollections'). "Miss Baillie," 
wrote Hazlitt, "has much of the power and 
spirit of dramatic writing, and not the ' 
because, as a woman, she has been plac 
out of the vortex of philosophical an(j 
political extravagances." Sir Walter Scot 
spoke highly of the ' Plays on the Passions! 
(q.v.) ; and Byron, when he said that womaii 
could not write, excepted Miss Baillie. .^| 
complete edition of the plays (and poema 
was published in 1851 See Genestlj 
' English Stage.' vol. viii. (1832), the ' Anna 
Register' (1851), and the various biographic 
Baillie, Dr. John. Physician, diel| 




1743 ; author of ' The Married Coquet,' a 
comedy (1740). 

Baillie, Jolin. Scotch advocate ; 
author of ' The Patriot ' (1736). 

Bait, Lady. A character in Palmer's 
'Life' (q. v.). 

Bajazet. Sultan of Turkey in Rowe's 
•Tamerlane' (q.v.). (2) Apollo Bajazet is 
a character in J. B. Buckstone's ' Isa- 
belle' (q.v.). His prototype, the author ad- 
mits, is to be found in the Rosdgnol of Paul 
de Kock's novel, ' Andre le Savoyarde ' (q.v.). 

Baker. Actor ; at Bath in 1820, when he 
played Spatterdash in ' The Young Quaker ' 
(February 28), and Norfolk in 'Henry VIII.' 
(April 10). Of the latter impersonation, 
Genest says : "A ludicrous circumstance took 
place in the third act, when Baker had to 
say Ego et Ilex mens ; he pronounced mens as 
one syllable " ('The English Stage,' vol. ix ). 

Baker, Alexina {nee Fisher). Ameri- 
can acti-ess, born at Frankfort, Kentucky, 
in 1821 ; died at Philadelphia, 1887 ; ap- 
peared on the boards when a mere baby, 
and played the child in ' Pizarro ' when 
only fourteen. After an engagement at the 
Bowery, New York, she went to the Park 
Theatre in 1831, to play "lead." Leaving 
the city in 1840, she returned to it in 1850, 
and played comedy at the Old Broadway. 
After another interval of absence she was 
seen at Burton's Theatre in 1855, and in 1862 
she figured at the Winter Garden Theatre as 
Ophelia, Desdemona, etc. She was married 
to John Lewis Baker in 1851. 

Baker, Benj amin A. Actor, manager, 
and playwrighc, born at New York, 1818 ; 
made his debut as an actor in 1837 ; was 
engaged at the Olympic Tlieatre, New 
York, from 1829 to 1850 ; in 1851 became 
co-manager of the Harvard Athenaeum, 
Boston ; and afterwards managed several 
theatres in New York. He wrote the 
'Wretch,' 'Amy Lee ' (1843), ' New York in 
1848' (afterwards expanded into 'A Glance 
at New York,' q.v.), and also adapted ' Love 
and Murder' {q.v.) to the American 
See Brown's ' American Stage ' (1870). 

Baker, Betsy. See Betsy Baker. 

Baker, David Erskine. Born in 
London, 1730, died 1767 ; is best known as 
the author of the ' Companion to the Play- 
house/ {q.v.), published in 1764, and after- 
wards edited and republished under the 
title of ' Biographia Dramatica.' He also 
wrote a dramatic poem, ' The Muse of Os- 
sian' {q.v.), and translated from the Italian 
a comedy in two acts. ' The INIaid the Mis- 
tress' {q.v.). The 'Biogi-aphia Dramatica' 
(1782 and 1812) says that he was at one time 
in business as a silk-throwster, but failed. 
He is also said to have been a strolling 
player. See Nichols' 'Literary Anecdotes' 
(1812-15), ' Biographia Dramatica ' (1782 and 
1812), Watt's ' Bibliotheca Britannica' (1824), 
and the ' Dictionary of National Biography ' 

Baker, Henry Barton. Author of 
'Our Old Actors' (1878), 'The London 
Stage ' (1SS9), and various contributions to 
the magazines on theatrical subjects. 

Baker, Mrs. Theatrical manager ; Avas 
in early life a dancer, but afterwards owned 
theatres at Canterbury, Rochester, Maid- 
stone, Tunbridge Wells, Faversham, Deal, 
etc. See T. Dibdin's 'Memoirs' (1827), 
Grimaldi's ' Life ' (1838), and Dutton Cook's 
' Book of the Play ' (187o). 

Baker, Robert. Author of 'I]ie Mad 
House,' a burlesque ballad opeia (17S7). 

Baker, Thomas. Drpmatic A^^itor ;' 
author of ' The Humoui- ax' t,he Age ' (.17' a), 
'Tunbridge Walks' (1703),"' Act at" Oxford' 
(1704), ' Hampstead Heath ' (1706), and ' The 
F'ine Lady's Airs ' (1709). See ' Biographia 
Dramatica ' (1812). 

Bal Costume (Le). A farce played at 
the Olympia Theatre, New York, in 1845. 

Balaclava. A drama in three acts by 
J. B. {q.v.), Standard Theatre, 
London, June 10, 1S78. 

Balamira ; or, The Fall of Tunis. 
A tragedy by R. Siieil {q.v.), first per- 
formed at Covent Garden in 1818, with W. 
C. Macready as Amurath, and Young, C. 
Kenible, Terry, and Miss O'Neill in other 

Balance. (1) Justice Balance is father 
of Sylvia in Farquh.^r'S ' Recruiting 
Officer' {q.v.). (2) Mr. Counter Balance is 
a character in F. Hay's ' Chops of the 
Channel ' (q.v.). 

Balance of Comfort (The) ; or, To 
Marry or not to Marry P A "petite 
comedy " in two acts, by R. J. Raymond 
{q.v.), first performed at the Adelphi 
Theatre, London, in 1835, with Buckstone 
as Felix Fnsby, Webster as Pigeon, Vining 
as Frank Timewell, Miss Daly as Dorothij 
Dimple, Mrs. Honey as Mrs. Pigeon, etc. 
(2) 'The Balance of Comfort:' a "petite 
comedy" by Bayle Bernard {q.v.), first 
performed at the Hay market on November 
23, 1854, with Howe as Torrington, Miss 
Reynolds as Mrs. Torrington, and other 
parts by Rogers, Clark, Braid, Coe, Miss 
Grantham, and Miss E. Chaplin ; first per- 
formed at New York in 1855, with G. 
Jordan as Torrington; revived at the 
Haymarket in 1864. 

Balderdash, The Baron. A cha- 
racter in H. J. Byron's ' Cinderella' {q.v.}. 

Balderstone, Caleh, the old servant 
of Edgar of Ravenswood, figures in Pal- 
grave Simpson's ' Master of Ravenswood' 
{q.v.), J. W. Calcraft's 'Bride of Lam- 
mermoor' {q-v.), and H. C. IdERiVALE's 
' Ravenswood ' {q.v.). 

Bald-win. Tutor of Rollo and Otto in 
Beaumont and Fletcher's 'Bloody 
Brother' {q.v.). (2) Coiint Balduin, ia 



Southern's ' Isabella ; or, The Fatal Mar- 
riage' (q-v.), is the father of Biron {q.v.). 

Baldwin, Joseph. Actor, born in 
London, 1787 ; made his first appearance in 
America at New York, in April, 1816, as 
Sam in 'Raising the Wind.' He died in 
1820. Ireland says he " possessed consider- 
able merit as a low comedian" (' New York 
Stage '). 

Baldwin, Mrs. Cliarlotte. See Wal- 
STEiN, Mrs. 

Bale, Jolirif Sishop of Ossory, born 
Noveffber, 1^95, &.t Cove, Suffolk ; died 1563 ; 
was the author of the following dramatic 
'works, printed iu tne years named :— ' A 
Bi-efe Comedv ^r Enterlude of Johan 
Baptystts Ffe^chynge in the Wyldernesse, 
openynge the crafty Assaultes of the Hypo- 
crytes with the gloryouse Baptysme of the 
Lorde Jesus Christ ' (1538) ; ' A Tragedye or 
Enterlude, Manyfestyng the chefe promyses 
of God unto Man, in all ages of the olde 
lawe from the Fall of Adam to the Incarna- 
cyon of the Lorde Jesus Christ ' (1538) ; ' A 
Brefe Comedy or Enterlude, concernynge 
the temptacyon of our Lorde and Saver 
Jesus Christ by Sathan in the desart ' (1538) ; 
and ' New Comedy or Enterlude concern- 
ing the Three Lawes of Nature, Moses, 
and Christe, corrupted by the Sodoraytes, 
Pharisees, and Papystes' (1558). In his 
' Scriptorum illnstrium majoris Britanniae 
Catalogus' (1548-59), the bishop claims, 
further, to have written plays on the fol- 
lowing .subjects :— ' Of Christ when he was 
Twelve years old,' * Of Baptism and Tempta- 
tion,' ' Of Lazarus raised from the Dead,' 
' Of the Councells of Bishops,' ' Of Simon 
the Leper,' ' Of the Lord's Supper and 
washing the Feet,' 'Of the Passion of 
Chryst,' 'Of the Sepulture and Resurrec- 
tion,' ' Upon both Marriages of the King,' 
' Against Momus's and Zoilus's,' ' The Trea- 
cheries of the Papysts,' ' Against those who 
adulterate the W^ord of God,' ' Of John 
King of England,' 'Of the Impostures of 
Thomas Becket,' ' Corruptions of the Divine 
Laws,' and 'The Image of Love.' "His 
dramas," writes Bishop Creighton, "were 
moralities, or scriptural plays setting forth 
the reformed opinions and attacking the 
Roman party. . . . The plays of Bale are 
doggerel, and are totally wanting in de- 
corum." For biography, see ' The Vocacyon 
of Johan Bale to the Bishoprick of Ossorie ' 
(1553), the Memoir by the Rev. H. Christ- 
mas prefixed to the ' Select Works ' (1849), 
Cooper's ' Athenee Cantabrigienses' (1858-61), 
' Dictionary of National Biogi-aphy ' (1885). 

Bale, Mr. A merchant in R. T. 
Weaver's ' Red Rover.' 

Balfe, Michael "William- Musical 
composer and vocalist, born at Dublin, May, 
3808; died October, 1870; "composed, at 
ten years old, a ballad afterwards sung by 
Mdme. Yestris in the comedy of 'Paul 
Pry,' under the title of ' The Lover's Mis- 
take,' "and while in his teens was employed 
in the orchestra at Drury Lane ; made his 
debut as a singer (baritone) at the Norwich 

Theatre, as Caspar, in ' Der Freischutz' 
(about 1826), afterwards studying singuig 
abroad. His first opera (' I Rivali di se 
stessi ') was performed at Palermo in 1830. 
In 1835 he sang at concerts in London, and 
in the same year produced there his first 
English opera, 'The Siege of Rochelle" 
(q.v.). The following is a chronological list 
of the operas produced by him in London 
after this date:— 'The ISIaid of Artois" 
(1836), 'Catherine Grey '(1837), 'Joan of 
Arc,' in which he appeared as Theodore 
(1837), 'Diadeste' (1838;, 'Falstaff' (1838), 
'Keolanthe' (1840), 'The Bohemian Girl' 
(1843), ' The Daughter of St. INIark ' (1844), 
'The Enchantress' (1S44), 'The Bondman' 
(1846), ' The Maid of Honour ' (1847), ' Tlie 
Sicilian Bride' (1852), 'The Devil's in it' 
(1852), ' The Rose of Castile ' (1857), ' Sata- 
nella' (1858), ' Bianca ' (1860), ' The Puritan's 
Daughter ' (1861), ' The Armourer of Nantes ' 
(1863), and ' Blanche de Nevers ' (1863). ' II 
Talismano ' (q. v.) was brought out in London 
in 1874.' Balfe wrote, also, ' The Sleeping 
Queen,' an operetta (q.v.). He was in the 
original cast of John Barnett's 'Farinelli' 
(q.v.). Early in life he married Mdlle. Lina 
Rosa, already well known on the Continent 
as an operatic vocalist. In August, 1839, 
Mdme. Balfe (under her husband's manage- 
ment) made lier English debut at the Ly- 
ceum as Auiina in ' La Sonnambula,'and in 
March, 1846, she figured at the same theatre 
as the heroine of her husband's ' Keolanthe' 
(q.v.). Balfe's second daughter, Yictoire 
(successively Lady Crampton and Duchess 
de Frias), had many successes as a prima 
donna in Italian opera, both in London and 
on the Continent, between 1S57 and 1860. 
See Kenney's ' Life of Balfe ' (1865), Barrett's 
'Balfe and his Works' (1832), 'Dictionary 
of Music and Musicians '(1879), 'Dictionary 
of National Biography ' (1885). 

Balfour of Burley, John, figures in 
Farley's ' Battle of Bothwell Brigg,' and in 
W^ESTLAND Marston's ' Strathmore ' (q.v.). 

Ball, Edmund. Author of ' The Beauti- 
ful Armenian,' a comedy (1778) ; " probably 
also," says the 'Biographia Dramatica, 
"the author of 'A Bloody Plot Discovered,'^ 
a trageQy(i780). 

Ball, Edward. See Fitzball, Ee 


Ball, Lewis. Actor, born at Builtl 
South Wales, October 31, 1820 ; appeared 
as a child, with Miss F. H. Kelly, Aldridgt 
and Mdme. Celeste ; was trained, as a youth 
under S. Butler, R. Roxby, Charles Rice 
and Prince Miller; and played Touchston^^ 
to INIiss Faucit's Eosalind, Mawwonn to W. 
Farren's Dr. Cantwell, and Pistol with 
G. Y. Brooke. In August, 1852, he opened 
at Sadler's Wells (under Phelps) as the 
original Matthew Fagi in Daly's 'Young 
Husbands.' and afterwards played such 
parts as Flvellen in ' Henry Y.,' Gruviio in 
' The Taming of the Shrew,' and Costard io' 
' Love's Labour's Lost.' In June, 1858, he 
began an engagement at the Olympic, 
during which, with other things, ht 




*' created" Mr. Breezely in Wooler's 'Twice- 
Told Tale,' and Mr. Dotts in Williams's ' I've 
Avrittento Browne;' stilUater, at the Mary- 
lebone, he played Jack Shcppard to Tom 
Robertson's Blueslcin. After this came a 
second engagement at Sadler's Wells, and 
various provincial tours and stock seasons, 
previous to joining, in 1881, Edward Comp- 
ton's comedy company, in connection with 
which Lewis Ball has played Sir Toby Belch, 
Dogberry, Adam, Sir George Thunder, Sir 
Robert Bramble, Job Thornberry, old DoiTi- 
ton, Dan Doivlas, Ilardcastle, Tom Noddy, 
Sir Anthony Absolute, Sir Peter Teazle, and 
Graves, besides " creating " t/oAn Middleton 
in ' True Love '(^.v.), Morgan Evans in ' The 
Actor' (q.v.), and Israel Jones in 'The May- 
flower' (1892). 

, Ball (The). A comedy in five acts, by 
Gkorge Chapman (q.v.) and James Shirley 

' (q.v.), licensed in 16o2, acted " at the private 
house in Drury Lane," and printed in 1639. 
*' Sir Ambrose Lamount, Sir Marmadiike 
Travcrs, Mr. Bostocke, and Colonel Winfield 
are suitors to Lady Lucina, who is a rich 
widow. She jeers them all, and at last 
marries the Colonel. The piece concludes 
with a ball " (Genest). 

Balladino, Antonio, " pageant poet " 
to the City of Milan, in JoNSON's ' The 
Case is Altered' (q-v.), is a caricature por- 
trait of Anthony Munday, the dramatist 
(q.v.), who was "poet" to the City of 
London, and for many years directed the 
pageants which took place on festivals and 

Ballad-Mong-er (The). A romantic 
play in one act, adapted by Sir Walter 
Besant and Walter H. Pollock, from 
Theodore de Banville's ' Gringoire' ((/.r.), and 
first performed at the Haymarket Theatre, 
London, September 15, 1887, with H. Becr- 
bohm Tree as Gringoire, C. H. Brookfield as 
King Louis, C. Allan as Olivier, Stewart 
Dawson as Simon, and Miss Marion Terry 
as Loyse ; first performed in America at 
Abbey's Theatre, New York, January 28, 
1895. See ' Henry IV.,' Pt. I., act iii. sc. 1 : 
*' These same ballad-mongers." 

Ballad- Sing-er (The). A musical 
comedy-drama in three acts, by To:m 
Craven (q.v.). Gaiety Theatre, Hastings, 
July 16, 1891 ; Elephant and Castle Theatre, 
London, March 13, 1893. 

Ballet is a character in Planch^'S 
' Camp at the Olympic ' {q.v.). 

Ballet (The) belongs to the sphere of 
music rather than to that of drama. On the 
English stage it has taken two forms ; it has 
figured as a species of appendage to operatic 
representations, or it has been a separate item 
in performances mainly dramatic. In the 
latter case it has dealt pantomimically as 
well as musically with some more or less in- 
telligible story. It is, in fact, as musical 
pantomime that the ballet has been most 
familiar to English playgoers. As such, it 
has called for occasional record in this 
volume, only the most notable examples 

being mentioned. Of late years, in London, 
the ballet d'action has been confined almost 
wholly to the " variety" houses, its connec- 
tion with the drama becoming proportion- 
ately distant. See Button Cook's ' Book of 
the Play ' and ' On the Stage ; ' also, Grove's 
• Dictionary of Music' 

Balloon (The). A farcical comedy by 
J. H. Darnley {q.v.) and G. Manville 
Fenn {q.v.), first performed at Terry's Thea- 
tre, London, on the afternoon of November 
13, 1S88, with Charles Glenney as Dr. Glynn, 
Charles Groves as Aubrey Fitzjohn, Forbes 
Dawson as Caj^tain Cameron, Sam Whit- 
taker as David, Miss Florence Wood as 
Grace Wentivorth, Miss Gabrielle Goldney 
as Miss Vere, and Miss S. Vaughan as Mrs. 
Rippendale ; revived at the Strand Theatre, 
London, in February, 1889, with George 
Giddens as the doctor, Alfred Maltby as 
Fitzjohn, Miss E. Terriss as Grace, Miss Rose 
Saker as Mrs. Rippendale, and Forbes Daw- 
son and Miss Goldney in their original parts ; 
first performed in America in September, 
1889, with a cast including W. H. Crane and 
Harry Braham. 

Balloonacy; or, A Flig-ht of 
Fancy. An extravaganza, words by F. C. 
Blrnand {q.v.) and H. P. Stephens {q.v.), 
music by E. Solomon, first performed at 
the Royalty Theatre, London, on December 
1, 1879, with a cast including Charles Groves, 
Philip Day, H. Saker, P. Desmond, Miss 
Amalia, Miss M. Williams, and Miss Edith 

Balls, J. S. Actor, born in England, 
1799 ; first appeared in London in 1829, as 
Fickle in 'The Hunchback,' and at New 
York in 1835, as Vapid in 'The Dramatist.' 
He left America for England in 1840, and 
died at Dublin in 1844. 

Balthazar. (1) A merchant in 'The 
Comedy of Errors' {q.v.). (2) The name 
adopted by Portia in ' The Merchant of 
Venice' {qv.). (3) Servant to Romeo in 
'Romeo and Juliet' {q-v.). (4) Servant to 
Don Pedro in ' INIuch Ado about Nothing.' 
(5) Father of Juliana, Volante, and Zamora 
in TOBiN's ' Honeymoon ' {q.v.). 

Baltimore, U.S.A. The Adelphi 
Theatre was erected in 1830 for Booth and 
Duff, but, says J. N. Ireland, " in conse- 
quence of its poor location, it soon gained 
the unenviable title of the INIud Theatre." 
It was opened with a performance of ' Isa- 
bella,' with J. R. Duff and Mrs. Duflf in the 
chief roles. About 1831 it was leased by 
the elder Booth. 

Balurdo. A character in Marston's 
' Antonio's Revenge ' {q.v.). 

Bambini, The Marquis- A character 
in ' La Fille du Tambour Major ' {q.v.). 

Bamhoozilus. A railway director in 
Tom Taylor's ' Diogenes and his Lantern ' 


Bamboozle, Frank. See Bam- 



Bamboozling-. A farce by T. Egkrton 
AViJ.KS, first performed at the Olvnipic 
Theatre, London, on May 16, 1842, with J. 
S. Balls as Frank Bamboozle, A. Yoiinge as 
Sir Marmaduke Meadows, Romer as Doiley, 
and Miss Daly as Emily ; first performed at 
New York in March, 1844, with Barry as 
Bamboozle, and revived there in December, 
1850, with Brougham in the cast. In this 
piece " a young married lady unexpectedly 
meets her' uncle at an hotel, and, in order 
to explain her husband's absence, prevails 
upon a stranger to take his place for half 
an hour." 

Bampfylde Moore Carew; or, 
The Gypsey of The Glen. A romantic 
melodrama in three acts, performed at the 
Surrey Theatre, with Rayner in the title 
part, and Dibdin, Pitt, Vale, Almar, Asbury, 
and Osbaldiston (the Gypsey) in other parts. 

Bancroft, John. Dramatic wi-iter, 
died 1696 ; author of ' Sertorius,' a tragedy 
(1678-9). Two other plays—' King Edward 
the Third ' (1691) and 'Henry the Second, King 
of England ' (1692), both of which see— are 
ascribed to him by different authorities. 
Both are to be found in ' Six Plays written 
by Mr. ^Mountfort ' (1720). See Langbaine's 
' English Dramatic Poets ' (1691), ' Biographia 
Dramatica ' (1S12), and Genest's ' English 
Stage ' (1830). 

Bancroft, Squire Bancroft. Actor 
and theatrical manager ; born in Surrey, 
May 14, 1841 ; began his professional career 
at the Theatre Royal, Birmingham, in 
January, 1861. his first role being that of 
Lieutenant Manly in Bayle Bernard's 
* St. Mary's Eve' {q.v.). From Birmingham 
(whence he paid short professional visits to 
Cork and Devonport) he went successively 
to Dublin and to Liverpool, where (in ' Court 
Favour ') he acted for the first time with his 
future wife, Miss ^Marie Wilton. During the 
four years and four months covered by his 
provincial experience, he played no fewer 
than three hundred and forty-six parts, a 
complete list of which is given in the Theatre 
magazine for AugTist, 1SS8. When Miss 
Wilton became manageress of the Prince of 
Wales's Theatre, London, she engaged S. B. 
Bancroft, who made his London debut there 
on April 15, 1S65, in Wooler's ' A Winning 
Hazard '(r?.r.). At this theatre he "created" 
also the following parts : — Mark in P. Simp- 
son's 'A Fair Pretender' (1S65), Captain 
Thistleton in Byron's ' War to the Knife ' 
(18Qo), Sidney Daryl in Robertson's • Society ' 
(1865), Gerald Goodwin in Byron's '£100,000' 
(1866), Annus Macalister in Robertson's 
•Ours' (1866), Captain Haivtree in Robert- 
sou's 'caste' (1867), John Smith in Gil- 
bert's ' Allow me to Explain ' (1S67), Beecher 
Sprau-ley in Boucicault's 'How She Loves 
Him '(1867), the Chevalier Browne in Robert- 
son's 'Play' (1868), Mortimer Wedgwood in 
Yates's 'Tame Cats ' (1868), J'ftcA: Poyntz in 
Robertsons 'School' (1869), Talbot Piers 
in Robertson's ' M.P.' (1870). 3/ n Speedwell 
in Collius's 'Man and Wife' (1873), Bob 

Blewitt in Byron's 'Wrinkles' (1876), Sir 
George Ormond in Scott and Stephenson's 
'Peril' (1876), and Count Orloff in Scott 
and. Stephenson's ' Diplomacy ' (1878). He 
was also seen at the Prince of Wales's in the 
following roles :—Tom Stylus in ' Society ' 
(1868), Hugh Chalcot in 'Ours' (1870), 
Sir Frederick Blount in 'Money' (1872), 
Joseph Surface in ' The School for Scandal' 
(1874), the Prince of Morocco in ' The Mer- 
chant of Venice ' (1875), Mr. Honeyton in ' A 
Happy Pair ' (1875), Triplet in ' Masks and 
Faces' (1875), Dazzle in ' London Assurance * 
(1877), SindBlenkinsop in ' An Unequal Match' 
(1877). After his marriage with Miss Marie 
Wilton (1868), S. B. Bancroft became co 
manager with her of the Prince of W'ales's 
Theatre, which they vacated in 1879, to 
undertake the control of the Haymarket. 
At the latter theatre he created Lord Henry 
Trevene in Sardou's ' Odette ' (1882), Jean 
de Siriex in Sardou's ' Fedora ' (1883), and 
Tom Jervoise in Pinero's ' Lords and Com- 
mons ' (1883) : he was also seen there as 
Harry Sjireadbrow in 'Sweethearts' (1879), 
George Clarke in 'The Vicarage' (1880), 
Fouche'm T. Taylor's 'Plot and Passion' 
(1881), Tom Dexter in Taylor's 'Overland 
Route ' (1882), Dr. Thornton in ' Peril' (1884), 
Faulkland in ' The Rivals ' (1884), and Henry 
Beauclerc in ' Diplomacy ' (1SS4). In 1889 he 
was induced to return to the stage, to play 
the Abbe Latour in a revival of Watts 
Phillips's 'Dead Heart' at the Lyceum, 
In 1*93 he reappeared at the Garrick 
Theatre, London, as Count Orloff in 'Diplo- 
macy.' and in 1S94 (for a benefit) as G. Clarke 
in ' The Vicarage ' {q.v.). In 1897 he received 
the honour of knighthood. See ' Mr. and 
Mrs. Bancroft on and off the Stage' (1888) 
and 'Actors and Actresses' (New York, 

Bancroft, Lady [Marie Effie Wilton]. 
Actress ; daughter of Robert Pleydell 
Wilton ; born at Doncaster about 1840 ; 
played children's parts, first on the Norwich 
circuit, next at Manchester (where she ap- 
peared as Mamillius in ' The Winter's Tale,* 
Hymen in ' As You Like It,' Flea nee in ' Mac- 
beth,' and Arthur in ' King John,' etc.), and 
afterwards on the Bristol and Bath circuit. 
Her London debut was made at the Lyceum 
Theatre on September 15, 1856, as Henri, the 
boy in ' Belphegor,' and Perdita in W. 
Brough's burlesque so named {q.v.). She 
was engaged successively at the Havmarket 
(1857), the Adelphi (1857-8), and the Strand 
(1858-64), with occasional appearances else- 
where. In April, 1865, she became co-lessee 
and manager, with H. J. Byron, of the Prince 
of Wales's (formerly the Queen's) Theatre, 
London. In April, 1867, Byron retired, and 
in the following year (December 28), Miss 
Wilton married Squire Bancroft Bancroft 
iq.v.). She and her husband remained 
managers of the theatre till 1879, when they 
left it to become, in January, 1880, managers 
of the Haymarket. Here they continued 
till July, 1885, when they retired from 
management. Mrs. Bancroft has " created " 
(besides Brough's Perdita) the followins; 




parts :— At the Lyceum : Serena in "\V. 
Brough's 'Conrad and Medora' (1856), and 
Lemondrop in 'My Friend from Leather- 
head ' (1857). At the Haymarket : Cupid in 
F. Talfourd's 'Atalanta' (1857). At the 
Adelphi : Cttpid in ' Cupid and Psyche ' 
(1857). At the Strand : Pep2)0 in H. J. 
Byron's ' Maid and the Magpie ' (1858), Jia- 
leigh in Halliday's ' Kenilworth ' (1858), 
Juliet in Halliday's 'Romeo and Juliet' 
(1859), Albert in F. Talfourd's ' Tell ' (1859), 
Karl in Byron and Talfourd's ' Miller and 
his Men' "(1860), Aladdin in Byron's bur- 
lesque (1861), Gringoire in Byron's ' Esme- 
ralda' (1861), Myles-na-Copjmlecn in Byron's 
«iMiss Eily O'Connor' (1861). At the St. 
James's : Genrdie in Brough's ' Great Sen- 
sation Trial ' (1864). At the Strand : Orpheus 
in Byron's 'Orpheus and Eurydice' (1863), 
Florence in Troughton's ' Unlimited Confi- 
dence' (1864), Mazourka in Byron's burlesque 
(1864). At the Prince of Wales's : Alessio in 
Byron's 'La! Sonnambula' (1865), Susanna 
in P. Simpson's • A Fair Pretender ' (1865), 
Mrs. Detacowr in Byron's 'War to the Knife' 
(1865), Edgar in Byron's ' Lucia di Lammer- 
moor' (1865), Maud Hetherington in Robert- 
son's ' Society ' (1865), Little Don Giovanni 
in Byron's burlesque (1865), Alice Barlow in 
Byron's '£100,000' (1866), Marg l^e.tley in 
Robertson's 'Ours' (1866), Polly Eccles in 
Robertson's ' Caste ' (1867), Atalanta 
Cruiser in Boucicault's 'How She Loves 
Him' (1867), liosie Fanquehere in Ro- 
bertson's ' Play ' (1868), Mrs. Langley in 
Yates's 'Tame Cats' (1868), Naomi Tighe in 
Robertson's 'School' (1S69). Cecilia Duns- 
combe in Robertson's ' JNLP.' (1870), Blanche 
Lundie in Wilkie Collins's 'Man and Wife' 
(1873), Jenny Northcott in W. S. Gilbert's 
'Sweethearts' (1874), Winifred Piper in 
Byron's ' Wrinkles ' (1876), Mrs. Uaygarth in 
C. Scott's ' Vicarage ' (1877), and the Countess 
ZicJca in Scott and Stephenson's ' Diplomacy ' 
(1878). At the Haymarket : Kate Reeve in 
Burnand's 'Lesson' (1881), Lady Walker in 
Sardou's ' Odette ' (1S82), the Countess Olga 
Soukareff in Sardou's 'Fedora' (1883), and 
Miss Maplebeck in Pinero's ' Lords and Com- 
mons ' (1883). She has also represented the 
following :— At the Lyceum : Virginia in 
Knowles's play (1857). At the Strand : 
Carlo in 'Asmodeus' (1858), Gertrude in 
'The Little Treasure' (1858), and Inicy 
Merton in Planche's 'Court Favour' (1858). 
At the Prince of Wales's : Georgina Vesey 
in Lytton's 'Money' (1872), Lady Teazle 
(1874), Lady Franklin in Lytton's ' Money ' 
(1875), Peg Woffington in Reade's 'Masks 
and Faces '(1875), Pert in Boucicault's ' Lon- 
don Assurance ' (1877), Hester Grazebrook in 
T. Taylor's ' Unequal Match ' (1877), Nan in 
Buckstone's ' Good for Nothing ' (1879). At 
the Haymarket : Mrs. Sebright in T. Taylor's 
'Overland Route' (1882), and Lady Henry 
Fairfax in Scott and Stephenson's ' Diplo- 
macy' (1884). She reappeared in the last- 
named part at the Garrick Theatre, London, 
in 1893, and in 1894 she reappeared at an 
afternoon performance as Mrs. Heygarth in 
The Vicarage' {q.v.). See 'Mr. and Mrs. 
Bancroft on and off the Stage, written by 

Themselves' (1888), 'Actors and Actresses' 
(New York, 1886), and the Cenii^??/ magazine 
for January, 1881. Lady Banci-oft is the 
author of three dramatic pieces : ' A River- 
side Story '(1890), ' My Daughter,' an adapta- 
tion (1692), and ' A Dream ' (1903). 

Band, Cuff, and Ruff; A Merry 
Dialog-ue between. " Done by an ex- 
cellent wit, and lately acted in a shew ; " 
printed in 1615. On the title-page of the 
second edition same year, the dialogue is 
entitled ' Exchange Ware at tlae Second 
Hand,' and the " shew" is .said to have taken 
place "in the famous universitie of Cam- 

Bandanna, Mrs. A character in A. 
WiGAN's 'Loan of a Wife '(g. v.). 

Bandit (The). See Edwin and Ange- 

Bandit King- (The). A melodrama in 
five acts, first played in America, with Miss 
Marie Hillforde as Kobemah; produced at 
the Queen's Theatre, Manchester, September 
16, 1895 ; at the Pavilion Theatre, London, 
December 2, 1895. 

Bandit Merchant (The). See Maid 
OF Genoa. 

Bandit of the Blind Mine (The). 
A play by H. M. Milnkr (r/.i'.), performed 
at the Bowery Theatre, New York, in 1845-6, 
with Gary and Blanchard in the cast. 

Banditti (The) ; or, A Lady's Dis- 
tress. A play by T. DURFEY (^q.v.), licensed 
in March, 1685-6, and acted at the Theatre 
Hoyal, with Kynaston as Don Antonio, 
Williams as Don Fernand, Mrs. Bai'rer as 
Lawra, James Nokes as Megxra, and 
Griffin as Leon. The " lady " is Latvra, who, 
being suspected by Antonio of an intrigue 
with Fernand, seeks refuge with Megcera. 
Megcera's husband, Leon, leader of the 
banditti, is about to ravish Lawra, when 
she is saved by Fernand. Ultimately 
Antonio and Laivra are reunited. Part of 
the plot is taken from Shirley's ' Sisters.' 
See Catcall, Sir Critic. (2) 'The Ban- 
ditti ; or. Love's Labyrinth : ' a comic opera, 
words by John O'Keefe, music by Dr. 
Arnold ; acted at Co vent Garden on October 
27, 1781, and condemned at the first perform- 
ance. Altered and re-entitled ' Tlie Castle 
of Andalusia,' it was brought out at Covent 
Garden on November 2, 1782, with Mattocks 
as Ferdinando, Edwin as Pedrillo, Quick as 
Spado, and Miss Harper as Victoria, and 
was highly successful. It was afterwards 
again altered by the author, and revived at 
Covent Garden in 1788, 1799, and 1826. Also 
at the Haymarket on July 6, 1884, and at 
the same theatre (for a " run ") on September 
18, 1894, with a cast including Weiss, Buck- 
stone, Compton, Chippendale, W. Farren, 
Louise Keeley, etc. The humours of the 
piece consist mainly in Ferdinando's 
changing position and clothes with his ser- 
vant PcrfnWo. He is in love with Victoria, 
Spado is one of the banditti. 




Bandmann, Daniel Edward. 

Actor, born at Cassel, Germany ; made his 
professional debut, at the age of eighteen, at 
the Court Theatre of New Strehtz. After 
considerable experience on the Continent, 
he acted for the first time in English on 
January 15, 1S63, at Niblo's Garden, New 
York, sustaining the role of Shylock. In 
September of the same year he appeared at 
the same theatre as Narcisse (q.v.) in an 
adaptation from the German. He remained 
in the States for a few years, during which 
he played Hamlet and various other leading 
Q-oles. His first appearance in England was 
made at the Lyceum Theatre, London, on 
February 17, 1S6S, as Narcisse. He next 
"created" the part of Vijvycm in Lord 
Lytton's ' Rightful Heir ' (Lyceum, October 
3. 1868), and was afterward seen as Othello 
(Lyceum, November 30, 1S6S). A visit to 
Australia (1869) was followed by a tour in 
the United States (1870-1), and by a second 
visit to London (June, 1871), where, in July, 
1872, he appeared as De Maurienne in Tom 
Taylor's 'iJead or Alive' (,q.v.). After a 
series of Shakesperean performances in the 
English provinces came, in February, 1873, 
some appearances as Hamlet at the Princess's 
Theatre, London. In March, 1888, D. E. 
Bandmann was seen as Br. Jelajll and Mr. 
Hyde at Niblo's Garden, in an adaptation of 
Stevenson's story {q.v.) made by himself— a 
piece which he produced at the Opera 
Comique, London, in the following August, 
assuming the aforesaid dual role. In ad- 
dition to this piece, the following plays 
by D. E. Bandmann have been performed 
in England :— ' Only a Player '(1873). 'Tom's 
Revenge' (1874), 'The Cross and tlie Cres- 
cent ' (1876), ' ]Madeline Morel ' (1878), and 
* Marie Jeanne ' (1879). 

Bandmann -Palmer, Mrs. [Milly 
Palmer]. Actress, born at Lancaster ; made 
her professional dehut at Liverpool when 
fourteen years of age, her first appearance 
in London taking place at the Strand Thea- 
tre in November, 1864, w^hen she figured as 
Pauline, in ' Delicate Ground ' {q.v.). At the 
Strand she remained till the end of the 
1864-5 season, among the parts "created" 
by her being those of Mrs. Bubble in Craven's 
"One Tree Hill' {q.v.), Laura Goodman in 
Parselle"s ' Cross Purposes * {q.v.), and Eva 
in Wooler's 'Laurence's Love Suit' {q.v.). 
In October, 1866, at the Olympic, she was 
the first i-epresentative of Grace Dtmjer in 
Tom Taylor's play, 'The Whiteboy' {q.v.), 
and in December of the same year she played 
Grace Harkaway at the same theatre. At 
the Lyceum, in November, 1867, she appeared 
as Juliet to Mdlle. Vestvali's Eoraeo ; in 
February, 1868, as Doris Quinault in ' Nar- 
cisse ' {q.v.) ; and in October, 1868, as the 
original Eveline in Lord Lytton's ' Rightful 
Heir' {q.v.). In February, 1869, she married 
Daniel E. Bandmann {q.v.), with whom she 
toured (in 1869) in Australia and (in 1870-1) 
in the United States, appearing as Beatrice, 
Portia, Pauline ('Lady of Lyons'), etc. 
Her London rentree was made in July, 1872, 
at the Queen's Theatre. In February, 1873, 

she played Lady Macbeth at the Princess's 
In the course of subsequent tours in tht 
English provinces, Mrs. Bandmann imper 
sonated Ophelia, Desdemona, Mrs. Haller 
and Lady Teazle. In April, 1878, at th 
Adelphi, she was the original Valentine u 
'Proof {q.v.). She afterwards revisitei 
America. Sent to Germany, by-and-bv, fo 
the benefit of her health, she learned th 
language, and in December, 1886, playe^ 
Lady Teazle in German at the Residen 
Theatre, Dresden. Returning to Englan 
in 1888, she reappeared at the Olympii 
London, on May 3, as Lady Macbeth to th 
Macbeth of E. S. Willard. In 1889 st 
added to her repertory the "Mary Stuart 
of Schiller, and in April of the 'followir 
year played the title part at the Gran 
Theatre, Islington. In 1892 she appearfj 
for the first time as Hamlet, a role which si; 
has since performed very frequently both :j 
London and in the English provinces. SI 
has adapted to the English stage (1892) tl! 
' Catherine Howard' {q.v.) of Victor Hugo.' 

Bane, Allan. An old minstrel in t 
drama of ' The Lady of the Lake ' {q.v.). 

Bang-. (1) Dr. Bang is a character in : 
M. Morton's 'Englishman's House is li 
Castle' {q.v.). (2) M. Etocle Bang figui: 
in C. S. Cheltnam's 'Slowtop's Enga^ 

Bang-s, Francis C. Actor, born 
Virginia, 1837; made his dibut at Washii 
ton in 1852 ; first appeared in New York 
1858 at Laura Keene's Theatre ; was engaj 
at AVallack's in 1858-9, and at the Win 
Garden in 1860. He reappeared at Wa 
ington in 1865, and at New York in 1868 
Old Tom in ' After Dark '). In 1869 he pla; . 
Ham Peggotty in 'Little Em'ly ' at Nibl , 
and the Duke of Alva in ' Patrie ' at the Gn . 
Opera House, New York. Among his ot 
parts may be mentioned Antony, Sarda ■ 
2)alus, and Dan'l Druce. 

Bang-les, Joe. A character in G • 
BERT'S ' Randall's Thumb ' {q.v.). 

Banim, John. Novelist, born 1 , 
died 1842 ; wrote several dramatic piec : 
' Sylla ' (1826), 'The Sergeant's Wife' (IJ I, 
'Damon and Pythias,' ' The Prodigal,' 1 
' Turgesius,' all of which see. See, also, s 
' Life ' by Murray (1857). 

Banished Duke (The) ; or, ^ e 
Trag-edy of Infortunatus. A polil d 
pamphlet, written in dramatic form, d 
published in 1690. It is directed aga A 
James II., who figures as Romanus. Inft i- 
natus is the Duke of Monmouth, and Pai w 
the queen. According to the ' Biogra ia 
Dramatica,' the piece was acted " at le 
Theatre Royal " in the above-named j r. 
See Abdicated Prince, The. 

Banished Star (The). A corned :>}' 
J. B. BUCKSTONE {q.v.), produced at v.- 
York in December, 1840, with Mrs. .z- 
William as Mdlle. Fanny Nonparei in 
which character she gave imitations of : li- 
bran and Rubini. 



Banishinent of Cicero (The). A 
tragedy by Richard Cumberland (q.v.), 
printed in 1761, but not acted. " Clodia," sa,ya 
Genest, " is in love with Frugi. He is in love 
■with Tullia, the daughter of Cicero. He 
rejects the solicitations of Clodia. She 
instigates Clodius, who is her brother, to 
kill Frugi. Clodius kills Volumnius, think- 
ing him to be Frugi. Clodia stabs herself. 
Frugi is killed fighting. Clodius says of 

• Be it my task to cast this exile forth.' " 

See the ' Biographia Dramatica.' 

Banister, John. Musical composer, 
born 1630, died 1679 ; wrote music to Dr. C. 
Davenant's tragedy of ' Circe ' (1676) and (in 
conjunction with Pelham Humphrey) to 
'The Tempest '(1676). 

Banister, Rev. James, published the 
following translations from Euripides :— 
'Iphigenia in Aulis,' 'Orestes,' 'Ph^nissiE,' 
and ' Troades,' all in 1780. 

Bank-Note, The; or, Lessons for 
Ladies. See Artful Husband, The. 

Banker (The). An adaptation by 
J. SCHONBERG {q.v.) of Miss Braddon's 
novel, ' Henry Dunbar ' {q.v.), produced at 
New York in June, 1S90. 

Banker of Rouen, The. A play pro- 
duced at the Lafayette Theatre, New York, 
in November, 1826, with Maywood and 
Walstein in the cast. 

Banker's Daug-hter, The. (1) A 
drama by W. C. Foster, produced at North 
Shields, May 24, 1876. (2) A comedy by 
Bronson Howard {q.v.), first performed 
at the Union Square Theatre, New York, 
in 1878, with Charles Thorne in the chief 
male part. Miss Sara Jewett in the title 
role. Miss Maud Harrison as Mrs. Broion, 
J. B. Polk as Washington Philips, W. T. Le 
Moyne. In the following year it was 
adapted by J. Albery (^j.^^'to the English 
stage, and produced in London as 'The Old 
Love and the New' {q.v.). 

Banker's Wife (The). A play pro- 
duced at the Broadway Theatre, New York, 
in May, 1852, with Miss Cushman as 

Bankrupt (The). (1) A comedy in three 
acts, by Samuel Foote, first performed at 
the Haymarket Theatre, London, on July 21, 
1773, with a cast including the author as Sir 
Robert Riscounter, J. Aikin, Mrs. Williams, 
Mrs. Jewell, Miss Ambrose, Lamash, and 
other actors as Margin, Pillage, and Re- 
source. The threatened bankruptcy of Sir 
Robert— saXa to have been suggested by a 
contemporary incident in commercial circles 
—is not a leading feature of the piece, but 
brings in Pillage and Resource, whose advice 
is invited but rejected by Sir Robert. Margin 
is a printer. (2) A domestic drama pro- 
duced at the Broadway Theatre, New York, 
in December, 1855, with C. Fisher and W. A. 
Chapman in the cast. 

Bankruptcy. The title given to an 
American adaptation of Bjornson'S play, 
' En FaUit.' 

Banks, Georg-e Linnaeus. Miscel- 
laneous writer, born 1821, died 1881; wrote 
two dramas— 'The Swiss Father ' (in which 
Creswick appeared) and 'The Slave King' 
(for Ira Aldridge) ; also, two burlesques— 
*01d Maids and Mustard' and 'Ye Doleful 
Wives of Windsor'— and a volume entitled 
'All About Shakspere' (1864). See 'Die 
tionary of National Biography ' (1885). 

Banks, John. Dramatic writer, born 
about 1650 ; was a member of the New Inn ; 
and wrote the following five-act tragedies— 
' The Rival Kings ' (1677), ' The Destruction 
of Troy' (1678), 'The Unhappy Favourite' 
(1682), 'The Innocent Usurper' (1683), 'The 
Island Queens' ['Albion Queens'] (1684), 
' Virtue Betrayed ' (1692), and ' Cyrus the 
Great ' (1696) — all of which see. See Cibber's 
' Apology ' (1740) and Genest's ' English 
Stage ' (1832). 

Banks of Allan "Water, The. See 
Barnett, C. Z. 

Banks of Killarney, The. See Eily 

Banner. A character in Buckstone's 
'Two Queens' {q.v.). 

Bannian Day. A musical entertain- 
ment in two acts, words by George 
Brewer, music by S. Arnold ; first per- 
formed at the Theatre Royal, Haymarket, on 
June 11, 1796, with a cast including Fawcett 
{Batch), Suett {Bobby .Notice), and Mrs. 

Bannister, Charles. Actor and 
vocalist ; father of John Bannister ; born in 
Gloucestershire in 1738, died 1804 ; after 
some experience as an amateur, made his 
professional debut on the Norwich circuit, 
and his first appearance in London in 1762, 
as ]Vill in ' The Orators,' at the Haymarket 
{q.v.). There he distinguished himself as 
an imitator of Tenducci and other singers. 
After singing at Ranelagh and elsewhere, 
he appeared at Drury Lane in 1767, going 
thence to Covent Garden in 1782, returning 
to Drury Lane in 1785, and joining the 
Royalty company in 1787. Some country 
engagements followed, and then sundry 
appearances at the " Lane," the " Garden,'' 
etc. The 'Thespian Dictionary ' says "his 
voice was a strong clear bass, with one of 
the most extensive falsettos ever heard." 
Dibdin held him to be " in many respects 
superior to any singer that perhaps ever 
lived. The body and volume of voice which 
he possessed were only equalled by its 
sweetness and interest." " His Steady [' The 
Quaker'], etc., were good," says Genest; "his 
Caliban and Grimbald were excellent." See 
the ' Thespian Dictionary ' (1805), Genest's 
' English Stage ' (1832), Dibdin's ' History of 
the Stage ' (1800), and Adolphus' ' INIemoirs 
of John Bannister ' (1838). 

Bannister, John. Actor, son ot 




Charles Bannister ; born at Deptford, 17C0, j 
(lied in London, 1836 ; appeared at Drury < 
J.ane as early as 1772, but made his regular | 
debut at the Haymarket in 1778, as Dick in | 
' The Apprentice ' (q.v.) ; appeared at Drury 
Lane in the same year as Zaphna in ' Ma- 
lioniet' iq.v.), and at Covent Garden in 1779 
as the Prince of Wales in ' 1 Henry IV.' He 
next played at Birmingham, returning to 
town to "create" Don Ferolo Whiskerandos 
(' The Critic ') at Drury Lane (1779). Among 
his other original parts -svere Dabble in ' The 
Humourist,' Scout in ' The Village Lawyer,' 
Inkle in 'Inkle "and Yarico,' " >S(> David 
Dunder in ' Ways and Means,' Gondibert in 
' The Battle of Hexham,' Eobin in ' No Song, 
No Supper,' Walter in ' Children in the Wood,' 
Jack Crotchet in ' The Box-Lobby Chal- 
lenge,' Sylvester Daggerwood in ' New Hay 
at the Old Market,' Wilford in ' The Iron 
Chest,' Motley in ' The Castle Spectre,' and 
Rolando in ' The Honeymoon.' His other 
parts included Almaviva (' Spanish Barber ' 
and ' Follies of a Day '), Brisk (' The Double 
Dealer '), Ben (' Love for Love '), Brass (' The 
Confederacy'), Lissardo ('The Wonder'), 
Scrub ('The Beaux' Stratagem'), Trappanti 
('She Would and She Wouldn't'), Sir An- 
thony Absolute, Tony Lumpkin, Bob Acres, 
Colonel Feignwell ('A Bold Stroke for a 
Husband'), J/flrj;^of ('The Busybody'), Job 
Thornherry ('John Bull'), Dr. Pangloss 
(' Heir at Law '), and Dr. Ollajjud (' The Poor 
(ientleman '). He also played Hamlet, Shy- 
lock, Orlando, Mercutio, Parolles, Speed, and 
Touchstone. In 1783 he married Miss Harper. 
In 1807 he began the delivery of a dramatic 
and musical monologue called ' Bannister's 
Budget,' and in 1815 retired from the stage. 
" Mr. Bannister," wrote Leigh Hunt "(1807), 
" is the tii'st low comedian on the stage. Let 
an author present him with a humorous 
idea, whether it be of jollity, of ludicrous 
distress, or of grave indifference, whether 
it be mock heroic, burlesque, or mimicry, 
and he embodies it with an instantaneous 
felicity." " Bannister," says Hazlitt, " did 
not go out of himself to take possession of 
his part, but put it on over his ordinary 
dress, like a surtout, snug, warm, and com- 
fortable. He let his personal character 
appear through ; and it was one great charm 
of his acting. . . . His Scrub, his Son-in- 
law, his part in the ' Grandmother,' his 
Autolycus, his Colonel Feignwell, and his 
Walter in ' The Children in the Wood,' were 
all admirable " (' On Play-going '). " I have 
seen," says Boaden, "no actor at all near 
him where he was fully himself." " He was 
the best actor on the stage," says Oxberry. 
See 'Secret History of the Green-Room' 
(1795), Leigh Hunt's 'Performers of the 
London Theatres ' (1S07), Kelly's ' Reminis- 
cences ' (1826), Oxberry's 'Dramatic Bio- 
graphy '(1826), F. Reynolds' 'Reminiscences' 
(1826), Genest's ' English Stage ' (1832), ' Me- 
moirs of John Bannister,' bv Adolphus 
(1838). Robson's ' Old Playgoer' (1846), W. 
Donaldson's 'Recollections' (1865), C. R. 
Leslie's 'Autobiography' (1865), Haydon's 
' Correspondence '(18"6), and Lamb's ' Essays 
of Elia.' 

Bannister, J. Actor; "created" the 
roles of Mr. Kerry in ' Light and Shade ' 
(1879) and Sir Harry Widgeon in Merivale's 
' Lord of the Manor ' (1880). He was also 
seen at the Imperial Theatre, London, as 
Foigard in 'The Beaux' Stratagem' (1879)» 
Stephen Harrowby in 'The Poor Gentleman' 
(1879), and William in 'As You Like It' 

Bannister, Nathaniel Harrington. 
American actor and playwright, born 1813, 
died 1847 ; made his debut at Baltimore in 
1829, and played afterwards at the Chatham 
and Bowery Theatres, New York. He was 
the author of the following dramas :— 
' Caius Silius ' (q.v.), ' England's Iron Days,' 
'The Gentleman of Lyons' (q.v.), 'Infi- 
delity' (q.v.), 'The Marriage Contract,' 
* Murrell, the Land Pirate' (q.v.), 'Psam- 
meticus,' ' Putnam ' (q.v.), ' Robert Emmett' 
iq.v.), ' The Two Spaniards ' (q.v.), and ' The 
Wandering Jew' (q.v.). He also adapted 
' Titus Andronicus.' See Ireland's ' New 
York Stage ' and Brown's ' American Stage.' 

Bannister, Mrs. N. H. (n4e Green). 
Actress, and wife of the above ; made her 
debut at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, in 1817. 
She was long known at the Bowery and 
other theatres as Mrs. Stone, but in 1837 
reappeared in New York as Mrs. Bannister, 
having married in the interval. She played 
Cissy in ' Uncle Tom's Cabin ' at the National 
Theatre in 1853. See Ireland's ' New York 

Bannister, T. B. Dramatic writer ; 
author of ' Geraldine's Ordeal' (1S71), 'A 
Theft for a Life ' (1877), ' Mistaken Identity 
(1882), 'False Lights' (1886), 'The Wlieel 
of Time ' (1892), ' The Gladiators ' (1893). 

Banquo, in 'Macbeth' (q.v.), is "a 
genei-al of the king's army" and father of 
Fleance. He enters first in act i. sc. 3, and 
is murdered in act iii. sc. 2. His ghost 
appears in the scene following. 

Bantam. (I) Captain and Mrs. Bantan 
are characters in J. M. Morton's ' Cousii 
Lambkin ' (q.v.). (2) Nicholas Bantam figure: 
in Douglas Jerrold's 'Time works Won 
ders' (q.v.). (3) Squire Bantam is a cha 
racter in T. J. Williams' ' Lion-Slayer 
(q.v.) ; and (4) there is a Squire Bantan 
in Cellier's ' Dorothy ' (q.v.). 

Banter. (1) Mrs. Banter is a gay widoA 
in J. V. MiLLiNGEX's 'Ladies at Home 
(q.v.). (2) Mrs. and Miss Banter figure i: 
H. T. Craven's ' My Preserver' (q.v.). 

Bantry Bay. A musical interlude b 
G. N. Reynolds, based on the attempt c 
the French to land in Bantry Bay, and firf 
performed at Covent (larden on February 1: 
1797, with Johnstone in the cast. It wa 
plaved at New York in 1863, with W. I 
Blake as Billy Bluff. 

Banville, Theodore de. See Ballai 
monger; Gkingoire; Kiss, The. 



Baptism and Temptation, Of. Two 

comedies by Bishop Bale {q.v.). 

Baptista. Fatlier of Katherine and 
Bianca in ' The Taming of the Shrew' {q.v.). 

Baptistes. See Tyrannical Govern- 

Baratas. (1) The chief character in 
Marlowe's ' 3e\Y of Malta' {q.v.). Charles 
Lamb has said of him that IMarlowe's Jew 
"does not approach so near to Shakespeare's, 
as his ' Edward the Second' does to ' Richard 
tiie Second.' Barabas is a mere monster 
brought in with a large painted nose to 
please the rabble. He kills in sport, poisons 
whole nunneries, invents infernal machines. 
He is just such an exhibition as a century 
or two earlier might have been played before 
the Londoners 'by the royal command,' 
when a general pillage and massacre of the 
Hebrews had been previously resolved on 
in the cabinet." The part was in the reper- 
tory of Edmund Kean, who, it is recorded, 
relieved its monotony by introducing a song ! 
(2) Barabas is a character in ' The Thirst of 
Gold • {q.v.). 

Baradas. Favourite of Louis XIII., in 
Lord Lytton'S ' Richelieu ' {q.v.). 

Barark Johnson ; or, The Blind 

"Witness. A drama in one act, by William 
Reeve, first performed at the Surrey 
Theatre, London, on April 8, 1S44, with 
N. T. Hicks in the title part, Heslop as the 
■witness, and Vale and Mrs. H. Vining in 
other parts. 

Barataria ; or, Sancho turned 
Oovernor. See Quixote, Don. 

Barbara. A one-act play, by Jerome 
K. Jero:me, first performed at the Globe 
Theatre, London, on June 19, 18S6, with 
Miss Cissy Grahame in the title part. 

Barbara. A character in Colman's 
'Iron Chest' {q.v.). Oxberry says that 
*' Miss Poole, once playing Barbara, in the 
scene where she parts from Wil/ord before 
his trial, omitted the song of ' Down by the 
River,' and proceeded thus --' Poor Wilford 
has been dragged to prison, but never can 
I forget Merrily, oh ! merrily every bosom 
i)oundeth ! ' " 

Barbara Allen. A burletta by Charle.s 
DiBDiN, jun., founded on the famous ballad 
included' by Allan Ramsay in his ' Tea-Table 
Miscellany ' (1724) and by Bishop Percy in 
kis ' Reliques ' (1765). 

Barbarossa. A tragedy by Dr. 
Browne {q.v.), first performed at Drury 
Lane on December 17, 1754, with Garrick as 
Achmet, Mossop as Barbarossa, Havard as 
Othman, Mrs. Cibber as Zaphira, and 
Miss Macklin as Irene. Achmet is really 
Selim, the son of the King of Algiers, 
whom Barbarossa, the corsair, has murdered 
and dethroned. Barba7-ossa has hired a 
■certain Omar to kill Selim; but Selim has 
slain Omar, and, by means of a ring, passes 
himself off upon Barbarossa as a friend of 
the dead man. He tries to stab Barbarossa, 
but fails, and is about to be tortured on the 

rack, when he is rescued by Othman. Bar- 
barossa is killed, and his daughter, Irene, 
becomes the bride of Selim. Zaphira is the 
mother of Selim. The play was revived at 
Drury Lane and Covent Garden in 1804, with 
Master Betty as Achmet; and at Drury 
Lane in 1817, with Kean as Achmet. It 
was played in New York in 1793, with Sir 
Richard Crosby in the chief part ; at the 
Bowery in August, 1846, with Booth, jun., 
as Barbarossa and Chanfrau as Sadi. 

Barbazon ; or, The Fatal Peas. An 
operetta, words by Arthir Matthison 
{q.v.), and music by F. Wallerstein ; first 
performed at Drury Lane on September 22, 
1877, with the author, Miss H. Coveney, 
Miss C. Jecks, Miss Stembridge, and E. J. 
George in the cast. 

Barbe-Bleue- An opera bouffe, in 
three acts and four tableaux, music by 
Jacques Offenbach, libretto by Henry 
Meilhac and Ludovic Halevy, Paris Varietes, 
1866 ; first performed in America at Niblo's 
Garden in July, 1868 ; first performed in 
London at the St. James's Theatre, in 
French, in 1869 ; produced, with an English 
libretto, at the Gaiety Theatre. London, in 
July. 1870, with Miss Julia Matthews as 
Bonlotfe ; in the English provinces in 1877, 
with Miss Patti Laverne as Boulotte ; at the 
Avenue Theatre, London, June 16, 1883, with 
Miss Florence St. John as Boulot'e, Miss 
Lottie Venne as Fleurette, Miss Maria Davis 
as the Queen, C. Marius as Popolani, H. 
Bracy as Barbe-Bleue, T. G. Warren as the 
Count, J. J. Dallas as the King, and Arthur 
"Williams as Sapphire ; revived at the 
Comedy Theatre. London, on January 16, 
1885, with Miss St. John as Boulotte. See 
Bluebeard Re-Paired. 

Barbe Bleue, Abomeliaue de. See 
Abomelique de Barbk Blele. 

Barbeatid, Liandry, figures in 'Fan- 
chette' {q.v.), ' Fanchon ' {q.v.), 'The Grass- 
hopper '('/.i'.), and other English versions of 
George Sand's ' Fadette.' 

Barber, James- Dramatic writer ; 
author of ' Tlie Black Law of Martinique," 
' La Dame de St. Tropez ' (1845), ' Jonathan ' 
(1845), ' The Memoirs of the Devil ' (1842), 
' Rebecca,' ' The Weaver of Lyons ' (1844), 
' Which is the Thief ? ' etc. 

Barber and his Brothers (The). A 
musical burletta, taken from ' The Arabian 
Nights,' and first performed at the Adeljihi 
Theatre, London, in 1826, with a cast in- 
cluding Terry, Yates, Wrench, Reeve, T. 
P. Cooke, and Mrs. Bower. 

Barber and the Bravo (The); or, 
The Princess with the Raven Locks. 
A farcical drama by Isabella Vernier, 
first performed at the Surrey Theatre, 
London, in October, 1846, with Neville as 
Abomelique the Secoiid, Prince of Piombino ; 
E. F. Saville as Popiliqtte, the barber ; and 
Mrs. E. F. Saville as Kalydora, the Princess. 

Barber Baron (The) ; or, The Frank- 




fort Lottery. A farce, adapted from ' Le 
Barbier Cliatelain,' by T. J. Thackeray, and 
first performed at the Haymarket Theatre, 
Lundon, on September 8, 1S28, with Farren 
in the title part (Frissac), BUndal as Colonel 
£>'Ormsber(j, Mrs. T. Hill as the Countess 
Olivia, and J. Reeve as Peters. 

Barber Bravo (The). A play per- 
formed at Princess's Theatre, London, m 
1846, with C. J. Mathews in the cast, and 
in the same year at the Bowery Theatre, 
New York. 

Barber of Bag-dad (The). (1) A 
farce by E. Fitzball {q.v.), tirst performed 
at the Surrey Theatre, London, November 
20, 1826. (2) An opera by Peter Cornelius, 
performed, with an English libretto by Rev. 
aiARMADUKE E. BROWNE, by students of 
the Royal College of Music, at the Savoy 
Theatre, London, December 9, 1891. 

Barber of Bath. (The). An operetta, 
•words by H. B. Farnie {q.v.), music by J. 
Offenbach {q.v.), performed at the Olympic 
Theatre, London, on December 18, 1879. 

Barber of Seville (The). (1) Under 
this title, Beaumarchais' comedy, ' Le 
Mariage de Figaro' (1775), was translated 
into English by jNIrs. Griffiths, published in 
1776, but not acted. Then came (2) COL- 
man's adaptation from Beaumarchais, en- 
titled 'The Spanish Barber' {q.v.), and 
performed in 1777. This was revived at 
Covent Garden in October, 1818— "with the 
addition of one scene and many songs," says 
Genest— under the title of (3) ' The Barber 
of Seville : a comic opera in two acts,' wath 
Liston as Fifjaro, Jones as Count Almaviva, 
Fawcett as Br. Bartholo, Simmons as Argus, 
Blanchard as Tallboy, Mrs. Dickson as 
Iiosi7ia, and :Mrs. Sterling as Marcellina. 
(4) 'The Barber of Seville' was the title 
given to an opera— dialogue by Fawcett, 
lyrics by Terry, and music by Mozart (from 
' Le Nozze de Figaro ')— brought out at 
Covent Garden in 1824, with Duruset as 
Figaro, Jones a,s Almaviva, Fawcett as Bai- 
th'olo, and Miss M. Tree as Eosina. (5) 
Rossini's opera, ' Le Barbier de Seville,' 
was performed at the Lyceum Theatre, Lon- 
don, in 1824, with additions by Mozart, 
Fioravanti, Dibdin, and Phillips, and Avith 
Chapman as Figaro, Bartley as Bartholo, and 
Phillips as Ahnaviva. See Marriage of 

Barbers at Court. A play, performed 
in America in 1837, with the Keeleys in the 
leading parts ; at Niblo's, New York, in 
June, "1843, with Burton as Hogsjlesh and 
Walcot as Charles II. 

Barbers of Bassora (The). A comic 
opera in two acts, by J. Maudison Morton 
{q.v.), first performed (with music by John 
Huilah) at Covent Garden on November 
11, 1837, with Leffler and H. Phillips as 
Mustapha and Kadib, the barbers ; Miss 
Shirrefi as Beda, and Bartley as Mahmoud. 

Barclay, James M. Author of 'A 
Lesson in Love,' comedy (1836). 

Bardash. An effeminate footman in 
Leigh's ' Kensington Gardens ' {q.v.). 

Bardell v. Pick"wick. (1) A farcical 
sketch in one act, founded by John 
HoLLlNGSHEAD on the ti'ial in ' Pickwick,' 
and first produced at the Gaiety Theatre, 
London, on January 24, 1871. (2) An 
operetta in two acts, words by T. H. Gem, 
music by Frank Spinney, published at 
Leamington in 1881. See Great Pickwick 
Case and Pickwick Papers. 

Bardolph, in 1 and 2 ' Henry IV,' and 
' The Merry Wives of Windsor,' is a corporal 
in Sir John Falstaff's company, and in 
' Henry V.' is promoted to lieutenant. 

Barefaced Impostors- A farce in one 
act by "John Doe, Richard Roe, and John 
Noakes, Esquires," first performed at the 
Theatre Royal, Canterbury, on August 15, 

Barefoot, Little- See Little Bare- 
foot ; Mitchell, Maggie. 

Barford, R. Author of 'The Virgin 
Queen,' a tragedy (1728). See Pope's ' Epistle 
to Dr. Arbuthnot,' lines 55, 56, et seq. Bar- 
ford had displeased Pope by utilizing the 
latter's " sylph" machinery in a poem called 
' The Assembly.' 

Barker, J. N. American dramatist ; 
author of ' America,' a masque (1805), ' Tears 
and Smiles' (1807), 'The Embargo' (1808), 
' The Indian Princess ' (1808), ' Marmion ' 
(1812), ' The Armourer's Escape ' (1817), 
' Superstition ' (1824), and ' How to Try a 
Lover ' (not acted), all of which see. Ireland 
characterizes Barker as "one of the earliest 
and best of American authors " (' New York 
Stage '). See Dunlap's ' American Theatre ' 

Barkins, sen. and jun. (1) Cha- 
racters in Blanchard Jerrold's 'Cool as 
a Cucumber' {q.v.). (2) A Barkins, sew., 
and a Barkins, jun., figure also in W. W. 
Hartopp'S 'Eclipsing the Son' {q.v.). 

Barksted, William. Actor and poet 
belonged, in the reign of James I., to the 
company known as "children of the queen'f 
revels." In 1G06 he appeared in Jonson'.' 
' Epicene,' and in 1613 in Beaumont anc 
Fletcher's 'Coxcomb' (1613). He was th( 
author of poems called ' Mirrha ' (1607) anc 
' Hiren ' (1611). See Henslowe's ' Diary, 
Colliei''s ' r^Iemoirs of Actors in Shakespeare': 
Plays ' (1846), and ' Dictionary of Nationa 
Biography ' (1885). 

Barlow. (1) The Rev. Wm. Barlow 1 
' Vicar of Bray,' in Grundy and Solomon' 
opera so named {q.v.). (2) The Barlows, h 
H. J. Byron's ' Hundred Thousand Pounds 
{q.v.), include Joe, his M'ife, and Alice. 

Barmaid (The). A comedy in thre- 
acts, by George Dance {q.v.), first peij 
formed at the Comedy Theatre, Manchestei 
on August 31, 1891. See NEW Barmaid. 

Barmecide, The. A "dramatic re 
mance " in three acts, by H. M. :Milner {q.v.. 




first performed at Drury Lane on November 
3, 1818, with H. Kemble as Giafar, the hero, 
H. Johnstone as Haroun Al liaschid, Mrs. 
Orger as Zaida, Harley as Goodman, and 
Bengough as Aboidcassern. The play was 
performed in New York in 1819 and 1830. 

Barn Burners (The). A play by W. 
Leman REDECg.y.). 

Barnaby Brittle; or, A "Wife at 
her "Wits' End. A farce, adapted from 
Betterton'S 'Amorous AVidow' {q.v.), with 
suggestions from Mrs. Centlivre's ' Arti- 
fice,' and from ' Greenwich Park ; ' first per- 
formed at Covent Garden on April 18, 1781, 
with Quick as Barnaby, Mrs. Mattocks as 
MvR. Brittle, Edwin as Jeremy, and other 
performers as Lovemore, Clodjjole, and Lady 
Pride ; performed in America in 1797. 

Barnahy Rudg-e. The story by Charles 
Dickens has formed the basis of, and given 
the title to, the following dramatic pieces : — 
(1) A domestic drama in three acts, adapted 
by C. Selby ((7.i'.)and C. Melville, and 
first performed at the English Opera 
House on Jvme 28, 1841, with Miss Fortes- 
cue in the title part, Mrs. Selby as 
Mrs. Rudye, Granby as Gabriel Varden, 
Mrs. Granby as Mrs. Varden, Miss Fitz- 
james as Dolly Varden, Robson as Geof- 
frey Haredale, Selby as Chester, Searle as 
Simon Tappertit, S. Smith as Black Hugh, 
and Mrs. Harris as Mifjgs ; played at the 
Chatham Theatre, New York, in September, 
1841, with Mrs. C. Thorne in the title part, 
C. Thorne as Black Hugh, Kirby as old 
Budge, and INIrs. Blake as Mrs. Budge, (2) 
Another version was produced at the 
Adelphi in December, 1841, with Yates as 
Chester and Miss Miggs, Mrs. Yates as Mrs. 
Budge, i\Iiss Chaplin as Barnaby, Paul Bed- 
ford as Gabriel, "O." Smith as Hugh, and 
Edward Wright as Tappertit. (3) A play 
in three acts, by Thomas Higgie (1856). (4) 
A play by Watts Phillips (q.v.) and F. 
ViNiNG (q. y.), first performed at the Princess's 
Theatre, London, on November 1-2, 1866, with 
Miss Katherine Rodgers in the title part, 
Miss Augusta Thompson as Dolly Varden, 
S. Calhaem as Tappertit, C. Horsman as 
Black Htigh, J. G. iihoTesiS Sir John Chester, 
Mrs. John Wood as Miss Miggs, etc. (5) 
A drama in four acts, produced at the 
Marylebone Theatre on November 4, 1870. 
See also Dolly Varden. 

Barnacle, Ben. The bo'sun in Ste- 
phens and Solomon's 'Billee Taylor '(5. v.). 

Barnard, John. Musical director and 
composer, born 1812, died 1895 ; was, in 
his time, orchestral conductor at Drury 
Lane, the Lyceum, the Olympic, and other 
London theatres, for which he wrote a good 
deal, in the way of songs, dances, melodraine, 
and so forth. Among other things, he 
supplied music for stage productions of 
'Macbeth,' ' Comus,' Byron's ' Manfred,' etc. 

Barnardine. "A dissolute prisoner" 
in 'Measure for Measure' {q.v.). Hazlitt 
describes the character as " one of the finest 
(and that's saying a bold word) iu all Shake- 

speare. He is what he is by nature, not by 
circumstance, ' careless, reckless, and fear- 
less of past, present, and to come.' " 

Barnardo and Fiamata. A piece 
performed at the Rose Theatre on October 
29, 1595. See Henslowe's ' Diary.' 

Barnes, Betty. See Workman, Mrs. 

Barnes, Charlotte. See Conner,Mrs. 

Barnes, James, who died in 1838, was 
" an admired pantaloon in Grimaldi's time" 
(Dutton Cook). 

Barnes, John. Actor, died 1841 ; made 
his debut at tlie Haymarket in 1811 ; first 
appeared in America in 1816, at the Park 
Theatre, New York ; was manager for a 
time of the Richmond Hill Theatre in that 
city. " He was truly eminent," says Ireland, 
"in such characters as Sir Anthony Absolute, 
Sir Abel Handy, Lord Duberly, Cosey, etc. ; 
and in Old Rapid, Brummagem, Delph, and 
Nipperkin we have never seen his equal' 
(' New York Stage.') Among his other parts 
were Sir Peter Teazle and Lingo. See 
Brown's ' American Stage.' See, also, 
Barnes, Mrs. John. 

Barnes, Mrs. John (Mary). Actress, 
born in London, 1780, died at New York, 
1864 ; made her debut at the Haymarket in 
1811, and appeared at Drury Lane in 1815. 
Her first appearance in America took place 
in 1816, at the Park Theatre, New York (as 
Juliet) ; her last, in 1851, at Philadelphia 
(as Lady Randolph). "She excelled prin- 
cipally," says Ireland, "in the youthful 
heroines of ti'agedy, though few ladies have 
given us high comedy with equal finish, and 
no roguish boy was ever better personated 
than by Mrs. Barnes. In melodrama and 
pantomime her action was always gTaceful, 
spirited, and correct " (' New York Stage '). 
Among her characters wei'e JEvadne, Fenella, 
Aladdin, and the dumb Savoyard. She was 
the mother of Mrs. Conner (q.v.). See Brown's 
♦ American Stage. 

Barnes, J. H. Actor ; made his stage 
debut at the Lyceum Theatre, London, iu 
November, 1871, in 'The Bells' (q.v.). 
He has since played the following original 
i:)3,Yts:— Captain Leicis in Halliday's 'Lady 
of the Lake' (1872), Gordon Lockhart in 
Byron's ' Old Soldiers ' (1873), Geoffrey Gre- 
vi'lle in Byron's 'American Lady' (1874), 
Henri in Harvey's ' Mother ' (1879), Leonide 
Noirmont in Simpson's 'ZiEah' (1S79), 
Kiiig Rene in Wills's 'lolanthe' (1880), 
Captain Crosstree in WUls's 'William and 
Susan' (1880), Stephen Clinton in 'Pluck' 
(1882), Richard Orchardson in Buchanan's 
'Storm-Beaten' (1883), Rigaud in 'Antoi- 
nette Rigaud' (1886), Phedaspes in Miss 
Graves' ' Nitocris ' (1887), Michael Dennis 
in Frith's 'Her Advocate' (lS95),Z>a7i Graham 
in Jerome's 'Rise of Dick Halward' (1895), 
and Professor Jogram in ' Rosemary ' (1896). 
J. H. Barnes has furthered figured in London 
as Chateau Renaud in ' The Corsican 
Brothers' (1876), Sir Leicester Dedlock in 



♦Jo' (1876), the Duke in ' Lucrezia Borgia' 
(1879), Captain FitzHardinge in ' The Iron 
Chest' (1879), Peter Fletcher in Byron's 
'Uncle' (1S79), Henry IV. (1879), Basmnio 
in ' The Merchant of Venice ' (1S79), Frank 
Troy in ' Far from the Madding Crowd ' 
(1882), Macduff in ' Macbeth ' (1SS2), Essex 
in ' Ehzabeth ' (1SS2), Pygmalion in ' Pyg- 
maMon and Galatea ' (1883), Ingomar (1883), 
Claude Melnottein 'TheLady of Lyons'(lS34), 
Macbeth (1SS6), Tom Cooper in ' Shadows of 
a Great Citv' (1887), Nicolai Neigoff in 
'Siberia' (1837), Brian Fitzgerald in 'The 
Mysteries of a Hansom Cab' (1888), Pierre 
Lorance in 'Proof (1889), Geoffrey Blount 
\si ' A Convict's Wife ' (1S90). In the course 
of 1874 he played "lead" at the Theatre 
Royal, Edinburgh ; in 1875 he accompanied 
Miss Xeilson to America, afterwards touring 
in Canada ; in 1S78 he played Julian Beau- 
clerc in 'Diplomacy' in the EngUsh pro- 
vinces ; in 1886 he "created " at Birmingham 
the part of Harry Oakley in 'By Land and 
Sea ; ' and in ISSS he paid a second visit to 

Barnett, Alice. Actress and vocalist, 
granddaughter of Henry Kemble iq.v.)', 
began her stage career at the Prince of 
AVales's Theatre, Liverpool, in April, 1879, as 
Little Buttercup in 'H.M.S. Pinafore' (?. v.). 
In November of the same year she went to 
New York, where (at the Fifth Avenue 
Theatre) she created for American audiences 
the part of Ruth in ' The Pirates of Penzance ' 
(^.r.). In 1880 she returned to England, and 
took up the role of Ruth at the Op^ra 
Comique until the production of ' Patience' 
(q.v.), in which she was the original Lady 
Jane (ISSl). She was the first representative 
of the Queen of the Fairies in 'lolanthe' 
(1882), and of L>ame Courtlandt in Gilbert 
and Carr's ' His Excellency ' (1894). 

Barnett, Benjamin. Actor; brother 
of Morris Barnett I'j.v-) ; was playing at the 
Lyceum Theatre, London, circa 1855. 

Barnett, C. Z. Dramatic writer; author 
or hbrettist of the following pieces :— ' The 
Phantom Bride ' (1830), ' The Youthful Days 
of AVilliam IV.' (1831), 'Dominique' (1831), 
' Victorine ' (1831), ' The Dream of Fate ' (1838), 
'Oliver Twist' (adapted, 1S3S), 'Farinelli' 
(1839), ' The Loss of the Roval George ' (1840), 
'The Bohemians of Paris' (1843), 'The 
Christmas Carol' (adapted, 1844), ' Don Cfesar 
de Bazan ' (1844), ' La Polka ' (1844), ' Mid- 
night' (1845), 'Mrs. Caudle' (1845), 'The 
Minute Gun at Sea' (1845); also, 'The 
Bravo,' ' The Bell-ringer of Notre Dame,' 
' Bier Kroeg,' ' The Banks of Allan Water,' 
'Csesar Borgia,' 'The Coroner's Inquest,' 
'The Catteran's Son,' 'Claude Lorraine,' 

* Fair Rosamond,' ' Hugh the Gypsey,' 

* Linda,' ' Mariette Duval,' ' The Mariner's 
Dream,' ' The Pearl of Savoy,' ' Quasimodo,' 
-* The Rise of the Rothschilds,' ' Swing,' 
'The Skeleton Hand,' 'Stella Rittersdorf,' 
'Titus Caesar,' 'The Vow of Silence.' 

Barnett, Jolin. Musical composer, 
born July, 1S02 ; was the son of Bernhard 
Beer, a Prussian, who, settling in England, 

took the name of Barnett Barnett. John 
Barnett sang, as a boy, at the Lyceum under 
S. J. Arnold, and, having studied under C. 
E. Horn ('^.r.), began to write for the stage 
in 1825, when Peake's 'Before Breakfast' 
(q.v.), for which he had provided music, was 
brought out at the above-named theatre. 
After this came his share in ' Charles XII,' 
(1828), ' The Carnival of Naples ' (1830), ' The 
Pet of the Petticoats' (1831), 'Olympic 
Revels ' (1831), and other pieces. In 1S32 he-i 
was made orchestral director of the Olympic i 
Theatre, under Madame Vestris, and, "while 
there, furnished music for many of hen 
productions. His more important works for 
the theatre include ' The Mountain Sylph '' 
(1834), 'Fair Rosamond' (1837), and 'Fari- 
nelli' (1838), all of which see. His minor 
productions include the music written for 
' Blanche of Jersey ' (1S37), ' Country Quar- 
ters,' ' Court of Queen's Bench,' ' The Deuce 
is in her,' ' Married Lovers,' ' Monsieur 
Mallet,' ' The Paphian Bower,' ' The Pictu- 
resque,' ' Robert the DevU,' ' The Soldier'! 
Widow,' 'Two Seconds." 

Barnett, John Francis. Musical 
composer, nephew of J. Barnett, born 1838 ; 
author, among many works for the 
orchestra, of an overture to ' The Winter's 

Barnett, Morris. Actor, dramatist 
and musical critic, born 1800, died ai 
Montreal, Canada, March IS, 1856 ; mad* 
his debut as an actor at Brighton ; in 183* 
he played at Drury Lane, appearing as Ton 
Drops in Douglas Jerrold's 'Schoolfellows 
(q.v.) ; in 1837 he was at the St. James' 
playing Monsieur Jacques in his own piece 
in 1842 he was again at Drury Lane ; in 184 
he figixred at the Princess's in the title cha 
racter of 'The Old Guard' {q.v.); and ii 
September, 1854, before going to Ameri 
he gave some farewell performances a 
the Adelphi. He wrote the followii 
pieces for the stage :—' Tact' (1830), 'Tt 
Yellow Kids' (1835), 'The Spirit ( 
the Rhine' (1835), 'Monsieur Jacquei 
(1836), 'Power and Principle' (adapt 
1850), ' Lilian Gervais ' (adapted, 1853 
' The Married Unmarried' (1854) ; also, ' Tl 
Bold Dragoons,' ' BoiTowed Feathers,' ' Ci 
cumstantial Evidence,' ' The King and 
Croney,' ' Mrs. G. of the Golden Pippit 
' Richard Turpin and Tom King,' ' Suppei 
Over,' 'Sai"ah the Creole' (' Sarah Blangi' 
' The Serious Familv,' ' The Yankee Pedler 
with B. Barnett, ' Out on the Loose ' (185 
and, with C. J. Mathews, ' Serve him Righ 
(1850). G. A. Sala describes him as 
remarkably clever man— a Hebrew of tt 
Hebrews, with a pronounced musical facul 
and extraordinary powers of mimicry 
(' Life and Adventures '). 

Barney Brallag-lian. A play pt 
formed at the Park Theatre, New York, 
January, 1831, with Master Burke as tl 
hero, Placide as Weatherproof, Mrs. Walla 
as Judy O'Callaghan. 

Barney Rourke. A play perfonned ; 




the Olympic Theatre, New York, March, 

Barney the Baron. A farce, played 
at the National Theatre, New York, in Sep- 
tember, 1850, under the first title of ' For- 
tune's Whims,' with B. Williams as Barney 

Barnum, Phineas T. Tlieatrical 
manager and general entrepreneur ; born at 
Danbury, Connecticut, July, 1810 ; was lessee 
successively of Niblo's Garden (1835), Vaux- 
hall Garden (1840-1), Lyceum and Museum, 
Philadelphia (1849), Winter Garden Theatre, 
New York (after 1865), etc. It was under 
his auspices that the Bateman children (q.v.) 
appeared in London in 1851. See his Auto- 
biography (1889). 

Barnum's Museum. See New York 

Barnwell, Georg-e. See George 

Baron (The). A comedy " from Celenio " 
by Fannv Holcroft; printed iu 'The 
Theatrical Recorder ' (q.v.). 

Baron, Robert. Dramatic writer, born, 
according to Langbaine, in 1630 ; author of 
' Mirza,' a tragedy (q.v.). Winstanley, in his 
'Lives of the English Poets,' also ascribes 
to him 'Don Quixote; or. The Knight of 
the Ill-favoured Countenance,' 'The De- 
struction of Jerusalem,' ' Deorum Dona,' 
'Gi'ipus and Ilegio,' and other dramatic 

ftieces. See Langbaine, Winstanley, Phil- 
ips's 'Theatruni J'oetaruni,' ' Biographica 
Dramatica' (1812), Ilalliwell Phillips's 'Dic- 
tionary of Old Plays ' (1860), ' Dictionary of 
National Biography ' (1885). 

Baron Golosh. An opera-bouffe in 
two acts, adapted from IVLaurice Ordonneau 
and Edmond Audran's ' LOncle Celestin,' 
with additional numbers by Meyer Lutz ; 
first performed at the Star Theatre, Swansea, 
April 15, 1895, and produced at the Trafalgar 
Square Theatre, London, on April 25, 1895, 
with E. J. Lonnen in the title part, and 
other characters by Harry Paulton, Scott 
Russell, Frank Wyatt, Miss Florence Perry, 
Miss Sylvia Grey, and Miss M. A. Victor, 

Baron Kinkvervankotsdorspra- 
king-atchdern. A musical comedy in 
three acts, founded by Miles Peter An- 
drews (q.v.) on a novel by Lady Craven, and 
first acted at the Haymarket on July 9, 1781, 
with Digges as the 'Baron, Edwin as Pan- 
gloss, and Palmer, Wewitzer, Baddeley, and 
Mrs. Webb in other parts. Van Bote r ham, 
a tradesman, proposes that his son Franzcl 
shall marry the Baron's daughter Cecil. 
The Baron indignantly refuses, and locks 
his daughter up ; but Cec(7, who loves Franzcl, 
escapes from durance, and the couple are 
secretly married by Pangloss, the curate, 
whom the Baron has turned out of doors, 
and who thus repays the insult. 

Baron Rudolph- A serio-comic drama 
infour acta, byBRONSON Howard (q.v.), first 
performed at the Theatre Royal, Hull, 

August, 1881 ; produced at Fourteenth 
Street Theatre, New York, in 1887. 

Baron's Wagrer (The). A play in one 
act, by Sir Charles Young (q.v.), first 
performed at Scarborough, February 7, 
1881, by the author and Lady Monckton; 
performed at New York in January, 1887. 

Baroness (The). (1) A play by T. B. 
de Walden (q.v.), performed at the Fifth 
Avenue Theatre, New York, in 1872. (2) A 
comic opera in three acts, written and 
composed by Cotsford Dick, Royalty 
Theatre, London, October 5, 1892. 

Baronet (The). A comedy drama by 
E. Howard Vincent, first performed at the 
Theatre Royal, Bury, on July 3, 1885. 

Baronet Abroad (The) and the 
Rustic Prima Donna. A musical 
drama in one act, by F. J. Hornr, first 
performed at the St. James's Tlieatre, 
London, on November 9, 1864, with F. Mat- 
tliews as Sir Fitful Green, the baronet, and 
INIiss Constant Roden as Susette, the prima 

Barrack-Room (The). A comedietta 
by Thomas Haynes Bayly (q.v.), first played 
in America at the Park Theatre, New York, 
in 1836, with Miss E. Tree as Clarisse. Mrs. 
;Maeder played Clarisse in New York in 

Barresford, Mrs. (nde Wilford).. 
Actress, known for some years as Mrs. 
Bulkeley ; died at Dumfries, 1792 ; performed 
at Covent Garden between 1764 and 1780; 
went to the Haymarket in 1782, thence to> 
Drury Lane in 1782-84, returning to the Hay- 
market in the last-named year. She lefi. 
London in 1789, and acted in Edinburgh till 
1791. She created, among other parts, those- 
of Mrs. Richland in 'The Good-natured 
Man,' Charlotte in ' Man and Wife ' (1769-70), 
Emily in ' Cross Purposes,' Miss Hardcastle 
in ' She Stoops to Conquer,' Julia in ' The 
Rivals,' and Letty in ' Tit for Tat.' Among 
her other roles were Cordelia, Portia (' Mer- 
chant of Venice '), Rosalind, Beatrice, Viola,. 
Dame Kitely, Itnogen, Mrs. Ford, Mrs. Page, 
Mrs. Oakley ('The Jealous Wife'), Lady- 
Toivnley ('The Provoked Husband'), Lady 
Betty Modish ('The Careless Husband'), 
and Hypolita (' She Would and She Would 

Barrett, Georg-e Edward. Actor, 
brother of Wilson Barrett (q.v.); born 
December, 1849, died 1894 ; made his debut 
at the Theatre Royal, Durham, in 1866, 
in 'The Woman in Red,' and had acted 
in many provincial towns before, in 1872, 
he made his first appearance in London. 
This took place at the St. James's Theatre 
in the roles of Dr. Brown in Robertson's 
'Progress' (q.v.), and of Navet in the comic 
opera, ' Vert Vert' (ij.i'.). He afterwards 
made successes Bullock in 'East Lynne' 
(g.i'.)and the G7iost in a travesty of ' Hamlet* 
(q.v.). After a visit to India, ^vhere he sup- 
ported C. J. Mathews, he came back to 




London, where he appeared at the Criterion, 
the Folly, and the Globe. He was in the 
origninal casts of Matthison's ' Mary's Secret ' 
(1876) and Reece's 'The Lion's Tail' (1877). 
Under his brother's management at the 
Princess's he created the following parts :— 
Jarvis in ' The Lights o' London ' (1S81), Boss 
Knivett in ' The Romany Rye' (1SS2), Daniel 
Jaikes in 'The Silver King' (1882), Belos in 
•Claudian' (1883), Kat Boaden in Jones's 
'Chatterton' (1881), Boh Atkins in 'The 
Colour Sergeant' (1884), Ben Chibbles in 
' Hoodman Blind' (1885), Tribulation Tizack 
in 'The Lord HaiTy' (1SS6), and Dick Vim- 
pany in 'The Noble Vagabond' (18SC), 
Among other parts created by him in Lon- 
don s,re— George in ' Christina ' (1SS7), the 
title role in ' The Alderman ' (1887), Pcngclly 
in ' The Golden Band' (1887), Samuel Peckaby 
in ' The Golden Ladder ' (1887), Davy in ' Ben 
My Chree' (1888). ColdbathJoe in ' Good Old 
Times ' (1889), Dick Darling in ' Nowadays ' 
(1889), Gabriel in ' The People's Idol ' (1S90), 
Flip-Flapin ' The Acrobat ' (1891), Bob Tran- 
ter in ' Fate and Fortune ' (1891), and Doidas 
in ' The Wedding Eve ' (1892). He played the 
First Gravedigger in 'Hamlet' at the Prin- 
cess's in 1884, Colonel Da mas in 'The Lady 
of Lyons ' at the Globe in 1888, Peter in ' The 
Stranger' at the Olympic in 1891, Grinnidge 
in 'Miami' {q.v.) at the Princess's in 1891, 
and Don Whiskerandos at the Haymarket in 
1892. In the later seventies, he appeared in 
the English provinces as Brisket in ' Pink 
Domino's ,' and the Bailie in ' Les Cloches de 
Corneville ' Iq.v.). He was one of the repre- 
sentatives of Sir Joseph Trent in ' The Book- 
maker ' {.q.v). In 1886 he played in America 
as a member of his brother's company. 

Barrett, George H. Actor, son of 
Giles L. Barrett {q.v.); born at Exeter, 
1794 ; died at New York, ISGO ; appeared 
at the Park Theatre, New York, in 
1806, as Young Xorval, and at the same 
theatre, in 1S22, as Belcour in 'The West 
Indian ; ' was married to Mrs. Henry in 1825 ; 
was assistant stage manager of the Bowery 
Theatre in 1S2S ; played at Burton's Theatre 
in 1854-5 ; and bade farewell to the stage 
at New York in the latter year. He was 
the father of Georgina and Mary Barrett, 
and was familiarly known as " Gentleman 
George." Ireland (' New York Stage') de- 
scribes him as "an intellectual and dis- 
■criminating actor." Among his best parts 
-were Sir Andrevj Aguecheek, Flute ('Mid- 
summer Night's Dream') and Bobadil. 

Barrett, IVErs. Georgre (Mrs. Henry). 

Actress, born at Philadelphia, ISOl ; died at 
Boston, 1853 ; first appeared on the stage in 
1813, at Boston, U.S.A., as a dancer ; married 
W. C. Drummond in 1817 ; made her New 
York debut in 1824 as Letitia Hardy; 
married George H. Barrett in 1825 ; last ap- 
peared at New York in 1850 and at Boston 
in 1853. Among her parts were Mrs. Oakley 
('The Jealous Mife'), Lady Teazle, Lady Gay 
Spanker, and Clara Douglas (' Money '). " In 
the lines of gay, graceful, and refined 
comedv she has been seldom equalled" 
(Ireland, ' New York Stage '). 

Barrett, Giles Leonard, actor, after 

{)erforming in the English provinces, made 
lis first appearance in America at Boston, in 
1796, as -Ra nger in ' The Suspicious Husband ' ■ 
{q.v.). He made his debut in New York (as 
Don Felix in ' The Wonder') in 1797, acting 
there as late as 1803. He died in 1809. He 
was the father of George H. Barrett {q.v.). See 
Ireland's 'New York Stage' and Brown's 
' American Stage,' Bernard's ' Recollec- 
tions ' and Dunlap's ' American Theatre.' 

Barrett, Mrs. Giles Leonard, 
actress, was a pupil of :^Lacklin {q.v.), and 
made her d^but in London as Portia. She 
was known in England as ]Mrs. Rivers. She 
first appeared in America at Boston, in 1797: 
as Mrs. Beverley in 'The Gamester' {q.v.), 
and played at New York theatres in 1798.: 
1821, and 1826. She died in 1832. Ireland ^ 
(' New York Stage ') calls her " a skilful anc, 
accomplished actress." See, also. Brown'.'; 
' American Stage ' (1870). i 

Barrett, Laurence [Larry Branniganji 
Actor, born, according to one authority, ijl 
1832 ; according to another, in 1836 (at NeT^ 
York), and, according to a third, in 1S3S (aj. 
Paterson, New Jersey, U.S.A.) ; made hi! 
professional debut at Detroit, ]NIichigan, i:i 
1853. Thence he went to Pittsburg, St.' Loui.': 
Chicago, etc. ; and at last, in 1856, to Nc 
York, where he made his first appearance a 
Sir Thomas Clifford in ' The Hunchback 
In February, 1857, he began an engagemei 
at the ISIetropolitan Theatre, where he w; 
seen in such parts as Florizel in ' A Winter 
Tale"' and Fagin in ' Oliver Twist.' In tl 
autumn of 1858 he went to the Bostr 
Museum, opening as Frederick Braral 
in 'The Poor Gentleman,' and remainii 
there two years, after which he migrated 
the Howard Athenreum in the same cit 
Next came engagements at Philadelphi 
Washington, and New York, at the la.- 
named of which he figured as lago. I 
then became co-manager of the Varietif 
New Orleans, where he revived ' Rosedal 
{q.v.), playing the chief character. Duri 
a season' at" San Franci.sco, in 1867-8, 
appeared as Hamlet. In 1868 he visited Ei 
land, and acted for six nights at Liverj^f 
as Hamlet, Richard III., and Claude M 
notte. In January, 1869, he became, foi 
time, co-manager with John ]\IcCullogh ., 
the California Theatre, San Francisco. 
1870 he appeared as an actor at Nibll 
Garden and Booth's Theatre, New Yof 
At the last-named house he played Leon\ 
in ' The Winter's Tale,' and was the fi| 
representative in America of James HaS 
bell in 'The Man o' Airlie' {q.v.). ]J 
twelve months he directed the Varietal 
Theatre, New Orleans (1S71-2). In 187 
he appeared at Booth's Theatre, New Yc , 
as Cassias in ' Julius Ca?sar ' — a performa. ) 
which he repeated at the same theatre i 
1875. To 1876 belongs his appearance i 
New York as Kiiig Lear, which wasfollo\ I 
bv his Dan'l Druce (the first in America i 
1877. In 1878 he "created" at New Y : 
the title'part in HowelLs's 'Yorick's Lc ' 
{q.v.), and in 1881 that of Rin^ Arthuii 



Young's 'Pendragon' (q.v.). In 1882 he 
played Lanclotto in Boker's ' Francesca da 
Rimini' at the Chestnut Street Theatre, 
Philadelphia, reviving the piece next year at 
the Star Theatre, New York. A professional 
visit to London in 1884 presented him, at 
the Lyceum, as Yorick (April 12) and as 
Richelieu (April 28). At New York in 1887 
he played Rienzi in Miss Mitford's tragedy. 
He died on March 20, 1891. For biography, 
see 'Actors and Actresses of New York' 
(1886), and for criticism, William Winter's 
'Shadows of the Stage' (second series). 
"Laurence Barrett," .says Winter, "was 
always conspicuously fine in the felicity 
with which he grasped his author's ideal, 
and the fidelity with which he conveyed it. 

■ . . . No figures have stood upon the stage 
that are more sharply individualized, more 
distinct, more formidable, more readily re- 
membered than those of Cassius, Harebell, 

• Yorick, Lanciotto, and King James V. of 
Scotland, as presented by Laurence Barrett. 
. . . He saw them comprehensively ; he in- 
vested himself with their distinct personali- 
ties ; he made them actual men, while at 
the same time he sustained the element of 
charm in them by poetry of treatment in the 
expression of their characters. To that 
group he added, in the same lofty spirit, 
and with the same fine skill, the figure of 

Barrett, "W. A. Musical critic ; author 
of the Ubretto of ' Moro ' (q.v.) (1SS2) ; also of 
a ' Life of Michael William Balfe ' (1882). 

Barrett, "Wilson. Actor, playwright, 
and theatrical manager ; maile his debut 
as an actor at Halifax in 1864, appearing 
afterwards at Leeds, Liverpool, Notting- 
, ham, Aberdeen, and other provincial centres. 
Having married Miss Caroline llea.ih.{q.v.), 
he toured with her for some years in 
:'East Lynne' and other pieces. His first 
I appearance in London was at the Surrey 
Theatre as Tom Jiobinson in 'It is Never 
too Late to Mend.' His first experience of 
(theatrical management was at Halifax. In 
1874 he became lessee and manager of the 
Amphitheatre, Leeds, where he produced 
Wills's 'Jane Shore' (q.v.), plaving Henry 
Shore himself. In 1877 he assumed the 
direction of the Theatre Royal, Hull, and in 
the following year the control of the Grand 
Theatre, Leeds, which he opened on Novem- 
ber 18 with ' Much Ado about Nothing,' in 
which he \>\a.yed Benedick. September, 1879, 
saw him lessee and manager of the Court 
Theatre, London, where he began vdth an 
adaptation of Sardou's 'Fernande,' in which 
he represented Pomerol. Here, too, he 
figured as the first representative of Be 
Courcij in H. J. Byron's ' Courtship' (1879), 
|as Mercutio in ' Romeo and Juliet ' (1881), 
.and as the original Friar John in Wills's 
. Juana' (1881). In June, 1881, Wilson Bar- 
rett, having left the Court, undertook the 
.management of the Princess's, London, 
?v-hich he retained for five years. Here 
f IP® appeared first as Henri de Sartorys 
■ J" *^rou-Frou' (1881) and John Straiten in 
> 1 ihe Old Love and the New ' (1881). Then 

came a succession of original roles— Harold 
Armytaqe in 'The Lights o' London' (1881), 
Jack Hearne in ' The Romany Rye ' (1882), 
Wilfrid Denver in ' The Silver King ' (1882)', 
Claudian in the drama so named (1883), and 
Chatterton in the one-act play so named (1884). 
Next came a revival of ' Hamlet,' with him- 
self in the title part (October, 1884) ; after 
which came some further " creations "— 
Lucius Junius in Lord Lytton's 'Junius' 
(1885), Jack Yeulett in ' Hoodman Blind ' 
(1885), Lord Harry Bendish in 'The Lord 
Harry ' (1886), and Clito in the play so named 
(1886). Barrett's next London management 
was at the Globe Theatre, where he ap- 
peared in 1887 as the original Frank Thorn- 
hill in ' The Golden Ladder,' and in 1SS8 as 
Claude Melnotte. In May, 1SS8, he began a 
second occupancy and direction of the Prin- 
cess's Theatre, producing 'Ben My Chree,' 
with himself as Dan (1888), ' The Good Old 
Times,' with himself as John Langley (1889), 
and ' Nowadays,' with himself as John Sex- 
ton (1889). In December, 1890, he became 
lessee and director of the Olympic Theatre, 
opening- it with 'The People's Idol' (q.v.), 
in which he was the original Laurence St. 
Aubrey. Here, in 1891, he played the name- 
part in 'The Stranger,' and two original 
rdles— the name-part in ' Father Buonaparte ' 
(q.v.), Louis Belphegor in 'The Acrobat' 
(q.v), and also the Miser in S. W. Mitchell's 
one-act drama so named (q.v.). During sub- 
sequent provincial tours he played, in" 1891, 
Othello ; in 1892, the name-part in ' Pharaoh' 
(q.v.) ; and in 1894, Pete in 'The Manxman' 
(qv.). While in America, in 1895, he pro- 
duced ' The Sign of the Cross,' in which he 
was the original Marcus Sujierbus—a, role 
first played by him in London in 1896. 
Wilson Barrett is the author of the follow- 
ing drauiatic pieces (some of them named 
above) : — ' Twilight ' (1871), ' Nowadavs ' 
(1889), 'The Acrobat' (1891), 'Jenny the 
Barber' (1891), 'Pharaoh' (1892), 'The 
Manxman ' (1894). 'The Sign of the Cross' 
(1895), 'The Christian King,' in which he 
"created" the rdle of King Alfred (1902), 
'In the Middle of June,' in which he also 
appeared (1903), 'The Never Never Land' 
(1!»04), etc. He is also part-author, Avitli 
Clement Scott, of ' Sister Mary '(1886) ; with 
H. A. Jones, of ' Hoodman Blind ' (1885) and 
•The Lord Harry' (1886); with Sydney 
Grundy, of 'Clito' (1886) ; with G. R. Sims, 
of ' The Golden Ladder ' (1887) ; with Hall 
Caine, of 'Ben My Chree ' (1888) and 'The 
Good Old Times ' (1889) ; with Victor Wid- 
nell, of 'The People's Idol' (1890); and 
with C. Hannan, of ' Our Pleasant Sins ' 

Barricade (The). A drama in a pro- 
logue and four acts, by Clarance Holt 
(q.v.), founded on Victor Hugo's ' Les Miser- 
ables' (q.v.) ; first performed at Croydon in 
October, 1869 ; first produced in London 
on September 7, 1878, at the Duke's Theatre, 
with the author as Valjean, Mrs. Digby 
Willoughby as Fantine (and Cosette), and 
Miss May Holt as Eponine. See Yellow 
Passport and Valjean. 




Barrie, James Mattliew. Dramatic 
and mi.see]laneous ^vriter, born 1S60 ; author 
of the following plavs : — 'Ibsen's Ghost' 
(1891), • Walker, London ' (1^92), ' The Pro- 
fessor's Love-Story' (1S92), 'Becky .Sharp,' 
an adaptation (1S93), 'The Little Minister' 
(1S97), ' The Wedding Guest ' (19(X)), ' Quality 
Street' (1902), 'The Admirable Crichton' 
(1902), and ' Little Mary ' (1903) ; also part- 
author, with H. B. Marriott-Watson, of 
' Richard Savage ' (1S91), and, with A. Conan 
Doyle, of ' Jane Annie ' (1593). 

Barring-ton Rutland [George Rut- 
land Barrington Fleet]. Actor, vocalist, dra- 
matic writer, and theatrical manager, born 
1S53 ; made his professional debut on Sep- 
tember 1, 1&74, at the Olympic Theatre, 
London, as Sir George Bardaji in 'Lady 
Clancarty ' (g.r.). In 1875-7 he took part in 
entertainments given in London by Miss 
Emily Faithf ull and in the English provinces 
by Mrs. Howard Paul. Thence he went to 
the Opera Comique, where he was the first 
representative of Dr. Daly in ' The Sorcerer' 
(1877), Captain Corcoran in 'H.M.S. Pina- 
fore' (1S7S), the Serjeant of Police in 'The 
Pirates of Penzance' (ISSO), and Grosvenor 
in 'Patience' (ISSI) ; thence, again, to the 
Savoy Theatre, where he was the original 
jEarl of Mountararat in 'lolanthe' (1*S2), 
Kino Hildehrand .in 'Princess Ida' (1SS4), 
Pooh-Bah in ' The Mikado ' (1SS5), and Sir 
Despard Murgatroyd in ' Ruddigore ' (1SS7). 
In 1885 he had "created" the part of Dr. 
Dozey in 'The Silver Shield' {q.v.). He 
was the judge in ' Trial by Jury ' at the 
Lyceum in 1887, Chrysosin '"Pygmalion and 
Galatea ' at the same theatre' in 1^88. In 
the last-named year he played Mr. Barnes 
in 'To the Death' {q.v.) at the Olympic. 
In 1SS8, also, he became lessee of the 
St. James's Theatre, where he produced, 
in October, 'The Dean's Daughter' {q.v.\ 
in which he played the Dean ; and in 
November, ' Brantinghame Hall' {q.v.) by 
W. S. Gilbert, in which he represented Mr. 
Thursby. After this he was in the cast of 
'Merry Margate ' {q.v.) and ' Penelope ' (g v.) 
at the Comedy (1889). Then came the fol- 
lowing original parts — Admiral Brabazon in 
' The Inheritance' {q.v.), Colonel Percival in 
'A Chance Interview' {q-v.), and Admiral 
Vincent in 'Faithful James' {q.v.) — all in 
1889, to which year belongs also his Christo- 
pher in 'Locked In' {q.v.). In 1SS9 he re- 
turned to the Savoy to "create" Guiseppe 
Palmieri in ' The Gondoliers,' the Rajah in 
'The^2iVitchGivV {liQl), Sir James Hanbury 
in ' Bartonmere Towers ' {q-v.) (1892), and 
to play the Fi-ev. W. Barlow in the revived 
' Vicar of Bray ' {q.v.) (1892). Later original 
parts there were his Rupert Vernon in 
♦ Haddon Hall ' (1892), his Proctor in ' Jane 
Annie ' (1S93), his King Paramount in ' Uto- 
pia Limited ' (1893), and his Ludu-ig in ' The 
Grand Duke ' (1896). He was in the original 
casts of ' A Greek Slave' (1^98), '.San Toy' 
(1899\ ' A Country Girl ' (1902), ' The Cinga- 
lee' (1904). He is the author of two plays 
named above— 'To the Death' {q.v.), and 
'Bartonmere Towers' {q.t.)\ he has also 

written the "book" of ' A Knight Errant" 
(1894) of ' Water Babies ' (1902), and of some 
other small musical pieces. 

Barring-tons (The). A drama in four 
acts, by A. J. Adair Fitzgerald and J. H. 
Merri FIELD, Novelty Theatre, London, 
March 6, 1SS4. 

Barrister (The). (1) A play in two 
acts, adapted from the ' Gabrielle ' of Augier 
('7.1'), and first performed at the Surrey 
Theatre, London, on March 1, 1852, with 
Creswick as Claremont (the barrister), and 
H. Widdicomb as Yellaboy (a lawyer). The 
piece was revived at the Princess's on 
November 30, 1859, under the title of ' Home 
Truths,' with G. Melville as Claremont^' 
J. G. Shore as Maitland, F. Matthews as 
Yellaboy, Mrs. C. Young as Mrs. Clarenumt, 
and Miss C. Leclercq as Mrs. Yellaboy. When 
the original play was produced in Paris,' 
Regnier played the title part and Samson, 
the lawyer. The adaptation has beer 
printed under the name of ' Good for Evil.. 
(2) A comedy in three acts, by J. H 
Darnlev and G. Ma.nville Fenn ; firs 
performed at the Grand Theatre, Leeds; 
-March 19, 1887; first time in London ai 
Comedy Theatre, September 6, 1887, witlj 
J. H. Darnley in the title part {Arthv 
Maxacll), and other roles by Walter Everarr 
F. Mervin, Miss H. Leyton, Miss A. Verit> 
Miss S. Vaughan, etc. ; played in Americ 
in the same year ; revived at the Royalt 
Theatre, London, in May, 1890. 

Barron,Cliarles. See Moral Crime, i* 

Barrow, Mrs. See Bennett, Julia. 

Barry, Elizabeth. Actress, born 165 
died 1713 ; is said to have been thedaughti 
of a barrister (afterwards known as Colon 
Barry), and to have been at one tin 
under the care of Lady Davenant. Antoi 
Aston says that, when the Earl of Rochest 
secured her appearance on the stag 
she was "woman" to Lady Shelton 
Norfolk. Certain it is that her deb 
was made at Dorset Garden about 1673, 
Queen of Hungary in ' Mustapha,' and th 
at first she was by no means a success. " S 
was, at the end of the first year, discharj 
the company, among others that wt 
thought to be a useless expense to i 
However, she appeared again in 1675, a 
thence continuously till 1652, when s 
figured at the Theatre Royal. With tl 
establishment she was associated till 16 
when she made her entrre at Lincoln's I 
Fields. In 1705 she went to the Haymark 
going to Drury Lane in 1708, and return 
to the HaymaVket in 1709-10. In the lat 
year she withdrew from the .stage. It w-o . 
seem that she was the first distingiiisl - 
English performer for whose benefit a j • 
formance was given. She was the raisti J 
not only of Rochester but of Sir Geo J 
Etherege, and her moral character genen/ 
is described as of the worst. Among V 
original roles (which were very numen ) 
were Monimia in 'The Orphan,' B'lvio i 
in ' Venice Preserved,' Alcuicna in "Amj - 




tryon,' Casnandra in ' Cleomenes,'. Lady 
Toitchwoud in ' The Double Dealer,' Zara 
in 'The Mourning Bride,' Isabella in 'The 
Fatal Marriage,' Lady Brute in 'The Pro- 
voked Wife,' Arpasia in ' Tamerlane,' 
Altemira in the tragedy so named, Calista 
in 'The Fair Penitent,' Clarissa in 'The 
Confederacy,' Phcedra in the tragedy so 
named, and Rodogime in ' The Royal Convert.' 
Among her other parts were Mrs. Page, 
Queen Katherine (' Henry VIII.'), Lady Mac- 
beth, Cordelia (in Tate's 'Lear'), Panthea 
('King and No King'), Evadne ('Maid's 
Tragedy '), Cleopatra (' All for Love '), Iloxana 
('Alexander the Great'), Mrs. Frail (' Love 
for Love ') and Lady Easy (• The Careless 
Husband'). "With all her enchantment," 
writes Antony Aston, "this fine creature 
was not handsome ; her mouth opening 
most on the right side, which she strove to 
draw the other way; and at times com- 
posing her face as if to have her picture 
drawn. She was middle-sized, had darkish 
hair, light eyes, and was indifferent plump. 
She had a manner of drawing out her words, 
which suited her. ... In tragedy she was 
solemn and august ; in comedy alert, easy, 
and genteel ; pleasant in her face and action, 
filling the stage witli a variety of gesture." 
" In characters of greatness," says Gibber, 
" she had a presence of elevated dignity ; 
her mien and motion superb and gracefully 
majestic ; her voice full, clear, and strong, 
•so that no violence of passion could be too 
much for her ; and when distress or tender- 
■ness possessed her, she subsided into the 
most affecting melody and softness. In the 
art of exciting pity she had a power beyond 
all the actresses I have yet seen." Dryden, 
in one of his prefaces, speaks of Mrs. Barry 
as ''always excellent." See Gildon's ' Com- 
parison between the Two Stages' (1702), 
Curll's ' History of the Stage ' (1741), 
Aston's Supplement to T. Gibber's 'Lives 
of Actors and Actresses ' (1753), C. Gibber's 
' Apology ' (1740), Davies' ' Dramatic Miscel- 
lanies' (1784), C. Dibdin's 'History' (1800), 
Genest's ' English Stage ' (1832). 

Barry, Helen. Actress, born in Kent ; 
made her debut at Co vent Garden Theatre 
in August, 1872, as the Princess Fortinbrasse 
in 'Babil and Bijou' {q.v.). Since then 
she has been the first representative of 
the folloAving roles :— Queen Selene in 'The 
Happy Land ' (1873), Edith Dombey in Halli- 
day's ' Heart's Delight ' (1873), the Countess 
Armando in Boucicault's 'Led Astray' 
(1874), Aouda in 'Round the World in 
Eighty Days' (1875), Constance in Morti- 
mer's ', Heartsease' (1875), Mrs. Clarkson 
in 'L'Etrangere' (1876), Diana Carmen in 
Marston's ' True till Death ' (1876), Ethel in 
'Ethel's Revenge' (1876), Mrs. Buster in 
Boucicault's ' Forbidden Fruit ' (1880), Mabel 
Huntinyford in 'The World' (ISSO), Mrs. 
Mandeville in 'A Woman of the World' 
(1886), Catherine Marston in 'Her Trustee' 
(1887), and Clara in 'Held Asunder' (1888). 
She has also appeared in London as Lady 
Clancarty, the Countess in 'The Two Or- 
phans' (1878), Lady Helen in 'Twine the 

Plaiden' (1878), Eve de Malvoisie in 
' \ outh ' (ISSI), the Corintess D'Autreval 
in ' The Ladies' Battle ' (1888), Madge Oli- 
phant in ' After ' (1888), and Rachel in ' The 
Esmondes of Virginia' (1888). She was the 
first representative of Margaret in Taylor's 
'Arkwright's Wife' (Leeds, 1873), and of 
Eleanor in ' Caryswold ' (Liverpool, 1877). 
Helen Barry's first visit to the United States 
was paid in May, 1883, when she appeared 
at the Union Square Theatre, New York, as 
Margaret in ' Arkwright's Wife.' In April, 
1884, she "created" at the Union Square 
Theatre, New York, the role of the heroine 
of 'The Fatal Letter' {q.v.). Her repertory 
includes, further. Lady Macbeth, Katherine 
('Taming of the Shrew'), Lady Teazle, 
Lydia Languish, Lady Gay Spanker, Su- 
zanne ('A Scrap of Paper'), Lady Isabel 
('East Lynne), and Mrs. Sutherland ('A 
Lesson in Love '). She is part-author with 
Gus Thomas of * A Night's Frolic ' {q.v.). 

Barry, liudovrick. Dramatic writer ; 
" of ancient and honourable family in Ire- 
land ; " author of ' Ram Alley ; or. Merry 
Tricks ' (q.v.), a comedy first printed in 1611. 
See Wood's ' Athenaj Oxonienses ' (1813-20), 
Langbaine's ' Dramatic Poets ' (1691), Whin- 
cop's ' List of English Dramatic Poets ' 
(1747), the 'Biographia Dramatica' (1812), 
Genest's ' English Stage ' (1832). 

Barry, Shiel. Actor, born in County 
Kildare, Ireland ; made his debut in Aus- 
tralia in 1859. After C(msiderable expe- 
rience there and in the English provinces, 
he made his first bow to a London audience 
at the Princess's Theatre in September, 
1870, as the Doctor in Boucicault's ' Rap- 
paree' (q.v.) and Paddy Miuyhy in 'The 
Happy Man' (q.v.). These were followed 
by appearances in ' Peep o' Day ' (Barney 
O'Toole), ' Arrah-na-Pogue ' (Michael Feeney). 
•The Colleen Bawn,' and other dramas of 
Irish life and character, in which he sub- 
sequently appeared in the United States, 
Canada, and the West Indies. Returning 
to England in 1875, he was the first repre- 
sentative in London of Harvey Duff in ' The 
Shaughraun' (q.v.). Then came, in 1878, 
his highly successful GasjMrd, the miser, in 
'Les Cloches de Corneville' (q.v.) — a role 
which he sustained for a long time at the 
Folly and Globe Theatres and in the country. 
It was followed by his Wild Murtogh in a 
London revival of ' Green Bushes ' (1880). 
He was not seen again in the English me- 
tropolis till Christmas, 1889, when he figured 
as Scroogina in the pantomime of ' Cinde- 
rella ' at the Haymarket. In 1800 he repre- 
sented Chickanague in the opera of ' The 
Black Rover ' (q.v.) at the Globe. 

Barry, Sprang-er. Actor, born at 
Dublin, 1719, died 1777 ; was brought up as 
a silversmith, became bankrupt, and took to 
the stage. His debut was made at the Smock 
Alley Theatre, Dublin, in February, 1744. 
and he continued to perform there till 
October, 1746, wlien he made his first London 
appearance as Othello at Drury Lane. Here 
he remained, sharing the best parts with 




Garrick, till 1750, when he went to Covent 
Garden, where, for the next eight years, he 
was the acknowledged rival of his great con- 
temporary. In 1754-5 he paid a flying visit 
to Dublin. In 1759 he went thither Avith 
Woodward to open the Crow Street Theatre, 
which they had built ; and the partners, 
two years later, started another venture— 
a new theatre at Cork. Woodward returned 
to London in 1762, but Barry remained in 
management till 1767, when he appeared at 
the Haymarket. In the same year he was 
re-engaged at Drury Lane, with which he 
was associated till 1774, the remainder of his 
professional career being passed at Covent 
Garden. He was married to Mrs. Dancer in 
1768 (see Cr.^wford, Mrs.). Among his 
original roles were Mahomet in ' Irene,' 
Young Norval in 'Douglas,' Ronan in 
* The Fatal Discovery,' Tancred in ' Almida,' 
Aubrey in ' The Fashionable Lover,' and 
Evander in 'The Grecian Daughter' (q.v.). 
His repertory also included Lear (1744-5), 
Henry V. (1744-5), Macbeth (1746-7), Hotspur 
(1746-^7), Hamlet (1746-7), Antony ('Juhus 
Caesar,' 1746-7). iJoweo (1748-9), Richard III. 
(1756-77), Jacques (1774-5), Castalio in ' The 
Orphan' (1745-6), Altamont in 'The Fair 
Penitent' (1745-6), Lord Toxvnly in 'The 
Provoked Husband' (1746-7), Lothario in 
'The Fair Penitent' (1750-1), Bajazet 
('Tamerlane'), Oroonoko, Pierre, and J a filer 
(' Venice Preserved '), Captain Plume (' The 
Recruiting Officer'), and Captain Macheath. 
Davies said that "of all the tragic actors who 
have trod the English stage for these last 
fifty years, Mr. Barry was unquestionably 
the niost pleasing. Since Booth and Wilks, 
no actor had shown the public a just idea of 
the hero or the lover ; Bai-ry gave dignity to 
the one and passion to the other. In his 
person he was tall without awkwardness ; 
in his countenance he was handsome with- 
out effeminacy ; in his uttering of passion, 
the language of nature alone was communi- 
cated to the feelings of an audience. If any 
player deserved the character of an unique, 
he certainly had a just claim to it." O'Keef e 
gave it as "his opinion that Barry was " the 
finest actor in his walk that has appeared on 
the Eughsh stage ; " and Murphy wrote — 

"Harmonious Barry ! with what varied art 
His grief, rage, tenderness, assail'd the heart ! 
Of plaintive Otway now no more the boast ! 
And Shakspeare grieves for his Othello lost ! " 

Churchill, in the ' Rosciad,' was less flatter- 
ing. See Davies' 'Life of Garrick' (17S0), 
Hitchcock's ' Irish Stage ' (178S-94), Kelly's 
'Reminiscences' (1826). O'Keefe's 'Recol- 
lections ' (1826), Bernard's ' Retrospections ' 
(1830), Genesfs ' Enghsh Stage' (1832), 
Donaldson's ' Recollections ' (1865). 

Barry, Mrs. Spranger. See Craw- 
ford, Mrs. 

Barry, Thomas. Actor, died in Eng- 
land, 1857 ; made his first appearance in 
America at the Park Theatre, New York, in 
1826, as the hero of ' The Stranger.' He 
was stage-manager of the Park till 1833 ; 
manager of the Tremont Theatre, Boston, 
from 1833 to 1839 ; manager of the Bowery 

in 1840 ; stage-manager of the Park from 
1841 onwards ; assistant-manager of the 
Broadway from 1850 to 1854 ; and afterwards 
manager of the new Boston Theatre. See 
Ireland's ' New York Stage.' See Barry, 
Mrs. Thomas. 

Barry, Mrs. Thomas. Actress ; made 
her first appearance in America at the Park 
Theatre, New York, in 1S27, as Juliet, after- 
wards playing Belvidera and Juliana. She 
performed at Boston in 1833-39, and in 1841 
returned to the Park, where she played for 
the last time in 1848. She died in 1854. 
See Ireland's 'New York Stage.' 

Barrymore, Earl of. See Amateur 

Barrymore, Maurice. Actor ; ap- 
peared at the Haymarket Theatre in 1884-86, 
creating two parts— D;-. Basil Xorth in: 
'Dark Days' (1SS5) and Paul Devercux in 
' Nadjezda' (1SS6), and figuring also asCount. 
Orlof in 'Diplomacy' (1884), Ernest Vane in! 
'Masks and Faces' (1885), Angus Mac- 
all i.«ter in 'Ours' (1885), Belvaicncy in ' En-; 
gaged' (1886), and Lotus Percival in 'Jim 
the Penman ' (1SS6). In 1887 he played the" 
title part in 'Lagadere' {q.v.) at Niblo's.' 
New York. He is the author of two drai 
matic pieces — 'Honour,' an adaptatior; 
(1881), and ' Nadjezda' (1886). 

Barrymore, "William. Actor anc 
dramatic writer; made his debut at Drur; 
Lane in 1827 as Raraiero in ' The Guerillj' 
Chief;' appeared in 1831 at the Park ami 
Bowery Theatres, New York, whence hj 

went to Boston, dying there in 1845. H 

was much esteemed in melodrama and stag ; 
management. " ' Orsino, by Mr. Barrymore j 
what a full Shakespearean sound it carries] 
how fresh to memory arise the image an ; 
the manner of the gentle actor" (Chark 
Lamb). Robson, in ' The Old Playgoer 
(1S46), speaks of Barrymore as " The Tyran 
Murderer, Usurper of the drama. . ,* . H 
was a sound, useful actor. . . . You wi 
find his name in a highly respectable line i 
characters for a great many years." Amoi 
his dramatic pieces were ' El Hyder ' (ISl ■ 
'The Fatal Snowstorm,' 'The Font; 
Slave,' 'The Foulahs,' 'Gilderoy,' 'M. 
Marnock,' ' The Secret,' ' A Slave's R 
venge,' ' Trial by Battle,' and ' Wallac 
See Barrymore, Mrs. William. 

Barrym.ore, Mrs. "William. Actres 
" was known on the English stage as ear 
as 1803, as Miss Adams, a dancer', and aft 
her marriage attained distinction as a me 
dramatic actress of the highest grad 
(Ireland). She played at the Park a 
Bowery Theatres, New York, in 1S31, and 
Boston from 1832 onwards. Returning 
England, she died in 1862. 

Barsanti, Miss (Mrs. Lisley). Actref 
of an Italian family, and a pupil of Lt 
Burney ; appeared at Covent Garden fn 
1772 to 1776, and at the Haymarket in 17 
She was the original representative of Lyy 
Languish in 'The Rivals,' and amc 
her other parts were Portia (' Merchant' 




Venice'). ^^1'^- Ford ('Merry Wives'), E><ti- 
fania ('Rule a Wife'), Mrs. Oakley ('The 
Jealous Wife '), Charlotte Rusport (' The 
West Indian '), 3rrs. Frail (' Love for Love '), 
Lady Fanciful (' The Provoked Wife '), Lady 
Toivnly (' The Provoked Husband '), Widoiu 
Bellviow (' The Way to Keep Him '). Be- 
coming a widow, she married Richard Daly, 
manager of the Smock AlleyTheatre, Dublin, 
"and was," says Genest, " the great support 
of his theatre. She was a very good actress." 
O'Keefe considered her "capital" in all 
Mrs. Abington's parts. See O'Keefe's 
' Recollections ' (1826) and Genest's ' English 
Stage ' (1832). 

Bartholo, Dr. A character in 'The 
Spauish Barber ' (q.v.). See Bartolo. 

Bartholomew, Anne Charlotte (nt^.e 
Fayermann). Dramatist, died 1862 ; author 
of 'The King ; or, The Farmer's IJaugiiter' 
(1829), and ' It is only my Aunt,' a farce 

Bartholomew Fair. A comedy by 
Ben Jonson (q.v.), first performed at the 
Hope Theatre, London, on October 31, 1614, 
by " the Lady Elizabeth's servants "—the 
Lady P^lizabeth being the daughter of 
James I. The play, says Giff ord, " was 
always a favourite with the people," no 
doubt because of "the ridicule with which 
it covers the Puritans." "It was revived 
immediately after the Restoration, and was 
frequently honoured with a royal command 
by Charles, whom tradition represents as 
greatly delighted with the character of 
Cokes, Avhich was, indeed, excellently played 
by AVintersel, and afterwards by lNoke«." 
Amoner the other per so nee are John Little- 
wit, Win-the-fi(jht Littleiuit, Zeal-of-the-land 
Busy, Winwife, Tom Quarlons, Humphrey 
Waspe, Adam Overdo, Fdgeworth, Lanthorn 
Leatherhead, Niyhtingale, Mooncalf, Dan 
Joi-dan Enockem, Trouble-all, Bristle, Filcher, 
Puppy, Dame Purecraft, Grace Wellborn, 
Joan Trash, etc. Giflford commends the 
play as abounding in "powerful satire, no 
less than in wit and humour." " The cha- 
racters, numerous as they are, are all kept 
distinct from one another." ' Bartholomew 
Fair' was revived at the Haymarket in 
August, 1707, with Bullock as Cokes, John- 
son as Waspe, Pack as Busy, Keen as Justice 
Overdo, Norrisas Littleicit.'Mills as Quarlous, 
Booth as Edgeivorth, and Mrs. Porter as 
Mrs. Wellborn ; at Drury Lane in June, 1715, 
with Johnson, Mills, and Norris in their 
former parts, Mrs. Saunders as Littleivit, 
and Miss Willis as Mrs. Wellborn; and at 
Drury Lane in October, 1731, with Gibber, 
jun., as Cokes, Johnson as before, and Miss 
Rafter as Littlewit. 

Bartley, George. Actor, born at Bath, 
1782 ; made his debut there as the page in 
* The Purse.' In ISOO he played Orlando at 
Cheltenham, and, repeating the assumption 
at Margate, attracted the attention of Mrs. 
Jordan, who recommended him for an en- 
gagement at Drury Lane. There he made 
his first appearance, in the same character, 
iu 1802, remaining a member of the company 

till 1804, when he went to the Haymarkpt, 
afterwards appearing at various towns in 
the provinces, as well as at Drurv Lane as 
Falstaff, etc. He next went as stage- 
manager to the English cipera House, 
resigning his appointment in 1S18. In the 
same year he appeared at the Park Theatre, 
New York, as Falstaff, and, returning by- 
and-by, was seen at Covent Garden (in 1822) 
as Sir Toby Belch and in other characters. 
He took his farewell of the stage in 1853, 
and died in 1858. During his later years 
" he derived his greatest fame from his 
personation of the veterans of the stage, 
such as Falstaff (in which he was for many 
years unrivalled), Polonius, Sir Peter Teazle, 
Sir Anthony Absolute, Sir David Dunder, 
Job Thornberry, Colonel Damas, Max Hark- 
away, etc.'] Of the last-named character he 
was the original exponent. Oxberry praises 
his Old Mirabel, Sir Christopher Curry, 
Eustache de Saint Pierre, FitzhardingC Iron 
Chest '), Jobs'on, Joe Standfast, etc. Hazlitt 
wrote of him. "There is a thinness in his 
voice, and a plumpness in his person, neither 
of which is to our taste." Planche, on the 
other hand, characterized him as "a 
sensible, unaffected actor, without any pre- 
tension to genius, but thoroughly dependable 
to the extent of his ability." See 'The 
Thespian Dictionary' (1802-5), Oxberry's 
' Dramatic Biography,' Ireland's ' New York 
Stage ' (1866), Brown's ' American Stage * 
(1870). See Bartley, INIrs. G. 

Bartley, Mrs. Georg-e (n4e William- 
son). Actress, born at Liverpool, 1783 j 
died in London, 1850; after appearing at 
Salisbury and Bath, made, in 1805, her ddbut 
at Covent Garden as Lady Toivnly in ' The 
Provoked Husband.' Playing at Dublin in 
1807, she reappeared at Covent Garden in 
the following year, being afterwai-ds en- 
gaged for three years at Drury Lane. In 
1815 she married George Bartley, and in 
1818 performed with him at the Park 
Theatre, New York, her opening part being 
that of the heroine in ' Isabella ' (q. v.). Tours 
in the English provinces followed, and in 
1823 she resumed her position at Covent 
Garden. As a tragic actress she ranked 
high. Donaldson says that she " was formed 
by nature for the higher walk of her pro- 
fession. She had a noble and expressive 
face, fuU, strong, and melodious voice, 
capable of any intonation, and an original 
conception of her author." See Ireland's 
'New York Stage' (1866) and Brown's 
' American Stage ' (1870). 

Bartoldo. A wealthy old miser in 
MiLMAN's 'Fazio' (q.v.). 

Bartolo, Dr., figures in the various 
versions and adaptations of ' The Barber of 
Seville ' (q.v.). 

Bartolozzi, Lucy Elizabeth. See 
Vestris, Mdme. 

Bartolus. A lawyer, husband of 
Amaranta in Beaumont and Fletcher's 
' Spanish Curate ' (q.v.). 




Barton. Actor, born ia London ; -was 
playing at Brighton about 1820. Both in 
England and Scotland "he enjoyed con- 
siderable repute as a leading actor in tragedy 
and in the better range of melodrama." In 
1832 he was ' ' starred " at the Bowery Theatre, 
New York, and in 1833 appeared at 
Philadelphia. Returning to England, he 
died there in 1848. See Ireland s 'New 
York Stage ' (1866) and Brown's ' American 
Stage ' (1870). 

Barton, Fanny. See Abington, Mrs. 

Bartonmere Towers. A comedy in 
three acts, by Rutland BarriiNGTon (g.v.), 
first performed at the Savoy Theatre, Lon- 
don, on the afternoon of February 1, 1893, 
■with a cast including the author. 

Barwise's Book. A comedy in two 
acts by H. T. Craven (q.v.), first performed 
at the Theatre Royal, Edinburgh, on April 
13, 1870; first produced in London at the 
Haymarket Theatre, on April 25, 1870, with 
a cast including E. A. Sothern, W. H. 
Chippendale, H. Compton, W. H. Kendal, 
J. B. Buckstone, Miss Robertson (Mrs, 
Kendal), Miss F. Gwynne, and Mrs. F. 

Base Impostor (A). A play by Horace 

WiGAN iq.v.). 

Bashaw and the Bear. See Bruno. 

Bashful Irishman (The), by Mark 
Lemon (g.v.), was performed at the Olympic 
Theatre, New York, in 1840. 

Bashful Lover (The). A tragi- 
comedy, by Philip Massinger (g.w.), 
licensed on May 9, 1636, and acted at " the 
private house in Black-Fryars." " It was 
extremely well received at its first appear- 
ance, and continued to be a favourite." It 
was printed in 1655. The bashful lover is 
Hortensio, who, though enamoured of 
Matilda, the daughter of Gonzaga, does not 

Kroclaim his passion. Lorenzo demands 
er hand in marriage, and Gonzaga refuses. 
There is a battle, and Mantua is captured, 
whilst Matilda, attempting to escape, is 
seized, but rescued by Hortensio. Both, 
however, are taken prisoners. Lorenzo 
(having restored her father to his duke- 
dom) renews his suit, and Hortensio, very 
disinterestedly, advises Matilda to accept it. 
She replies by declaring her love for Hor- 
tensio. Lorenzo gives her up ; and Gonzaga 
consents to her marriage with her bashful 
lover, who, his brother having just died, is 
now Duke of Milan. The play, altered by 
Hull, was revived at Covent Garden in May, 
1798, under the title of 'Disinterested Love,' 
with Pope as Hortensio, Holman as Lorenzo, 
INIurray as Gonzaga, and Mrs. Pope as 

Bashful Man (The). A comic drama 
by W. T. MONCRIEFF {q.v.), first performed in 
1857. Blushington is the basliful man, and 
L>inah Fnendlg is the girl to whom, inspired 
by wine, he "eventually finds courage to 

Basil, Count. See Count Basil. 
Basil's Faith, by A. VV. Dubourq 


Basilio. The clerical bigot in 'The 
Barber of Seville ' {q.v.) and ' Marriage of 
Figaro ' (q.v.). 

Basilisco. A boasting but cowardly 
knight in ' Soliman and Perseda' (q.v.). 
He is alluded to by Philip the bastard iu 
' King John,' act i. sc. 1. 

Basket - Maker (The). A musical , 
farce in two acts, words by John O'Keefe, ; 
mu.-^ic by Samuel Arnold ; first performed 
at the Haymarket Theatre on .September 
4, 1790, with Bannister as Simon Itochefort, ' 
Bannister, jun., as Wattle, and Mrs. Ban- 
n ster as Claudine. Wattle is a basket- 
maker, to whom Rochefort — who has been 
deprived of his lands by the Governor of 
Canada, and has been elected King of the '■■ 
Iroquois — has entrusted the custody of his ' 
son William. The last named has been 
taught the trade of basket-making, and by 
means of his .skill in it propitiates the 
Indiana into whose hands he falls. In the 
end, Rochefort is restored, and William 
marries Claudine. The piece was revived, 
with alterations, in 1820, at Covent Garden, 
under the title of ' Iroquois ; or, The 
Canadian Basket-maker.' 

Basket-Maker's Wife (The). See 
Devil to Pay, The. 

Basoche (The). A comic opera in 
three acts, libretto by Albert Carre,, 
music by Andre Messager, produced atj 
Opera Comique, Paris, May 30, 1890; first! 
perf'^rmed in England (in a version by Sir! 
A. Harris and Eugene Oudin) at the 
Royal English Opera House, London, on 
November 3, 1891, with Ben Davie^ as 
Clement Marot, C. Kenningbam as L'Eveille, 
D. Bispham as the Due de Longueville, W. 
H. Burgon as Louis XIL., Miss E. Pallisei 
as Marie d' Angleterre, Miss Lucille Hill as 
Colette, and other parts by J. Le Hay, Miss 
Esme Lee, etc. ; first performed in America 
at Chicago in January, 1893. 

Bass, Charles. Actor, born in London 
1803, oied in Canada, 1863 ; made his firs- 
appearance in New York at Park Theatrt 
in August, 1845, as Colonel Damas in ' Th( 
Lady of Lyon^.' 

Basset, Count, in Gibber's 'Provokec 
Husband ' (q. v.), is a swindler, with no righ 
to the title he has assumed. 

Basset-Tahle (The). A comedy b; 
;Mrs. Cf.ntlivre (q.v.), tirst performed a 
Drury Lane on November 20, 1705, witl 
Mrs. Oldfield as Lady Reveller, ^Mills a 
Lord Worthy, Wilks as Sir James Courtly 
Bickerstaff as Ensign Lively, Mrs. Rogei 
as Lady 2>f<c?/, and I\lrs. Mountfort as Valeric 
Lady Reveller (who keeps a bassettablf 
is beloved by Lord Worthy, but slights hin, 
He rescues her from the pretended passio 
of Sir James, and- she thereupon niarrie 
him. Sir James marries Lady Lvcu, an 
Lively espouses Valeria. The cast include 



Sago, a druggist, and his wife ; a Sir Richard 
Plainman and a Captain Hearty. 

Bassianus, in ' Titvis Andronicus ' iq.v.\ 
is in love with Lavinia {q.v.). 

Bassino, Count. The '• perjured hus- 
band" in Mrs. Centlivre's play of that 
name {q.v.). 

Bassoon. A servant of Cantato, in 
' Bays' Opera ' iq.v.). 

Bastard (The). (1) A tragedy, printed 
in 1652, and attributed to Cosmo Manuche 
(q.v.), though Genest gives reasons for 
doubting if the play was the work of that 
writer. In the prologue we read— 

"Translation is no crime ; we here impress 
A Spanish bastard in an English dress." 

Genest notes that the author has borrowed 
several speeches from 'Komeo and Juliet' 
and ' Richard III.,' as well as some lines 
from '2 Henry VI.' The Bastard is one 
Gaspar, who, refused by Mariana, kills her, 
her father, and then himself. "At the 
conclusion, eight of the principal characters 
lie dead on the stage." (2) A tragedy 
by Robert Lovett, which, " if ever acted, 
appeared only on the Irish stage " (' Bio- 
graphia Dramatica '). 

Bastien and Bastienne. An operetta, 
music by Mozart, performed, with EngHsh 
libretto, at Daly's Theatre, London, in De- 
cember, 1894. 

Bastille (The). A one-act piece from 
the French, first performed at the Hay- 
market Theatre, London, in December, 
18i2, with Mdme. Celeste as Ninon, Webster 
as Fricandeaii. and H. Hull as Louin XI V. 

Bastion, General. A blind veteran 
in CoLMAX, jun.s, 'We fly by Might' (q.v.). 

Bataille de Dames. See Ladies' 

Batchelors (The). See Bachelors, 

Bate, Henry. See Dudley, Henry 


Bateman, Ellen. Actress, daughter 
of H. L. and S. F. Bateman (q.v.), and sister 
of Kate Bateman (q.v.) ; born at Baltimore, 
U.S.A., in 1S45 ; acted in America and 
England between 1S49 and ISCO, when she 
married and left the stage. 

Bateman, H. L. Actor and theatrical 

manager, born 1S13, died March, 1875 ; 
made his debut at New York in December, 
1849, as Mr. Wilton in ' Old and Young.' 
He was seen at the Adelphi Theatre, London, 
in June, 1S65, as Davtd liuthin (an old Welsh 
harper) in his wife's drama, 'Geraldine' 
(q.v.). He became lessee and manager of 
the Lyceum Theatre, London, in September, 
1871, retaining the position until his death. 
He was the father of Kate, Ellen, Isabel, 
and Virginia Bateman, all of which see. 

Bateman, Isabel. Actress, daughter 
of H. L. and S. F. Bateman ('^.y.); born in 
Cincinnati, 18.^4 ; appeared, as a child, at 
Her Majesty's Theatre, London, as Dirjijory 

Dawdlegrass in 'Little Daisy' (December, 
1865). Her formal debut, as an adult, was 
made at Edinburgh (May, 1871), and after- 
wards at the Lyceum Theatre, London 
(September, 1871), as the heroine of her 
mother's play, 'Fanchette' (q.v.). Other 
original parts played by her at the Lyceum 
were those of Queen Henrietta Maria in 
Wills's ' Charles I.' (1872), liuth Meadows 
in Wills's ' Eugene Aram ' (1873), 2Iarie in 
Aide's ' Philip ' (1874), and Thekla in WiUs 
and Fitzgerald's ' Vanderdeckea' (1878) ; she 
further tigured there as Julie in ' Richelieu' 
(1873), Ophelia (1874), Desdemona (1876), 
Letitia Hardy in 'The Belle's Stratagem' 
(1876), Jeannette in ' The Lyons Mail' (1877), 
and Lady Anne in ' Richard III.' (1877). In 
1880 she played Juliet, and Sophia in ' The 
Road to Ruin ' (q.v.), at Sadler's Wells 
Theatre. In 1883 at the Adelphi she was 
the original Ituth Herrick in Sims and 
Pettitt's 'In the Ranks' (q.v.), and at Drury 
Lane in 1885 she "created" Xellie Temple 
in Pettitt and Harris's 'Human Nature' 
(q.v.), besides appearing as Susan in 'It's 
Never too Late to Mend' (q.v.). She has 
also created the title part in Wills's 'Cla- 
rissa Harlowe ' (Birmingham, 1889). Of late 
years she has added to her repertory Juliet, 
Frou-Frou, Leah, Mary Warner, Miami, 
Jeanie Dean,<;, Jane Shore (Wills), the 
heroines of Pinero's ' Squire * (q.v.) and 
' Profligate' (q.v.). 

Bateman, Kate Josephine [Mrs. 
Trowel. Actress, daughter of H. L. and 
S. F. Bateman (q.v.) ; born 1843 [at Balti- 
more in October, 1842] ; made her pro- 
fessional debut at Louisville, U.S.A., in 
1846 ; appeared in New York at the Broad- 
way Theatre in December, 1849, with her 
younger sister, Ellen (q.v.), playing Bich- 
mond to Ellen's Jiichard III., Tag to her 
Little Pickle (in ' The Spoiled Child '), Portia 
to her Shylock, and Artaxaminous to 
her Bomhastes; appearing also as Lady 
Macbeth. In the autumn of 1851 the 
sisters appeared at the St. James's Theatre, 
London, in acts and scenes from Shake- 
speare, etc., and some comment on their 
performances may be read in Henry 
Morley's ' Journal of a London Playgoer.' 
" Though the younger actor," wrote Mor- 
ley, " has perhaps the more whimsical 
turn for comic and farcical play, the 
elder seems to be the better actress of 
the two. Her flrst scene [in Scribe's 
'Young Couple'] showed not a few of the 
qualities of impulsive and natural acting." 
In April, 1852, the sisters acted ( "admirably," 
says E. L. Blanchard)at the Surrey Theatre, 
London, in 'The Young Couple' and in 
Bayle Bernard's 'The Old Style and the 
New' (q.v.). In the same year they re- 
appeared at the Broadway, New York. In 
1860 Kate Bateman was seen at the Winter 
Garden in that city as Geraldine in her 
mother's play (q.v.), Evangeline, and Leah. 
Her debut in London as an adult was made 
in the last-named character (q.v.) on 
October 1, 1863, at the Adelphi Theatre. 
[" Find the child has grown up a tine joung 




woman," wrote E. L. Blanchard.] In 
January, 1865, she appeared there as 
Julia in 'The Hunchback' {q.v.)\ in Maj', 
as Blanca in Milman's 'Fazio' {q.v.); and, 
in June, as Geraldine. At Her Majesty's 
Theatre, in December, she figured as Juliet 
in Shakespeare's tragedy. In 1866 she 
appeared at Niblo's Garden, New York, 
as Pauline, Farthenia, etc., and in the 
same year married Dr. George Crowe. To 
December, 1S68, belongs her appearance 
at the Haymarket as Pietra in Dr. 
Mosenthal's tragedy (q.v.), and to June, 
1869, her creation there of the role of Manj 
Warner in Tom Taylor's play so named 
(q.v.). In July, 1872, she was the original 
representative (at the Lyceum) of the 
heroine in ^Yills's ' iledea in Corinth ' (q-v.), 
and in October, 1873 (at Liverpool), of the 
heroine in A. W. Dubourg's ' Bitter Fruit ' 
(q.v.). At the Lyceum, London, she played 
in 1875 Lady Macbeth, in 1876 Emilia in 
•Othello' {q.v-) and Queen Mary (her 
original part) in Lord Tennyson's play so 
named, and in 1S77 Queen Margaret in 
'Richard III.' (q.v.), and Sarah Leeson 
(her original part) in 'The Dead Secret' 
(q.v.). When, in October, 1879, her mother 
opened Sadler's "Wells Theatre, Miss Bate- 
man appeared there as Helen Macgregor in 
'Rob Roy' (q.v.), and in April, 1881, she 
was seen there as the creator of Margaret 
Field in H. A. Jones's 'His Wife' (q.v.). 
After a long interval of retirement Miss 
Bateman returned to the London stage in 
September, 1891, to play the Marquise de 
Bellegarde in H. James's ' American ' (q.v.). 
Since then she has been the original repre- 
sentative of Mrs. Iljerns in ' Karin ' (May, 
1892), and of 3irs. Grcnfell in 'David' 
(November, 1892). See Crowe, Sidney. 

Bateman, Lord. A character in 
Brough's 'Overland Journey' (q.v.) and 
H. J. Byron's ' Beautiful Haidue ' (q.v.). 
See Lord Bateman. 

Bateman, Sidney Frances. The- 
atrical manageress and dramatic writer, 
daughter of Joseph Cowell (q.v.) and wife 
of H. L. Bateman (q.v.); born 1825, died 
January, ISSl ; was for some time lessee and 
director of Sadler's Wells Theatre, which 
she opened in October, 1879, with ' Rob 
Roy.' She was the author of two plays— 
' Geraldine ; or. The Master Passion ' (q.v.) 
and ' Fanchette ' (q.v.). 

Bateman, Virgrinia. See Compton, 
Mrs. Edward. 

Bateman ; or, The Unhappy Mar- 
riag-e. Played at Bartholomew Fair in 
August, 1703, with Dogget as Sparrow. 

Bates. (1) A soldier in ' King Henry V . ; ' 
one of those with whom the n^o'narch holds 
colloquy before the battle of Agincourt (act 
iv. sc. 1). (2) A character in Moore's 
'Gamester' (q.v.). (3) Charley Bates, a 
pickpocket, figures in various adaptations 
of Dickens's ' Oliver Twist' (q.v.). 

Bates, "William. Actor ; for some 
time connected at Drury Lane ; made his 

debut in America in 1793 ; first appeared la 
New York in 1798. See Bernards ' Recol- 
lections ' (1830) and Dunlap's ' American 
Theatre ' (1S33). 

Bath (Somersetshire). The earliest no- 
tices of the drama in Bath are to be found 
in the municipal archives, which show that 
between 1577 and 1612 the city was con- 
stantly visited by companies of actors asso- 
ciated with the Court or the nobility. Of 
performances by strolling players of less 
distinction, Bath, like every other large 
country town, probably had known many. 
The representations would take place in 
inn-yards or in any large room that could 
be rented; tlie Town Hall would also be 
available for the better class of entertain- 
ments, as we find recorded of it under date 
1673. The first regiilar theatre in Bath was 
that which was built by subscription in 1705 
on the site now occupied by the Royal 
Mineral Water Hospital. This was managed 
by an actor named Hornby. A reference to 
the Bath Stage as it was in 1725 may be read 
in Defoe's ' Tour through Great Britain.' 
In 1738 the theatre made way for the afore- 
said hospital, and thereafter, for a time, 
theatrical performances were given both in 
a large apartment below the Assembly 
Rooms (called "Mr. Simpson's Theatre") 
and in a similar room in Kingsmead Street, 
of which latter we hear nothing after 1751. 
In 1748 John Palmer, a local brewer and 
tallow-chandler, made public proposals for 
the erection of a new theatre, with the result 
that a suitable building was erected in Or- 
chard Street, the opening taking place in 
October, 1750, During the next fifty-five 
years the drama flourished exceedingly in 
Bath, then at the height of its prosperity 
as a fashionable resort. For some time 
Palmer's enterprise suffered from rivalry 
in connection with the revived Assembly 
Rooms, which, however, he eventually took 
over. The theatre was enlarged in 1755 and 
reconstructed in 1767. In 1768 Palmer ob- 
tained for it the first patent granted to a 
pi-oviucial house, and it tlius became a 
Theatre Roj'al. In 1785 he surrendered the 
direction to two of his actors, Keasberry and 
Dimond, the latter of whom became' sole 
manager about 1790. The last dramatic per- 
formance in the building (now a Masonic 
Hall) took place on July 13, 1805. In this 
theatre Henderson had made his stage debut 
in 1772, and Elliston his in 1790. Edwin and 
Didier were also debutants at Bath, where 
Mrs. Siddons spent a good deal of her no- 
vitiate. A new and more commodious The- 
atre Royal, rendered necessary by the growth 
of public patronage, and erected in Beaufort 
Square, was opened in October, 1805. In 
1812 Dimond died, and his wife followed 
him in 1823, when his sons disposed of their 
proprietorial rights to Colonel Palmer, a 
son of John Palmer. The theatre was then 
managed successively bv Charlton, Bellamy 
(1827), Barnett (1833), Woulds, backed by 
Macready (1834), Davidge (1840), Newcombe 
and Bedford (1841), Hav (ls41). Hooper 
(1843), Mrs. Macready (1845), and J. H. 




Chute (1853). Up to this time, the theatres 
in Bath had been served by stock companies, 
■which "supported" the famous "stars" 
arriving successively from London or else- 
where. In 1854 C. J. Mathews and Mdme. 
Vestris brought with them to Bath the whole 
Lyceum company, preluding a number of 
similar excursions from the metropolis. 
Nevertheless, between 1S53 and 1SG2, the 
stock actors included such well-known ar- 
tists as Miss Marie Wilton, Miss Henrietta 
Hodson, Miss Madge Robertson, Arthur 
Stirling, William and George Rignold, 
Arthur Wood, J. F. Cathcart, and so on. 
In April, 1862, the Theatre Royal was burned 
down, but it was speedily rebuilt (from the 
designs of C. J. Phipps), and opened on 
March 4, 1863, with a production of ' A Mid- 
summer Night's Dream,' in which C F. 
Coghlan was the Demetrius and Miss Ellen 
Terry the Titania. Its managers have in- 
cluded (since J. H. Chute) H. Nelson 
King (1868), W. Duck (1869), B. Ellis and F. 
Kenyon (1875), F. Kenyon (1S76), F. Neebe 
(1877), F. Emery (1SS4), and William Lewis 
(1885). For further particulars, see Main- 
waring's 'Annals of Bath,' 'Municipal Re- 
cords of Bath,' Genest's ' English Stage ' 
(which gives details of Bath theatricals 
during 1776-7, 1786-8, and 1789-1830), and 
'The Bath Stage,' by Belville S. Pauley 

Batli(The); or, The Western Lass. 
A comedy by Thomas d'Ukfey, first per- 
formed at Drury Lane in 1701, with 
Mrs Verbruggen as Gillian Homebred (the 
western lass), Gibber as Crab, Mrs. Rogers 
as So2)hronia, Griffin as Lord Lovechace, 
and i\Irs. Knight as Lydia. The first scene 
is laid in the King's Bath. Crab, "a sliarp- 
witted country fellow," passes himself off 
as a captain of militia, and marries Gillian. 
Sophronia, who is in love with Transport, 
is married to Lord Lovechace, who has an 
intrigue with Lydia. See Simile, Sir 

Bath Unmasked (The). A comedy 
by Gabriel Odingsels (q.v.), first performed 
at Lincoln's Inn Fields on February 27, 1725, 
with Mrs. Egleton as Lady Ambs-ace, Mrs. 
Bullock as Liberia, Mrs. Vincent as Honoria, 
Boheme as Lord Wiseman, Walker as Count 
Fripon, Egleton as Pander, Mrs. Legar as 
Miss Whiffle, Hippisley as Sir Captious 
Whiffle, Ryan as Sprightly, and Mrs. Parker 
as Cleora. Odingsels "meant by the title 
to imply that he had described the humours 
of Bath " (Genest). 

Bathilda. A character in Grattan's 
'Ben Nazir' (q.v.). 

Bathing. A farce in one act by James 
jSruton, first performed at the Olympic 
Theatre, London, on January 31, 1842, and 
played at the Olympic Theatre, New York, 
in the same year. It sets forth the com- 
plications arising from four people getting 
-heir clothes changed while bathing. 

Bathing- Girl (The). A "comedy- 
opera" in three acts, libretto by Rupert 

Hughes, music by Robert Coverley per- 
formed at the Fifth Avenue Theatre, New 
"i ork, on September 2, 1895. 

. Bathing- Machine (The). A musical 
interlude performed at Brighton in 1790. 

Bathos. A character in Douglas Jer- 
ROLD's ' Beau Nash ' (q.v.). 

Bathos, Sulky. See Battle of the 


Batifol. A character in Maltby and 
Ma.nsell's ' La Belle Normande ' (q.v.). 

Batifole. A character in E. Stirling's 
' Industry and Indolence' (q.v.). 

Batilda. The " old woman of the 
cavern " in Dibdix Pitt's ' Jersey Girl ' 

Baton, Colonel. A character in ' Love 
in the East' (q.v.). 

Battams, Scott- Dramatic writer ; 
author of ' Sister Grace (1SS4), 'After ' (1887). 
' A Mock Doctress ' (18S7), and ' The Parson's 

Play ' (1889). 

Battersby, Mrs. See Stickney, Mrs. 

Battersea, Nerval de. A character 
in Coyne and Talfourd's ' Leo the Terrible' 

Battle of Actium (The). See Ser- 
pent of the Nile. 

Battle of Alcazar (The), with 
the death of Captain Stukeley. An 
anonymous historical tragedy, acted by "the 
Lord High Admiral's servants," and printed 
in 1594. Muly Mahomet, King of Barbary, 
is dethroned by Abdilmelec, his uncle, and 
asks aid from Sebastian, King of Portugal. 
Stukeley, "Marquis of Ireland," forced by 
stress of weather to land in Portugal, is 
induced to join his forces with those of 
Sebastian against Abdilmelec. The battle 
of Alcazar takes place, and Sebastian and 
the two Moorish kings are slain, Stukeley 
dying of his wounds. Shakespeare ridicules 
a passage of this play in ' 2 Henry IV.,' act 
ii. sc. 4. It has also been suggested that 
Dryden took the hint for his ' Don Sebas- 
tian' from this tragedy. Dyce includes 
'The Battle of Alcazar' in his edition of 
the works of George Peele, on the ground 
that some lines in it are attributed to Peele 
in ' England's Parnassus' (1600), and because 
sundry other lines can be paralleled very 
closely by passages in undoubted works by 
Peele., too, believed that Peele 
M-as the author of the play. 

Battle of Aughrim (The) ; or, The 
Fall of St. Ruth. A tragedy by Robert 
ASHTON, published about 1727. It describes, 
in dramatic form, the defeat of the Irish, 
under the French general St. Ruth, at 
Aughrim, Connaught, in July, 1691, by the 
royal forces under General Ginkle. 

Battle of Austerlitz (The). A play 
performed at Ne.v York in 1839. 




Battle of Blenheim (The). A play 
by J. T. Haixes {'2 -v.). 

Battle of Bothwell Brigg (The). 
A plav, adapted bv Farley, the actor (7. r.), 
from 'Sir Walter" Scott's 'Old Mortality,' 
and first performed at Covent Garden on 
May 22, ISOO, ^vith the author as John Bal- 
four of Burley, Abbott as Henry Morton, 
Duruset as Lord Emndale, Blanchard as 
Major Bellenden, Emery as Cuddle Head- 
rigg, ;Mrs. Davenport as Lady Margaret 
Bellenden, and Miss M. 'i'ree as Miss Edith 
Bellenden. Farley made considerable altera- 
tions in the story, and introduced seven 
songs. The play' was produced at New 
York in :March 1S27, with Haywood as 
Cuddie Headrigg. 

Battle of Chevy Chase (The). A 
drama performed at the Tyne Theatre, New- 
castle, March 29, 1*75. 

Battle of Edding-ton (The) ; or, 
British Liberty. An historical tragedy 
in three acts, by John Penn, prmted in 
1792, and first performed at Covent Garden 
on July 19, 1S24. In the battle from which 
the drama takes its name, Alfred the Great 
defeats the Danes under Ceoluph , and rescues 
the queen and his son, Ceoluph being slain. 

Battle of Eutaw Spring-s (The). 
A plav, performed at Charleston, U.S.A., 
in 1S17. 

Battle of Hasting-s (The). A tragedy 
by KicnARD Cumberland iq.v.), first per- 
formed at Drury Lane on January 24, 1778,t 
with Henderson as Edgar Atheling, Bensley 
as King Harold, IVIiss Younge as Matilda, 
Mrs. Yiites as Edwina, and Palmer and J. 
Aickin in other parts. It is desired that the 
claims of Harold and Edgar to the crown 
may be combined by the marriage of the 
latter to the former's daughter, Matilda, 
who is in love with Edgar. But Edgar, 
loving ^(hci'/)rt, refuses the offer, and Harold 
condemns him to death. He is pardoned 
through the intercession of Matilda, and, 
Harold being killed at the battle of Hastings, 
Edgar is proclaimed king. See William 
THE Conqueror. 

Battle of Hexham (The) ; or, Days 
of Old. A play in three acts, by Colman, 
jun. (q.v.), first performed (with music by 
Dr. S. Arnold) at the Haymarket Theatre, 
on August 11, 17S9, with Bannister, jun.. as 
Gondihert, Mrs. Goodall as Adeline, Edwin 
as Gregory Gubbiiis, ]Mrs. S. Kemble as 
Queen Margaret, -s^lth J. Aickin, R. Palmer, 
Bannister, and Baddeley in other parts. 
Gondihert, a supporter of the house of Lan- 
caster, has left home and become captain 
of a band of robbers ; and his wife Adeline, 
accompanied by her sei'vant Gubbins, goes 
in search of him. Meanwhile, Queen Mar- 
{jaret, defeated at the battle of Hexham, 
falls into the hands of Gondihert, who, when 
he knows Avho she is, secures her safety. 
Adeline and Gondihert are then reuni ed. 
The play was performed at tlie John .Street 
Theatre, New York, in October, 1796, with 

Jefferson as Gregory Gubbins and Ilallamj 
the Fool. 

Battle of Lake Champlain (The). 
A play produced at the Green Street 
Theatre, in Albany, U.S.A., in 1S15. In 
this piece the action took place on real ships 
floating in real water. Andrew Jackson 
Allen played a negi-o, and sang what is 
believed to have been the fii-st negro song 
heard on the American stage.—' The Battle 
of Lake Erie' is the title of another American 

Battle of Life (The). A story by 
Charles Dickens on which several plays 
have been founded :— (1) A drama in three 
acts, by Albert Smith ('/.;■.), first per- 
formed at the Lyceum Theatre, London, ou 
December 21, 1S46, with Mrs. Keeley as 
Clemency Newcome, Keeley as Benjamin 
Britain, F. Matthews as Dr. Jeddler, 
Leigh Murray as Alfred Heath field, F. 
Vining as Michael Warden, ^Meadows as 
Snitchey, and Miss Daly as Grace. (2) A 
drama in three acts, by Edward Stirling, 
first performed at the Surrey Theatre, 
London, in January, 1S47, with H. Webb as 
Ben, Mrs. Vining as Marion, Mrs. E. F. 
Saville as Grace, J. T. Johnson as Alfred, 
Miss E. Terrey as Clemency, etc. (3) In the 
same month an adaptation was produced 
at the City of London Theatre, with Mrs. 
R. Honner as Clemency. (4) An adapta- 
tion was performed at New York in the 
same year. (5) An adaptation in three 
acts, by C. Dickens, jun., was first per- 
foi-med'at the Gaiety Theatre, London, on 
December 26, 1873, with Miss Carlisle as 
Marion, Miss C. Loseby as Grace, Miss E. 
Farren as Clemency, J. L. Toole as Ben, L. 
Brough as Snitchey, and C. Harcourt'as 
Michael.— {6) 'The Battle of Life' was the 
title given to an adaptation of ' Le Pail- 
lasse ' (q.v.), produced at the Standard 
Theatre, London, on May 22, 1893. (7) ' The 
Battle of Life : ' a four-act drama, by A. W. 
Parry and T. Dobb, Adelphi Theatre, 
Liverpool, August 6, 1S94. 

Battle of Ltincarty (The). An his- 
torical play l)y George Galloway, pub-' 
lished in ls06, but not acted. 

Battle of Mexico (The). A play per- 
formed at the Bowery Theatre, New York, 
in 1848. 

Battle of New Orleans (The\ A 
dran.a, founded on the war of 181.;. and 
first performed at the Park Theatre, New 
York, in July, 1816. 

Battle of Poictiers (The); or. The 
Eng-lish Prince. See Edward the 
Black Prince. 

Battle of Pultawa (The); or. The 
King and the Czar. An liistorical drama 
in two acts, adapted from the French, and , 
first performed at Covent Garden on 
February 23, 1829, with C. Kemble as 
Charles XIL, Warde as Peter the Great, 
and other parts by Ei,^erton, Duruset, 




Raymond, Bartley, Keeley, O. Smith, Mrs. 
Chatterley, and Miss Goward (Mrs. Keeley). 

Battle of Sedg-moor (The). (1) A 
short farce, unacted, and attributed to the 
Duke of Buckingham (1707-14). It was 
written in ridicule of the Earl of Faversham, 
James II. 's general. (2) A drama in three 
acts, by G. Almar {q.v.), first performed at 
the Pavilion Theatre, London, February, 
1837. See Sedgmoor. 

Battle of the Heart (The). A drama 
in four acts, by John Wilkins {q.v.), first 
performed at the Duke's Theatre, London, 
on March 13, 18S0, with a cast including 
Miss F. Brougli and Clarence Holt. 

Battle of the Poets (The); or, The 
Contention for the Laurel. A "new 
act," played at " the Little Theatre in the 
Haymarket," on January 1, 1731, in the form 
of a few scenes introduced into ' Tom 
Thumb ' iq.v.). The contention is between 
Comment Profound, Sulky Bathos, Is'octifer, 
Foplinrj Fribble, etc., and the object of the 
pseudonymous author, 'Scriblerus Tertins,' 
appears to have been to satirize the authors 
of the day, and especinlly Cibber under the 
i name of Foiling Fribble. 

Battle of Waterloo (The). A mili- 
tary melodrama in three acts, by J. H. 
Amherst {q.v.), performed at Astley's 
Amphitheatre.— A drama with this title Avas 
I performed at the Lafayette Theatre, New 
York, in May, 1828, Avith Kinloch as Napoleon. 

Battle Royal (A). See Thread of 

Battle Royal (The). A farce, "altered 
from Sir John Vanbrugh," and performed 
at the Haymarket in 1785. (2) 'A Battle 
Royal : ' a comedy in three acts, by Arthur 
Matthison, first performed at the Alex- 
an(ha 'J'heatre, Liverpool, on November 25. 

I Battledore and Shuttlecock. A 
} play by Conway Edwardks {q.v.). 

i Bauhle Shop (The). A play in four 
! acts, by Henry Arthur Jones {q.v.), first 
' performed at the Criterion Theatre, London, 
on January 26, 181)3, with Charles Wynd- 
ham as Lord CUvebrooke, S. Valentine as 
; Stoach, M.P., C.W. Somerset as LordSarum, 
' W. H. Day as Matthew Keber, Miss Mary 
, Moore as Jessie Keber, and Miss Fanny 
Enson as Lady Kate Ffennell ; first per- 
formed in America at the Empire Theatre, 
New York, September 11, 189i. See Babble 

_Baudin, Eustache. See Eustache 

Bavarian Girl (The) ; or, The Black 
Helmet. A drama in four acts, by W. h;. 
SUTER ; Sadler's Wells, November 13, lsG9. 

Baxter's Tragedy. A plaj-, acted in 

Bay of Biscay (The). The part of 

Tom Tunnell in this -piece was played by 
Henry Irving at Edinburgh, 1856-59. 

Bayadere (La). A ballet opera, music 
by Auber, performed at New York in 
December, 1836, with Mdlle. Augusta in the 
title part. 

Bayes. ITie author of the mock tragedy 
which figures in • The Rehearsal ' {q.v.), and 
the prototype of Puff in ' The Critic ' {q.v.). 
The character, as originally drawn, was 
called Bilboa, and was intended to ridicule 
Sir Robert Howard {q.v.) ; but, before the 
production of the piece, " Baycs" was sub- 
stituted for "Bilboa," and the satire was 
turned mainly against John Dryden {q.v.), 
though with occasional references to other 
playwrights of the time. 

Bayes in Petticoats. A farce by 
Catherine CLi\E{q.v.), adapted from the 
French of Marivaux. 

Bayes' Opera. An " opera " by Gabriel 
Odingsels {q.v.), first performed at Drury 
Lane on March 30, 1730, with Cibber, jun., 
as Bays. ' ' This," says the ' Biographia Dra- 
matica,' " isone of the many musical pieces 
to which the 'Beggar's Opera' gave birth.' 
In the course of it an opera is rehearsed, 
including characters of the name of Cantata, 
with his daughter IJulceda, and his servants 
Bassoo7i and C'rowdero; Pantomime, with his 
daughter Farcia, and his chief minister 
Harlequin; Tragedo, and various others. 
Tragedo was played by Charke. 

Bayly, Thomas Hasmes. Dramatist, 
poet, and novelist, born 1797, died 1839 ; 
produced the following pieces for the stage: 
• Perfection ' (1830), ' Comfortable Service ' 
(1836), 'Forty and Fifty' (1836), 'How do 
you Manage?' (1836), 'One Hour' (1836), 
' The Daughter ' (adapted 1836), 'The British 
Legion ' (1838), ' Mr. Greenfinch ' (1838), ' My 
Little Adopted' (1838), 'The Spitalfields 
Weaver ' (1838), ' Tom Noddy's Secret ' (1838)^ 
' You can't marry your Grandmother ' (1838), 
' The Barrack Room,' ' The Culprit,' ' The 
Ladder of Love,' and 'The Swiss Cottage,' 
all of which see. See. also, the ' Memoir' 
prefixed to his ' Works ' (18'44). 

Baynham, "Walter. Actor and the- 
atrical critic ; made his debut at Weymouth 
in 1853 ; first appeared in London at the 
Haymarket as Glavis in 'The Lady of 
Lyons ;' played afterwards at Brighton, 
Dublin, and Glasgow, retiring from the 
stage in 1861. He was at one time stage- 
manager of the Theatre Royal, Glasgow. 
Among his chief parts were Charles Surface,. 
Modus, Alfred Evelyn, John Mildmay (' Still 
Waters '), Ilaivkshaw (' Never too Late- 
to Mend'), and Sangfroid ('Delicate 
Ground'). Fi'om 1873 to 1893 he was the- 
atrical critic of the North Briti.'ih Daily Mail; 
he has contributed to the Theatre magazine ; 
and his book on 'The Glasgow Stage' 
appeared in 1892. 

Baynham, Mrs. "Walter (Fanny 
Ma^^kell). Actress ; made her first appear- 



ance at the Liverpool Amphitheatre, and 
her London debut at the 8trand Theatre, 
opening in ' The Artist's Wife ' {q-v.). 
Returning to Liverpool, she went thence 
to the Addphi, London, where she played, 
\vith other parts, Geraldinp. in ' Green 
Bushes' iq.v.). In 1S54 she joined the 
Olympic Theatre company, and Avas included 
—as Mm. Mildmay— in the original cast of 
'Still Waters run Deep' (q.i:). In 1856 
she married Walter Baynham, with whom 
she acted at Brighton, Dublin, and Glasgow, 
leaving the stage with him in 1804. 

Bays-water, The Duke of, figures in 
G. 1 Beckett's ' Last of the Legends '(? v.). 
See Duchess of Batswater. 

Bazan, Don Caesar and Don Sal- 
luste de. See Don Cesar de Bazan. 

B. B. A farce in one act by Montagu 
Williams (q.v.) and F. C. Burnand (q.v.), 
first performed at the Olympic Theatre, 
London, on March 22, 1860, with Horace 
Wigan as Bob Rattles, a retired prize-fighter ; 
F. Robson as Benjamin Bobbin, an agent, 
and Mrs. Stephens as Mrs. Puncheon, the 
landlady of a public-house. ' B. B.' are the 
initials "of Bobbin, "a mild and somewhat 
timid gentleman," who, arriving at an inn 
in Northumberland, is, to his horror and 
discomfiture, mistaken for " the Benicia 
Boy," an American prize-lighter who was 
a source of great interest at the time of the 
production of the piece. 

Beacon (The). A musical drama in 
two acts by Joanna Baillie (7. r.), published 
in 1812. The piece takes its name from the 
fire which Aurora, the heroine, causes to be 
lighted every night on a rock, as a guide to 
her lover, Ermiagard, should he return safe 
from the wars. 

Beacon of Liberty (The). A drama 
founded on history, and produced at the 
Covent Garden, on October 8, 1823, with 
Bennett as William Tell, Egerton as Gessler, 
Miss Foote as Therese (Tell's wife), and 
Yates, Duruset, Abbott, and Miss Love in 
other parts. See Tell, William. 

Beaconsfield, Earl of. Benjamin 
Disraeli, born 1305, died 1881 ; author of 
' Alarcos,' a tragedy {q.v.). 

Beadle of the Parish (The). See 

Beag-le, Sir Harry. A sporting squire 
in Colman's 'Jealous Wife' {q-v.). 

Beale, Thomas Willert ["Walter 
Maynard "]. Musician, born 1831, died 
1894 ; author of ' The Enterprising Impre- 
sario ' (1867) and of a volume of reminiscences 
called ' The Light of Other Days' (1890). 

Beamish. (1) Mr. Bovnceby Beamish 
in C. Selby's ' Chamber Practice ' (q.v.) is 
an " embryo barrister." (2) Mrs. Beamish is 
"the lively friend" in Stirling Coyne's 
'Man of Many Friends' (g.r.). (3) There 
is a Sir Peregrine Beamish in H. LESLIE and 
N. RowE's 'Orange Girl' (q.v.). 

Beanstalk. A farmer in Dougl.4S 
Jerrold's ' Rent Day' (q.v.). 

Bear a Brain. A play thus entitled 
by Henslowe, and attributed to Dekker 
iq.v.), was performed at the Rose Theatre 
in August, 1599. "Another case," says 
Fleay, "of an old play of doubtful author- 
ship." The title is obviously corrupt. 

Bear and Forbear. A " trifle," adapted 
from the German, by S. Bell. 

Bear-hunters (The) ; or, The Fatal 
Ravine. A melodrama in two acts, by 
J. B. Buckstone (q.v.), first performed at 
the Victoria Theatre, with the author as 
Nicolon, Davidge as Muslcito Bluebelle, and 
Miss Watson as Aline ; played in New York 
in 1829, with G. Barrett as Caribert and 
Mrs. G. Barrett as Aline. 

Beard, John. Actor and vocalist, bom 
1716 (?), died 1791 ; made his stage debut at 
Drury Lane on August 30, 1737, as Sir John 
Loverule in 'The Devil to Pay'(^.tJ.). He 
was engaged there till 1743, when he ap- 
peared at Covent Garden as Macheath in 
'The Beggar's Opera' (7. v.). At the latter 
theatre he remained till 1748, when he re- 
appeared at Drury Lane. In 1759 he married 
(en secondes noces) Charlotte Rich, daughter 
of the manager of Covent Garden, of which 
theatre, after Rich's death, he undertook, 
in November, 1761, the management. He 
was the original representative of Haio- 
thorne in Bicker.staft"s Love in a Village' 
{q.v.), in which part, on May 23, 1767,"he 
bade farewell to the boards. His first ap- 
pearances as a platform singer had been 
made in the performances conducted by 
Handel at Covent Garden in 1736. " To form 
an estimate of his abilities as a singer, it is 
only necessary to remember that Handel 
composed for him the great tenor parts in 
' Israel in Egypt,' ' Messiah,' ' Samson,' 
' Judas Maccabseus,' and ' Jepthah.' " 
Charles Dibdin says : "I consider Beard, 
taken altogether, as the best English 
singer. He was one of those you might 
fairly try by Shakspeare's speech to the 
actors. He did not mouth it, but his 
words came trippingly from his tongue ; 
he did not out-Herod Herod, but he begot a 
temperance that gave his exertions smooth- 
ness ; he never outstepped the modesty of 
nature, nor made the judicious grieve. . . . 
He was very valuable as an actor. In the 
' Jovial Crew,' 'Love in a Village,' ' Comus,' 
and ' Artaxerxes' he gave proof of tliis in a 
degree scarcely inferior to anvbodv." See 
Dibdin's 'History of the Stage '(1800), ' The 
Thespian Dictionary ' (1802-5), Genest's 
'English Stage' (1832), Grove's 'Dictionary 
of Music ' (1879), etc. 

Bearding" the Lion. A comedietta, 
by Charles S. Fawcett, Prince's Theatre, 
Manchester, February 25, 1884. 

Bearnaise (La). A comic opera, li-. 
bretto by :MM. Leterrier and Vanloo, 
music by Andre Messager ; first ]>io(luced in 
England (with libretto by Alfred Murray,' 
at "the Grand Theatre, Birmingham, on 




September 27, 1886, with Miss Florence St. 
John as the heroine (Jacquette), Miss M. 
Tempest as Bianca, G. H. Snazelle as Cap- 
tain Perpignac, J. J. Dallas as Pomponio, 
E. J. Lonnen as Girafo, and S. Harcourt as 
the Duke of Como ; first represented in 
London at "the Prince of Wales's Theatre, 
on October 4, with the same cast as above. 

Bears not Beasts. A farce by H. M. 
MiLNER, first performed at the Cobnrg 
Theatre, London, in 1822 ; played at New 
York in 1827, with Placide as Snapall. 

Beast and the Beauty (The) ; or, 
No Rose without a Thorn, A bur- 
lesque by F. C. BURXAND iq.v.'), first per- 
formed at the Royalty Theatre, London, on 
October 4, 1869, 

I Beat, Job. A policeman in F. Hay's 
I « Caught by the Cuff' {q.v.). 

' Beata. A domestic drama in three 
acts, by Austin Fryers, first performed at 
the Globe Theatre, London, on April 19, 
1892, with Miss Frances Ivor as the heroine, 
Miss Estelle Barney as Rebecca West, Miss 
S. Vaughan as Ilelsith, Leonard (Jutram as 
Rosmcr, Henry Vernon as KrolU George 
Hughes as Mortemgard, and R. Soutar as 
Dr. West. In this play the author tells the 
story of the married life of Posincr and 
Beata, on the basis of the account given of 

, it by Ibsen in ' Rosnier of Rosmersholm ' 

I iq.v.), to which, consequently, * Beata' forms 

I a prologue or introduction, 

Beatrice. (1) Niece of Leonato in 
*Much Ado about Nothing' (q.v.). (2) 
Daughter of Count Cenci in SHELLEY'S 
*Cenci' (7.^j.)- 

Beatrice, Mile. [Marie Beatrice 
Binda]. Actress, daughter of the Cheva- 
lier Binda ; born at Lucca, August, 1839 ; 
died in London, December, 1S78 ; was edu- 
cated at the Conservatoire, Paris, and made 
her earliest appearances on the stage at the 
Odeon and the Vaudeville in that city. She 
; made her debut in England (and as an 
English-speaking artist) at the Haymarket 
' on October 3, 18*34, as the heroine of Fanny 
■ Kemble's 'Mdlle. de Belle Isle' (^.v.). This 
was followed by her Mrs. Ilaller at the same 
theatre in November, in which month she 
also figured there as the original Hilda in 
J. V. Bridgman's ' Sunny Vale Farm ' (q.v.). 
In April, 1865, she was seen at the Lyceum 
Theatre as Madeleine in a revival of ' Bel- 
phegor' (^.t'.). In the English provinces 
she appeared in 1867 as Mary IStuart in 
Fanny Kemble's version of Schiller's play, 
in 1868 as the heroine of Palgrave Simp- 
son's 'Marie Antoinette' (q.v.), and in 1869 
as the original Grace in Cheltnam's ' Sliadow 
of a Crime ' {q.v.). She subsequently figured 
in the metropolis as Madame Caussade 
in ' Our Friends ' (q.v.) and La Silva in Pal- 
grave Simpson's 'Broken Ties' (q.v.) at the 
Olympic (1872) ; as the original (English) 
Blanche de Chelles in 'The Sphinx' (q.v.) and 
(xilberte in 'Frou-Frou' (q.v.) at the Hay- 
market (1874) ; as Raymonde de Montaiglin 
in 'Love and Honour' (q.v.) at the Globe 

(Augiist, 1875); and as Marie in 'The 
Woman of the People ' (q.v.) at the Olympic 
(August, 187S). She also created the title 
character of ' John Jasper's Wife ' (q v ) 
From 1S67 until her death, Mdlle. Beatrice 
was a gi-eat favourite with provincial play- 
goers, in whose interests she brought and 
held together a "company of comedians" 
(including, at one time, T. N. Wenman and 
Miss Charlotte Saunders) remarkable for 
the excellence of its ensemble. This troupe, 
after Mdlle. Beatrice's death, was main- 
tained for many years under the direction 
of Frank Harvey (q.v.). 

Beatty-King-ston, "W. Author and 
.iournalist ; wrote the libretti for the follow- 
ing operas :— ' The Beggar-Student ' (1884), 
' Frivoli ' (1886), ' Irraengarda ' (1892). 

Beau (Le). A courtier in • As You Like 
It' (q.v.), act i. so. 2, 

Beau Austin. A comedy in four 
acts, by W. E. Henley (q.v.) and R. L. 
Stevenson (q.v.), first performed at the 
Haymarket Theatre, London, on November 
3, 1890, with H. Beerbohm Tree in the title 
character, C. Brookfield as Monteith (his 
valet), E. Maurice as Anthony Musgrave, F. 
Terry as John Fcnwicl; Miss R. Leclercq as 
Miss Evelina Foster, Miss Aylward as Bar- 
hara, and ]\Irs. Beerbohm Tree as Dorothy 
Musgrave. In the prologue W. E, Henley 
wrote — 

" ' To all and singular,' as Dryden says, 
We bring a fancy of those Georgian days. 
Whose style still breathed a faint and fine perfume 
Of old-world courtliness and old-world bloom." 

The scene is at Tunbridge in 1820. Dorothy, 
now engaged to John, has been seduced by 
the Beau, and confesses the fact to her lover. 
Appealed to by Joh7i, the Beau undertakes 
to marry her, but she refuses him. In the 
end, Austin having behaved generously to 
young Musgrave, who has pul)licly insulted 
him, Dorothy accepts the Beau. 

Beau Brummell, the King* of 
Calais. A drama in two acts, by Blan- 
CliARD Jerrold (q.v.), first performed at 
the Lyceum Theatre, London, on April 11, 
lti59, with Emery in the title part ; per- 
formed at the Fifth Avenue Theatre. New 
York, in October, 1893. See Copy and 
Pet 1 TRAIN. (2) ' Beau Brummell : ' a comedy 
by Clyde Fitch (q.v.). 

Beau Defeated (The) ; or, The 
Lucky Young-er Brother. A comedy, 
partly translated from the French, ascribed 
both to Mrs. Pix and to a Thomas Barker, 
acted at Lincoln's Inn Fields, and printed 
about 1700. 

Beau Demolished (The). See Beau 

Beau Ideal (The\ A farce first played 
at New York in 1837, with Mrs. Maeder as 
Jessie Howard. 

Beau in the Fuds (The). A farce 
first played in America in 1750. 



Beau Nash., the King- of Bath. 

A comedy in three acts, by DOUGLAS Jer- 
ROLD (q.v.), tirst performed at tlie Hay- 
maiket Theatre, London, on July 16, 1834, 
with W. Farren in the title part, Vining as 
Derby, Shepherd as Wilton, Strickland as 
Aid. Beetle, Buckstone as Claptrap, Webster 
as Jack Baxter, Brindal as Lavender Tom, 
Mathews as Bathos, Mrs. Nisbett as Be- 
linda, and Mrs. Humby as Slipper. Amongst 
other characters are Dropper, Casket, Mon- 
sieur Pas, Skillet, Tivang, and Mrs. Coral. 

Beau's Adventures (The). A farce 
by Phil. Bennett, printed in 1133. 

Beau's Duel (The); or, A Soldier 
for the Ladies- A comedy by Mrs. 
Centlivre (q.v.), first performed at Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields on October 21, 170-2, with 
Booth as Captain Bellnieln, Powell as Toper, 
Fieldhouse as Careful, Pack as Ogle, Bow- 
man as Sir Wm. Mode, Cory as Colonel 
Manly, ]Mrs. Prince as Clarinda, :Mrs. 
Lee as 2Jrs. Plotwell, and ^Irs. Porter as 
Emilia. The duel is between Ogle and 
Mode. Some of the piece is borrowed from 
Mayne's 'City Match' {q.v.). 

Beauchamp, John. Actor ; after ex- 
perience in the provinces, made his London 
debut at the Princess's Theatre in January, 
1S79, as Halves in 'It's Never too Late to 
Mend' (q.v.). Since then he has been in 
the original cast of the following pieces 
(among many) :— ' Drink ' (1879), as Poisson ; 
'The Lights o' London' (1881), as Marks; 
' The Silver Shield ' (1885), as Sir Humphrey 
Chetwynd; 'The Dean's Daughter' (1888), 
as Sir Henry Craven ; ' Karin' (1892), as Mr. 
Milden ; ' The Amazons ' (1893), as the Hon. 
R. Minchin ; ' A Question of Memory ' (1893), 
as Haynau ; 'Tom, Dick, and Harry' (1893), 
as Gen. Stanhope; ' The New Boy' (1894), aa 
Dr. Candy; ' Jedbury Junior' (1896), as 
Jedbury, sen. J. Beauchamp has also ap- 
peared in revivals of 'Hamlet,' 'Richelieu,' 
and 'The Fool's Revenge' (1880), 'A Mid- 
summer Night's Dream ' (1886), 'Proof ' (1889), 
' Leah ' (1891), ' The Jealous Wife ' (1892), etc. 

Beauclerc, Henry and Julian. 

Brothers, respectively a diplomatist and 
a soldier, in ' Diplomacy ' {q.v.). 

Beaudet, Louise. Actress and voca- 
list of French-Sijanish extraction ; sang in 
America in 1879, as a child, in juvenile light 
opera companies ; when not yet twelve, 
played the little Duchess in 'The Little 
Duke' with Aimee(7.r.); toured with that 
actress for several years ; then became a 
member of the stock company at Baldwin's 
Theatre, San Francisco, where she played 
Lady Macbeth, Ophelia, Desdemoni, Jessica, 
Pauline Deschapelles, Doris (' Narcisse '), 
etc. ; afterwards starred in Australia and 
India, playing Juliet, Imogen, Bosalind, 
Beatrice ; appeared later as Portia. Ariel, 
Ijady Teazle, Jxdia (' Hunchback '), Par- 
fhen'ia, Gilberte, Leah, etc. ; has represented 
Paola in Jakobowski's opera, Elizabeth in 
McLellan's ' Puritania ' (1892), and Progress 
in Kiralfy's 'America;' after which she 
toured with her own company in French 

opera bouffe till May, 1895. She has been 
seen in England as Sybil in ' Dr. Jekyll and 
Mr. Hyde ' (1888), and as Adele in ' An Artist's 
Model '(1895). 

Beaufort. The name of three cha- 
racters in Shakespeare's plays : (1) Henry, 
Bishop of Winchester, in ' 1 and 2 Henry 
VI.,' and (2, 3) John, Earl of Somerset, and 
Thomas, Duke of Exeter, in ' 1 Henry VL' 
(4) .5fa»/o/-f, in Ml'RPHY's 'Citizen' (q.v.), 
is in love with and beloved by Maria Wild- 
ing (q.v.). 

Beauforts (The). A play adapted by 
Charlotte Birchpfeiffer from Bulwer's story, 
' Night and Morning,' translated into Eng- 
lish by Ali-red Ayres, and performed at 
Niblo's Garden, New York, on March 6, 
1S65, with D. E. Bandmann in the principal 
male 7-6le. 

Beaufoy, Lord, in Robertson's 
' School' (q.v.), is in love with and beloved 
by Bella (q.v.), whom in the end he marries. 

Beaug-ard, Captain. La1y Dunce's 
lover in Otway's ' &oldier"s Fortune.' 

Beau.iolais the Necromancer. A 
play by H. T. HiPKiNS and Gaston Mur- 
ray (q.v.). 

Beaumanoir, Lucas de. Grand 
Master of the "Templars in T. Dibdin's 
'Ivanhoe' (q.v.). 

Beaumelle. Daughter of Rochfort and 
wife of Charalois in Massinger and FIELD'S 
' Fatal Dowry ' (q.v.). 

Beaumont, Allen. Actor ; has " cre- 
ated " the following, among many, parts :— 
Northumberland in 'A Nine Days' Queen' 
(1880), Sir Henry Auckland in 'Impulse' 
(1882), John Mabel in 'The Rocket' (1883), 
Abdallah in ' Our Diva ' (1886), Ranulf in 
' The Amber Heart ' (1887), and Roger of 
York in ' Becket ' (1S93). He was also the 
first representative in London of Mr. Mars- 
land in ' The Private Secretary ' (1884), and 
has been seen in revivals of ' The Merchant 
of Venice' (1879), 'The Belle's Stratagem' 
(1881), ' M.P.' (1S83), etc. 

Beaumont and Fletcher. Francis 
Beaumont (g.r.) and John Fletcher (g.w.) 
appear to have become acquainted about 
1607. They soon grew intimate. Aubrey 
says of the former, " Tliere was a wonderfull 
coiisimility of phansy between him and 
Mr. Jo. Fletcher, which caused that dear- 
nesse of friendship between them. . . . They 
lived together on the Banke side, not far 
from the playhouse, lay together . . . the 
same cloaths and cloake, etc., between 
them." The result of their joint labours is 
to be found, according to the latest criticism, 
in the following plays, of which we give the 
date of publication':—' The Knight of the 
Burning Pestle' (161.3), 'Cupid's Revenge' 
(1615\ 'The Scornful Lady' (1616), 'The 
Maid's Tragedy' (1619), 'A King and No 
King ' (1619), ' Philaster ' (1620), ' Four PJays ' ■ 
(1647), and 'The Coxcomb' (1647). These, 
and other plays which have been ascribed 
at various times to the combined pens of 




^aiimont and Fletcher, are dealt with 
ider their respective headings {g.v ). The 
:omedies and Tragedies ' of Beaumont and 
etcher were published in folio in 1647. 
odern issues of their 'Works' include 
lose edited and annotated by Theobald, 
ward, and Sympson (1750), by G. Colman 
ul others (1778). by H. Weber (1812), by G. 
arley (1840), by A. Dyce (1843-6), and by A. 
. Bullen (1904). Certain of their plays were 
lited for the 'Mermaid Series' by J. St. 
oe Strachey (1SS7). Selected passages from 
le 'Works' were published by H. Guil- 
rd in 1834, Leigh Hunt in 1846, and J. 
Fletcher in 1887. For criticism, see 
ryden's 'Dramatic Poetry,' Schlegel's 
dramatic Literature,' Hallam's 'Litera- 
ire of Europe,' Lamb's ' Dramatic Poets,' 
azlitt's ' Age of Elizabeth.' Leigh Hunt's 
[magination and Fancy,' S, T. Coleridge's 
Remains,' H. Coleridge's ' Notes and 
[arginalia,' Macaulay's ' Essays.' J. M. 
[ason's 'Comments on the Plays' (1798). and 
. M. Mitford's ' Cursory Notes on the Text 
3 edited by A. Dyce' (1856). Says A. H. 
ullen : " Aubrey states, on the authority 
I Earle, that Beaumont's ' main businesse 
as to correct the overflowings of Mr. 
letcher's witte,' and Dryden declares that 
•eaumont was 'so accurate a judge of 
lays' that Ben Jonson 'submitted all his 
ri'tings to his censure.' Little weight can 
fe attached to these statements ; but the 
;age tradition that Beaumont was superior 
1 judgment to Fletcher, is supported by 
3und criticism. In the most important 
lays they wrote together Beaumont's share 
utweighs Fletcher's, both in quantity and 
uality. Beaumont had the firmer hand 
lid statelier manner ; his diction was more 
olid ; there was a richer music in his verse, 
i'letcher excelled as a master of brilliant 
lalogTie and sprightly repartee ' " (' Dic- 
lonary of National BiogTaphy,'lSS9). " Beau- 
lont and Fletcher," writes J. A. Symonds, 
i were not dramatists so much as great dra- 
'latic rhetoricians. . . . Their rhetoric pos- 
iessesreal charm. And, what is more, it suits 
heir choice of the romantic rather than the 
trictly tragic or comic method. While 
eading them, we experience the pleasure 
hat attends impassioned improvisation. 
j . . Thought, feeling, sentiment, language, 
aetre; all the elements of their art are 
!uid, copious, untrammelled, poured forth 
rem a richly abundant vein. But the dra- 
latic tension is comparatively slack, and 
he poetic touch comparatively tame. . . . 
Vhat I have termed dramatic rhetoric, 
s opposed to genuine dramatic poetry, 
•etrayed Beaumont and Fletcher into their 
tiost serious faults as playwrights. Its 
rant of absolute sincerity led" them to 
iolate truth, propriety, and probability, 
loth in their fables and their characters. 
Vhat the French writers call einphase is 
or ever spoiling the effect of their most 
isassionate scenes " (' In the Key of Blue,' 
893). See the tributes in verse by Jasper 
Jayne, Herrick, G. Daniel— 

" So long as Sock or Buskin treads the Stage, 
Beaumont and Fletcher shall enrich the Ago "— 

A. Brome, Keats (whose ' Bards of Passion 
and of Mirth ' was written on a blank page 
before ' The Fair Maid of the Inn,' q.v.), and 
A. C. Swinburne (Sonnet and ' In the Bay,* 

Beaumont, Francis. Dramatic writer, 
son of Sir Francis Beaumont, Justice of the 
Common Pleas ; born 15S4, died in London, 
March 9, 1616 ; was admitted a gentleman- 
commoner at Oxford in 1596, and in 1600 
became a member of the Inner Temple, for 
which, in February, 1612-13, he wrote a 
' Masque.' He also wrote commendatory 
poems for Jonson's 'Fox' (1605), 'Silent 
Woman ' (1609), and 'Catiline' (1611). See, 
further, his rhythmical 'Letter to Ben 
Jonson.' His poems were published in 1640 
and 1653. See G. C. Macaulay's ' Francis 
Beaumont : a Critical Study ' (1883), A. B. 
Grosart in the ' National Dictionary of 
Biography ' (1885), and A. C. Swinburne in 
the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica ; ' also, the 
poetical praise of Beaumont by Ben Jonson, 
T. Hey wood, G. Daniel, and Wordsworth. 
See, further, Beaumont and Fletcher. 

Beaumont, Mrs. De Jersey, ac- 
tress, after appearing at Covent Garden, 
went to America, figuring at Philadelphia 
in 1810 as Isabella in the ' Fatal Marriage,' 
and at New York in 1814, making her debut 
in Euphrasia and Boxalana. "Her Isabella, 
Madame Clermont, Jane Shore, etc., were 
justly considered very superior perform- 
ances " (Ireland). Among her other parts 
may be named Ladi/ Macbeth, Mrs. Ilaller, 
and Ladi/ Bell Bloomer (7.!?.).— Her husband, 
" though her inferior as a performer, was 
handsome and showy in person" (Phelps). 
He made his debut in New York in 1814 as 
Holla in ' Pizarro.' 

Beaupre. (1) Son of Vertaigne. and 
brotlier of Lamira, in Beaumont and 
Fletcher's 'Little French Lawyer' (q.v.). 
—This surname has been borne by a num- 
ber of other characters in English plays, 
notably by (2) Adrienne de Beauprd in 
Leslie's 'Adrienne,' (3) the Baron da 
Beaupre in Maddison Morton's 'Husband 
to Order,' (4) llonore de Beaupre in Bayle 
Bernard's 'Robespierre,' (5) Oscar de 
Beaupre in TOM Taylor's 'Retribution,' 
and (6) Claire de Beaupr6 in Pinero'S 
' Ironmaster' (all of which see). 

Beaurepaire, Josephine and Rose 
de. The heroines of Reade's ' Double 
Marriage' (q.v.). 

Beauseant, the rejected lover of 
Pauline, in Lytton's ' Lady of Lyons ' (q.v.), 
figures also in all the travesties of that play. 

Beausex, Sir Brian de. A character 
in J. M. Morton's ' Rights and Wrongs of 
Women' (q.v.). 

Beautiful Armenia (The); or. The 
Energ-y and Force of Love. A comedy 
by Edmund Ball, mainly translated from 
the ' Eunuch ' (q.v.) of Terence, and printed 
in 1778. See Bloody Plot. 




Beautiful for Ever. (1) A farce in 
one act, by F Hay (q.v.), first performed at 
the Prince of Wales's Theatre, Liverpool, 
in September, 1868, with a cast including 
T. Thorne, Miss Newton, and Miss Bella 
Goodall. (2) A farce by G. S. Hodgson 
(q.v.), brought out at the Surrey Theatre, 
London, in October, 1868. 

Beautiful Haidee ; or, The Sea 
Nyraph and the Sallee Rovers. An 
extravaganza by H. J. Byrox (g.v.), first 
performed at the Princess's Theatre, 
London, on April 6, 1863, with Miss M. 
Oliver as the heroine. Miss Murray as Lord 
Bateman, and G. Belmore as Desperado. 

Beauty. A play by G. F. RowE (q.v.), 
performed at Wallack's Theatre, New York, 
in 1885, with Miss Agnes Thomas in the 

Beauty, Tlie Birth of. See Birth 
OF Beauty. 

Beauty, The Masque of. See 
Masque of Beauty. 

Beauty, The Triumphs of. See 
Triumphs of Beauty. 

Beauty Abroad. A play by Clinton 
Stuart (q.v.), performed in America in ISSiS. 

" Beauty, alas ! where wast thou 
born ? " First line of a song in Greene's 
'Looking-glass for London and England' 

Beauty and Booty. A play by J. 
D. Phillips, performed in America. 

Beauty and the Beast. A nursery 
tale which has been dramatized in many 
forms. In 1781 there was printed a 
comedy called ' The Beauty and the Mon- 
ster,' translated from the French of the 
Countess de Genlis. Among acted pieces 
on the subject are : (1) ' Beauty and the 
Beast:' a fairy extravaganza in two acts, 
by J. R. Planch6 (q.v.), first performed at 
Covent Garden on April 12, 1841, with 
Madame Vestris as Beauty, W. Harrison as 
the Beast (Prince Azor), J. Bland as Sir 
Aldgate Pump, Harfey as John Quill, and 
Miss Rainforth as Dressalinda ; first played 
in New York at the Olympic Theatre in 
1843. (2) A fairy burletta, played at the 
Bowery Theatre, New York, in 1843, with 
Wallack, jun., as the Beast. (3) A panto- 
mime by H. J. Byron (q.v.), produced at 
Covent Garden on December 26, 1862, with 
Mrs. Aynsley Cook as Prince Perfect (the 
Beast), and Miss L. Laidlaw as Beauty. 
(4) 'The Beast and the Beauty ' (q.v), by 
F. C. Burnand (q.v.). (5) ' Beauty and the 
Beast : ' pantomime by E. L. Blanchard 
(q.v.), Drury Lane, December, 1869. (6) 
• Beauty and the Beast : ' pantomime by J. 
0. Bre'nnan, Greenwich, December, 1871. 
(7) ' Beauty and the Beast,' by the Brothers 
Grinn (q.v.), Princess's Theatre, London, 
December, 1874. (8) ' Beauty and the 
Beast :' pantomime by F. AV. Green (q.v.), 
Pavilion Theatre, London, December, 1877. 
(9) 'Beauty and the Beast :' pantomime by 

R. Walden, Park Theatre, London, De- 
cember, 1879. (10) ' Beauty and the Beast .' 
pantomime by J. T. Denny (q.v.), Marylebone 
Theatre, December, 1884. (11) ' Beauty and 
the Beast : ' pantomime by Augustus 
Harris and William Yardley, Drury 
Lane, December, 1890. (12) 'Beauty and 
the Beast : ' a burlesque by Walter Strat- 
ford, Town Hall, Buckingham, January ■ 
25, 1894. 

Beauty and the Monster (The). 
See Beauty and the Beast. 

Beauty and "Virtue. A serenata per- 
formed at Drury Lane in 1762. 

"Beauty, arise, shew forth thy 
g-lorious shining-." First line of a 
song in ' The Pleasant Comedy of Patient 
Grisseir (q.v.). 

" Beauty clear and fair." First, 
line of a song in Fletcher's 'Eldei 
Brother ' (q.v.). } 

Beauty in a Trance. A play by: 
John Ford (q.v.), entered on the books of 
the Stationers' Company in September 9,j 
1653, and among the dramas destroyed by 
Warburton's servant. J 

Beauty in Distress. A tragedy, by' 
P. Motteux (q.v.), acted at Lincoln's Inn 
Fields in 1698, with Mrs. Bracegirdle as 
Placentia, and other parts by Verbrugfren 
Betterton, Kynaston, Mrs. Prince, Mrs 
Moore, and Mrs. Barry. The play was highlj 
praised by Dryden in the prologue. 

Beauty of Lyons (The). See Ladi 
of Lyons ; Perourou, the Bellow; 

Beauty or the Beast. A farce ii 
one act by John Oxenford (q.v.), adaptec 
from ' Ma Niece et Men Ours ' (q.v.), and firs 
performed at Drury Lane in November, 1863 
with a cast including jNIiss Rose Leclercq a; 
Hetty. Among the characters are Wadding 
Higgins, Wiggins, and Figgins. 

Beauty the Conqueror ; or, Thi 
Death of Marc Antony. The titl 
given to an altered version of Sir Charle 
Sedley's ' Antony and Cleopatra' (q.v.). 

Beauty's Toils. A farcical comedj 
n tliree acts, by Charles S. Fawcett, fir.^ 
performed at the Strand Theatre, Londor 
December 21, 1893, with Miss Miriam Cl( 
ments as Beauty, and G. Giddens, ^^ 
Edonin, G. Moore, H. Ross, Miss M. Whitt: 
Miss A. Goward, and Mrs. Dion Boucicau: 
in other parts. 

Beauty's Triumph. A masque by': 
DuFFET, played in private, and nrinted i 


Beauval,' Horace do. The hero ( 

' The Poor Young Man ' (q.v.) 

Beaux' Stratag-em (The). Acomed 
in five acts, by George Farquhar (q.v. 
first performed at the Haymarket on Marc 
8, 1707, with Wilks as Archer, INIills as Aih 
well, Norris as Scrub, Bo wen as Foigan 




ullock as Boniface, Verbruggen as Sullen, 
ibber as Gibbet, Boman as Count Bellair, 
een as Sir Charles Freeman, Mrs. Oldfield 
< Mrs. Sullen, Mrs. Bicknell as Cherry, 
id Mrs. Bradshaw as Dorinda. "This 
ay." the 'Biogiaphia Dramatica' records, 
■was begun and ended in six weeks, 
le author labouring all the time under a 
ttled illness, which carried him off during 
le run of his piece." He had received £70 
om Tonson for the right of printing it, in 
idition to the price paid by the managers, 
tie comedy was a great success. Hazlitt 
laracterizes it as "the best of his plays 
, a whole ; infinitely lively, bustling, and 
11 of point and interest. Tlie assumed 
sguise of the principal characters, Archer 
id Aimiuell, is a perpetual amusement to 
18 mind." The play was performed in 
3bruary, 1786, with Mrs. Abington as 
'.rub (q.v.). It was revived at the Hay- 
arket in July, 1847, with J. B. Buckstone 
I Scrub; at the Haymarket in January, 
;56, with W. H. Chippendale as Sullen ; 
id at the Imperial Theatre, London, in 
jpteraber, 1879, with Miss Litton as Mrs. 
'illen. Miss Meyrick as Dorinda, Miss C. 
ddison as Cherry, Mrs. Stirling as Lady 
ountlful, Lionel Brough as Scrub, W. 
irren as Archer, E. F. Edgar as Aiimvell, 
Ryder as Sullen, W. H. Denny as Freeman, 
; Bannister as Foigard, Everill as Boniface, 
lid K. Bellew as Gibbet. It was performed 
;; New York in 1750 ; again, in 1767, with 
;allam as Archer, Henry as Aimivell, and 
:iss Hallam as Dorinda; in 1792, with 
.allam as Scrub and Henry as Foigard; 
;, 1793, with Hodgkinson as Archer; and 
' 1841, with the Misses Cushraan as Mrs. 
Men and Dorinda. 

Beaux without Belles. A farce by 
AVID Darling, acted at Petersburgh, Va. 

Beazley, Samuel. Dramatic writer 
id architect, born 17S6, died October, 1851 ; 
rote a farce when only twelve years 
d. His pieces for the stage include 
Five Hours at Brisrhton ; or. The Board- 
g House ' (1811), 'Is he Jealous?' ,(1816), 
;Jld Customs' (1816), 'My Uncle' (1817), 
?ire and Water' (1817), 'Jealous on all 
:des' (1818), 'Philandering' (1S24) ; also, 
Bachelors' Wives,' 'The Bull's Head,' 
iretna Green,' ' Hints to Husbands,' 
Knights of the Cross,' ' The Lottery 
icket,' ' Love's Dream,' ' The Scapegrace^' 
The Steward,' and the libretti of three 
peras— 'The Queen of Cyprus,' 'Robert 
;ie Devil,' and *La Sonnambula.' His 
ork as an architect lay largely in the con- 
ruction of theatres. He designed the 
yceum, the St. James's, the City of London, 
id two in Dublin, as well as the Strand 
ontof the Adelphi and the colonnade of 
,rury Lane. See the Gentleman's Magazine 
<r 1829 and 1851, and Planche's 'Recollec- 
ons ' (1872). Beazley, according to Planche, 
suffered considerably a short time before 
is decease, and, his usual spirits occasionally 
Tsaking him, he one day wrote so melan- 
loly a letter, that the friend to whom it 
as addressed, observed, in his reply, that 

it was ' like the first chapter of Jeremiah. 
' You are mistaken, my dear fellow,' retorted 
the wit ; ' it is the last chapter of Samuel.' " 
Beazley wrote his own epitaph— 

"Here lies Samuel Beazley, 
Who lived hard and died easily." 

Bebe. See Betsy. 

Becassine, Mr. Bertrand Bag-a- 
telle Beautemps. A character in C. 
Selby's 'Guardian Sylph' {q.v.). 

Becceley, Mrs., made her first appear- 
ance in America at New York in September, 
1753, as Phillis in 'The Conscious Lovers' 
iq.v.). She was " the singing actress and. 
soubrette " of Hallam's company. 

Beclier, Lady. See O'Neill, Eliza. 

Becher, Martin. Dramatic writer ; 
author of 'A Crimeless Criminal,' 'A Do- 
mestic Hercules,' ' In Possession,' 'Number 
6, Duke Street,' ' Painless Dentistry,' ' A 
Poetic Proposal,' 'Rule Britannia' "(1870),. 

Beck, Mr. and Mrs. Crossley. 
Characters in Stephenson and Scott's. 
'Peril' {q.v.). 

Becket, Andrew. Author of 'So- 
crates,' a dramatic poem (1806). 

Becket, Thomas, Chancellor of Eng- 
land and Archbishop of Canterbury in the- 
reign of Henry II., figures in a tolerably 
long of English dramas. (1) Of these, 
the first of which there is any record is one 
' Of the Impostures of Thomas Becket,' of 
which Bishop Bale (g. v.) announces himself 
as the author. The next is (2) the ' Henry 
II.' {q.v.) of W. H. Ireland {q.v.), published 
in 1799. (3) We have the 'Thomas k Becket* 
{q.v.)oi Douglas Jerrold {q.v.), performed 
in 1829. Next (4) comes ' Becket : a His- 
torical Tragedy,' by R. Cattermole, printed 
in 1832. After this we have (5) the ' Thomas- 
^ Becket' {q.v.) of George Darley {q.v.), 
published in 1840. (6) The ' King Henry 
the Second' {q.v.) of Sir Arthur Helps 
{q.v.), printed in 1843. (7) The 'Henry IL'" 
of George Wightwick, published in 1851,. 
(8) The ' King Henry II.' of Dr. Charles 
Grindrod, which dates from 1874, though 
not printed till 1883. (9) The 'St. Thomas 
of Canterbury' {q.v.) of Aubrey de Vere 
{q.v.), published in 1876. Finally (10). the 
'Becket' of Alfred, Lord Tennyson, 
printed in 1SS4. An adaptation of thi.s 
work, by E. AV. Godwin, consisting mainly 
of the scenes relating to Rosamond de 
Clifford, was performed, under the title 
of 'Fair Rosamond,' in Cannizaro Woods 
Wimbledon, in the summer of 1886, 
Avith Lady Archibald Campbell as Rosa- 
mond, Bassett Roe as Henry II., F. H. 
Macklin as Becket, Miss Maud Millett as 
Margery, and Miss Genevieve Ward as 
Queen Eleanor. The play itself, arranged 
for representation by Sir Henry Irving, was 
brought out on February 6, 1893, at the 
Lyceum Theatre, London, with Sir Henry in 
the title part, W. Terriss as Henry II., Miss 




Ellen Terry as Eosamond, Miss Genevieve 
"Ward as Queen Eleanor, Miss Kate Phillips 
as Margery, Master Leo Byrne as Georfrey, 
W. J. Hollo way as Edivard Grim, Frank 
Cooper as Sir Reginald Fitzurse, H. Howe 
as Philip de Eleemosyna, etc. ; performed 
in the English provinces in 1904, with H. 
Irving as before, Miss M. Hackney as 
Bommond, and Mrs. Cecil Raleigh as 
Eleanor. It was first performed m America 
at San Francisco in September, 1893, with 
Sir Henry Irving in his original role. 

Beckett, Harry. Comedian, born in 
England ; died in London, October, 18S0 ; 
son of an actress, who educated him as a 
Tiolinist. He made his debut at Manchester, 
where "he was a great favourite of Charles 
Mathews, who, whenever any small part in 
one of his pieces required to be done with 
neatness and certainty, would cry, ' Where 
is little Beckett ? ' " By-and-by he joined the 
Exeter circuit, and thence went to Birming- 
ham. In 1868 he left England for America, 
first appearing in New York in ' To Obhge 
Benson.' Then came a few years' varied 
experience in different parts of the States, 
followed by an engagement at Wallack's 
Theatre. His last appearance was at the 
Havmarket in 1880 as Persimmons in 'A 
Bridal Tour' (g.v.). His range of parts 
(wrote Brander Matthews) " extends from 
burlesque to melodrama, including farce 
and comedy old and new " {Scrihner's 
Magazine for 1879). He was specially ex- 
cellent as Tony Lumpkin, Bob Acres, Graves 
(' Money '), and Mark Meddle (' London As- 
:surauce''). Lawrence Hutton describes him 
as "exceedingly comic, as well as refined 
and artistic, in such parts as Minerva in 
' Ixion,' Hassarac in ' The Forty Thieves,' 
the Widoiv Twankie in 'Aladdin,' Maid 
Marian in ' Robin Hood,' and Queen Eliza- 
beth in ' Kenilworth,' long before he became 
the established low comedian of Mr, Wal- 
lack's company." 

Becking-laani, Charles. Dramatic 
writer, born 1699, died 1731 ; author of 
•two historical tragedies (g.r.)— ' Scipio Afri- 
canus' (1718) and 'Henry IV. of France' 
(1719) ; also of memorial verses on Nicholas 
Rowe {q.v.). See ' The Thespian Dictionary' 
(1805), the 'Biographia Dramatica' (ISl'i), 
and Genest's ' English Stage' (1832). 

Becky Sharp. A one-act play, adapted 
by J. M. Barrie from Thackeray's ' Vanity 
Fair,' and first performed at Terry's Theatre, 
London, on June 3, 1893, with Miss Janet 
Achurch in the title part. 

Bed of Roses (A). A comedietta by H. 
A. Jones iq.v.), first performed at the Globe 
Theatre, London, on January 26, 18S2, with 
Arthur Dacre, Arthur Wood, H. Hamilton, 
and Miss Goldney in the cast. 

Beda. The heroine of J. M. Morton's 
* Barbers of Bassora' (q-v.). 

Bedamar, The Spanish Ambassador 
in Otway's ' Venice Preserved' {q.v.). 

Beddoes, Thomas Lovell. Dramatic 

poet, born 1803, died 1849 ; author of The 
Bride's Tragedy (1S22), 'Death's Jest- 
Book, or the Fool's "Tragedy ' (1850), and two 
dramatic fragments — "The Second Brother' 
and 'Torrismond.' His 'Poems' were pub- 
lished, with a memoir, in 1851, and again 
in 1890, with an introduction by Edmund 
Gosse. See the 'Dictionary of National 
Biography' (1885), also Last Man, The; 
and Love's Arrow poisoned. "Of all 
the myriad poets and poeticules who have 
tried to recover the lost magic of the tragic 
blank verse of the Elizabethans, Beddoes," ' 
says Gosse, "has come nearest to success. 
If it were less indifferent to human interests 
of every ordinary kind, the beauty of his 
dramatic verse would not fail to fascinate. 
To see how strong it is, how picturesque, 
how admirably fashioned, we have only to 
compare it with what others have done in 
the same style— with the tragic verse, for 
instance, of Barry Cornwall, of Talfourd, of 
Home. But Beddoes is what he himseli 
has called ' a creeper into worm-holes.' He 
attempts nothing personal ; he follows the 
very tricks of ilarston and Cyril Tourneui 
like a devoted disciple." 

Bede, Adam. See Adam Bede. 

Bedells, Actor ; low comedian 
playing "on circuit" in the west of Englanc 
and Channel Islands ; afterwards at Cuven 
Garden and Astley's ; father of Mrs. Thoma 
Barry {q.v.) and Mrs. ':;harles Calvert {q.v.) 
died in America. 

Bedford, Henry. Actor ; made hi 
professional debut at the Surrey Theatre 
and scored his first West End success a 
Scum Goodman in the revival of ' Lad 
Clancarty ' at the St. James's in 1637. H 
has since figured in the original casts c 
'As Large as Life' (1890). 'My Mothei 
(1890), • The SoHcitor ' (1890), ' The Penaltj 
(1890), 'Fate and Fortune' (1S91), ' H( 
Oath' (1891), 'The Life we Live' (1S92 
• Strathlogan ' (1892), etc. 

Bedford, PaulJohn. Actor and voca 
ist, born at Bath, about 1792 ; died at Che 
sea, January, 1871 ; made his profession 
di^hut at Swansea, and, after considerable e 
perience in the English provinces, appears 
in London for the first time on November 
1824, at Drury Lane as Haivthorn in 'Lo 
in a Village ' {q.v.) to the Rosetta of his wi 
(Miss Green, died 1833). He remained 
Drury Lane as singing comedian till ISc 
when he migrated in the same capacity 
Covent Garden, where he figured in vario 
operatic representations. He began in It 
that connection with the Adelphi Theat 
by which he is, and always will be, be 
remembered. He was the original Bluesl 
in 'Jack Sheppard' (1839), Tom Codlin 
Stirling's ' Old Curiosity Shop ' (1840), i 
Joseph Bou'ley in ' The Chimes' (1S44), Jo' 
Gong in ' The Green Bushes ' (1845), K 
chin Cove in 'The Flowers of the Fore 
(1847), Viscount Chateaumargaux in 'T 
Marble Heart' (1S54), Glauce in Lemo 




Medea ' (1856), Do7i Fernando in As- 
riodeus' (1859), Rebonl in 'The Dead Heart' 
1859), Baroti Witz in Byron's 'Nymph of 
he Lurleyberg' (1859), Peter Pantile in 
Vatts Phillips's 'Paper Wings' (1860), 
"ootles, sen., in 'My Wife's Maid' (1864), 
.^alchas in Burnand's ' Helen ' (1866), and 
f^ack Longhones in ' Lost in London ' (1867). 
le was also in the first cast of ' The Crown 
)iamonds ' (1844), ' Mr. Webster at Home ' 
1853), 'Number Nip' (1854), Brough's 
'. Bona-fide Travellers ' (1854), ' Lucifer 
►latches ' (1856), ' Love and Hunger ' (1859), 
rVatts Phillips's 'Story of '45' (1860), 
Pipkin's Rural Retreat' (1866), etc, 
)esides appearing in revivals of ' Victorine * 
.1855), ' Valentine and Orson ' (1855), ' Wel- 
■,ome. Little Stranger' (1858), 'Guy Manner- 
ng ' (1859), ' Rip Van Winkle ' (1865), and 
)thers. In May, 1868, at the Queen's 
Theatre, London, he was the recipient of 
I, " benefit," in connection with wnich he 
ippeared for the last time as the Kinchin 
love. For biography, see Genest's ' English 
•itage ' (1832), "his own ' Recollections and 
»Vanderings ' (1864), and the Era for January 
.5,1871. "Paul Bedford's size and rotun- 
lity, his odd utterances of slang sayings, 
lis stolid imperviousness to the imper- 
;inence with which in the due course 
if all the dramas he Avas assailed by 
Wright, made him," says Edmund Yates, 
'a favourite with the Adelphi public, and 
l&yQ hira a raison d'etre. He had not the 
slightest claim to be considered an actor, 
olayed every part in exactly the same 
'ashion, had not the faintest notion of im- 
personation, and vas fundamentally stupid 
iind ignorant. But in his earlier days he 
?ang 'Jolly Nose,' and in later years he 
jaid, ' I believe you, my boy ! ' and these 
lecomplishraents," with his reputed jollity, 
liis social reputation for full-flavoured 
inecdotes, and his position as Wright's 
professional butt, carried hira successfully 
■through a long life." 

■ Bedlam. A burglar in Merivalb's 
' He's a Lunatic ' (g.v.). 

Bedloe, Captain William, who was 
implicated in the Popish plots of Charles II. 's 
reign, and the story of whose ' Life and 
Death' was published in 16S1, is said to 
have been the author of a tragedy called 
l' The Excommunicated Prince ' {.q.v.). 

Bedroom Window (The). A farce 
in one act, by Edward {q.v.), first 
performed at the Olympic Theatre, London, 
on March 18, 1847. 

Bee and the Orang-e Tree (The). 
An extravaganza by J. R. Planche (g.v.), 
produced at the Haymarket at Christmas, 
1845, with Tilbury as Kina Block, Hudson as 
Prince Amiable, Clark as Baron Sprout, Miss 
Julia Bennetc as the Princess Amy, J. Bland 
as Ravagio, Miss P. Horton as the Princess 
Linda, Mrs. Caulfield as Countess Kurtzeloio, 
and Mrs. L. S. Buckingham as the Fairy 
Trufio. The piece was first played at New 
York in September, 1846, with Mrs. Timm 
as Prince Amiable. 

Beef Tea. An operetta, written by 
Harry Greenbank, composed by Wilfrid 
Bendall, and first performed at the Lyric 
Theatre, London, on October 27, 1892. 

Beefingrton, Milor. An English noble- 
man in Canning's burlesque of ' The Rovers' 

Beehive (The). A musical farce in two 
acts, adapted by Dr. Millingen (q.v.) from 
Pigault Le Brun's ' Riveaux d'Euxmemes,' 
and composed by Horn ; first performed at 
the Lyceum on January 19, 1811, with a cast 
including Mathews, Wrench, Lovegrove, Mrs. 
Mountain, and Miss Kelly ; played at New 
York in 1811, and again in 1841, with Burton 
and Miss S. Cushman in the cast. The title 
is derived from the name of the inn in which 
the action takes place. 

Beelzebub. One of Satan's " nephews" 
in E. Stirling's ' Devil's Daughters ' (q.v.) ; 
also, the hero of ' Satan on Earth ' (q. v.). 

Beerbohm Tree. See Tree, Beer- 


Beere, Mrs. Bernard (n^e Whitehead). 
Actress ; made her professional debut at 
the Opera Comique, London. In 1877-8 
she was a member of the company at the 
St. James's Theatre, where she appeared 
as Emilia in ' Othello,' Lady Sneerwell in 
'The School for Scandal,' Julia in 'The 
Rivals,' and Grace Harkaioay in ' London 
Assurance.' Her first original r6le appears 
to have been that of Larhj Mantonville in 
• Scandal' (q.v.), at the Royalty in 1878, in 
which year she also played in old English 
comedy at the Crystal Palace. To 1878-9 
belongs a tour in the English provinces 
with Mrs. Chippendale. On her return to 
town she "created," in March, 1879, the 
part of Lisa in W. S. Gilbert's 'Gretchen' 
(q.v.). Since then she has been the original 
representative of the following characters : 
— Mrs. Douglas in ' Campaigning ' (1879), 
Sangarre in 'Michael Strogoff' (1881), Ijady 
Maude in ' Mimi ' (1881), Dora Steer in ' The 
Promise of May' (1882), Jane Eyre in 
Wills's drama (1882), Mrs. Devenish in 'Lords 
and Commons ' (1883), Lena Despard in ' As 
in a Looking-Glass ' (1887), the heroine of 
'Ariane' (1888), and Mrs. Arbufhnot in 'A 
Woman of No Importance' (1893). Mrs. 
Beere has also been the original English 
representative of the heroines of 'Fedora' 
(1883) and 'La Tosca' (1889). Among the 
other parts which she has undertaken 
in London may be named Lydia Lan- 
guish (1879), Lady Teazle (1879), Julia 
in 'The Hunchback' (1879), Constance in 
'The Love Chase' (1879), Pauline in 'The 
Lady of Lyons' (1879), Julie in 'Richelieu' 
(1879), Geraldine in 'Green Bushes' (1880), 
Princess de Botnllon in ' Adrienne Lecou- 
vreur ' (1881), Bathsheha in ' Far from the 
Madding Crowd' (1882), Jjadt/ Ormond in 
' Peril ' (1884), Julia in ' The Rivals ' (1884), 
Countess Zicka in 'Diplomacy' (1884), Pe7 
Woffington in 'Masks and Faces' (1888), 
Mrs. Sternhold in ' Still AVaters ' (1889). and 
Lady Gay Spanker (1890). In 1892-3 Mrs. 




Beere gave some performances in Australia 
and America, her d4but in the United States 
being made in November, 1892, at the 
Manhattan Opera House, New York, as 
Josephine Eve-Allen in 'The Fringe of 
Society ' (q.v.)- 

Beeston, "Williani, actor, was for some 
Years at the head of "the Queen's Players" 
—a post he resigned in 1637 to undertake 
the charge and instruction of a company of 
juvenile performers, called " The King's and 
Queen's Young Company." We read that, 
about 1640, he received official authority 
"to continue the house called Salisbury 
Street Playhouse " as a playhouse. 

Beeswing-. (1) Landlord of an hotel in 
C. Selby'S ' Hour at Seville ' (q.v.). (2) A 
character in DOUGLAS Jerrold's ' Wedding 
Gown' (q.v.). (3) A servant in Watts 
Phillips's 'Paul's Return' (g.i;.). — (4) 
BacchiLS Beeswing, in Shirley Brooks's 
'Daughter of the Stars' (q.v.), is a butler. 
(5) Charles Bcesiving, in ' Taming a Tiger ' 
\q.v.), is a " traveller in wines." 

Beethoven. A drama in one act, by 
GusTAV Hein, Her Majesty's Opera House, 
Aberdeen, October 17, 1879. (2) 'Beet- 
hoven's Romance : ' a play in four acts, by 
Susie Raphael, RoyaltyTheatre, London, 
December 1, 1894. See Adelaide. 

Beetle. (1) The name of an alderman 
and his daughter in Douglas Jerrold's 
'Beau Nash' (q.v.). (2) Jereviiah Beetle 
figures in ToM Taylor'S 'Babes in the 
Wood' (q.v.). 

Before Breakfast. A farce by R. B. 
Peake (q.v.), first performed, with music by 
John Barnett, at the Lyceum Theatre, 
London, in 1825, with Jlathews as Trefoil, 
Keeley as John, Bartley as Sir Wm. Buffer, 
and Miss Boden as Fanny. It was pla'yed 
at New York in May, 1827. 

Before the Da-wn. A play in one act, 
by Henry Byatt, Opera Comique Theatre, 
London, April 15, 1895. 

Before the Mast. A nautical drama 
in four acts, by Fred. W. Broughton, 
Olympic Theatre, London, INIarch 8, 1884. 

Beg-g-ar my Neig-hbour; or, A 
Hog'ue's a i'ool. A comedy in three acts, 
by T. Morton (q.v.) ; founded in part on 
Iffland's ' Nephew,' and performed at the 
Haymarket on July 10, 1802, with a cast in- 
cluding C. Kemble, Suett, Emery, Fawcett, 
Mrs. Mountain, etc. (2) ' Beggar my Neigh- 
bour : a Blind Man's BoufJe :' an operetta, 
adapted by F. C Burnand from ' Les Deux 
Aveugles' (q.v.), and first performed at the 
Gallery of Illustration, London, March 28, 
1870, by T. German Reed and Arthur Cecil. 

Beg-g-ar of Bethnal Green (The). 
See Beggar's Daughter of Bethnal 

Beg-g-ar of Brussels (The). A play 

by J. B. BUCKSTONE (q.v.). 

Beg-g-ar of Crippleg-ate (The). A 
play by W. T. Moncriefe (q-v.). 

Beg-g-ar on Horseback (The). A 
farce in two acts, by John O'Keefe (q.v.), 
first performed at the Haymarket on June 
16, 1785, with Edwin as Corny Buttercup, 
Parsons as Codger, Bannister, jun.,as Horace, 
Baddeley as Cosey, R. Palmer as Scout, Mrs. 
Webb as Mrs. Mummery, and Mrs. Wells 
as Nancy Buttercup. Codger falls in love 
with Nancy, and consequently allows her 
brother Corny (the beggar on horseback) to 
take great liberties with him and his house- 
hold. Mrs. Mummery is a strolling actress. 
(2) ' A Beggar on Horseback : ' a comedy 
in five acts, by Robert Sulivan (q.v.), tirst 
performed at the Haymarket on March 21, 
1846, with Webster as Simon Foxall, W 
Farren as Morecraft, T. F. Mathews as 
Baggs, Clark as Spavin, H. Widdicomb as 
Jolt, and other parts by H. Holl, J. Bland, 
Brindal, Mrs. Glover, Mrs. Seymour, and 
Miss Julia Bennett. 

Beg;g-ar- Student (The). A comic 
opera in four acts, music by Carl Millocker, 
libretto by W. Beatty-Kingston, first per- 
formed (in England) at the Alhambra, 
Theatre, London, on April 12, 1884, with 
Miss Fannie Leslie in the title part (Simon 
Bomanovich), H. Hallam as Conrad, F. 
Mervin as General Ollendorf, Aynsley Cook as 
,%/ma_p2JS, Miss Marion Hood as Laura, Miss 
Irene Verona as Stephania, and Miss Madgf 
Stavart as Countess Paltnatica, the cast in^ 
eluding also ]Miss Marie Williams, Miss 
Alma Stanley, and Miss Emily Duncan 
The opera was performed in the Englisl 
provinces in 1884, B. Davies being the Simon , 
J. Wilson the Conrad, G. H. Snazelle th» 
Ollendorf, Miss Georgina Burns the Laura 
Miss Bensburg the Stephania. and Mis. 
Marian Burton the Countess ; and again ii 
1886, with Miss Lucy Franklein, H. Bracy 
J. Child, and F. Mervin ; also at W' allack' 
Theatre, New York, in July, 1887. 

Beg-g-ar's Daug-hter of Bethna 
Green (The). A comedy in three (?) act; 
by J. Sheridan Knowles (q.v.), first pei 
formed at Drury Lane on November 22, 182! 
with Aitken as the beggar (^Albert), Miss I 
Tree as Bess (his daughter), Mrs. Knight 8 
Elizabeth (his wife). Cooper as Lord Wil/ori 
Vining as Lord Willoughby, W. Farren as ol 
Small, Harley as young Small, Liston £ 
Peter,^lrs. Faucit as Queen Elizabeth, IMrs.( 
Jones as the Hostess, and INIrs. Orger as Kat 
The prologue was written by Charles Laml 
The play was afterwards altered, rechri 
tened ' The Beggar of Bethnal Green,' ar 
performed at the Victoria Theatre, Londoi 
in 1834, with the author as Lord Wilfor 
]\Iiss Jar man as Bess, INIiss P. Horton ; 
Kate, Mrs. Egerton as the Queen, Abbott ; 
young Small, and Chippendale as Strap. 
was tirst produced at New York in Decei 
ber of the same year, with the author in tl 
above-named part. See Blind Beggar ( 
Bethnal Green. 

Begrgar's Opera (The). A drama! 
piece in three acts, written by JOHN G. 
in prose, with sixty-nine brief lyrics, adapt 



^y Dr. Pepusch) to popular airs. Offered 
to and rejected by Gibber (for Drury Lane), 
it was accepted for production by John 
Rich, and first performed at Lincoln's Inn 
Fields on January 29, 1728, with Chapman 
as the Beggar, who is supposed to be the 
author of the piece, and Milward as the 
Player, with whom, in the introduction, he 
holds colloquy ; with Hippisley as Peachum 
(a receiver of stolen goods), Mrs. Martin as 
Mrs. Peachum (his wife), and Miss Lavinia 
Fenton as Polly (their daughter) ; Hall as 
Lockit (a jailor), and Mrs. Egleton as Lucy 
Lockit (his daughter) ; and Walker as Mac- 
heath (captain of a gang of robbers). The 
robbers themselves were represented thus— 
Filch, by Clark ; Jemmy Tmtcher, by H. 
'Bullock ; Robin of Bagshot, by Lacy ; Mat 
of the Mint, by Spiller ; Ben Budge, by 
Morgan. Of the "women of the town" 
who complete the 2'ersonce, Mrs. Martin was 
Diana Trapes ; Mrs. Holiday, Mrs. Coaxer ; 
[Mrs. Rice, Mrs. Vixen ; Mrs' Clarke, Jenny 
[Diver ; Mrs. Morgan, Mrs. Slammekin. The 
piece was intended both as a "skit" upon 
the methods of Italian opera and as a social 
and political satire. In the introduction 
.the Beggar says: "I have introduced the 
similes that are in all your celebrated 
operas : the Swallow, the Moth, the Bee, 
the Ship, the Flower, etc. Besides, I have a 
prison scene, which the ladies always reckon 
charmingly pathetic. As to the parts, I 
have observed such a nice impartiality to 
our two ladies, that it is impossible for either 
of them to take offence [an allusion to the 
feud between Cuzzoni and Faustina in 1727]. 
... I hope I may be forgiven that I have 
not made my opera throughout unnatural 
like those in vogue ; for I have no recitative. 
Throughout the whole piece you may ob- 
serve such a similitude of manners in high 
Kind low life, that it is difficult to determine 
[whether (in the fashionable vices) the fine 
jgentlemen imitate the gentlemen of the 
road, or the gentlemen of the mad the fine 
gentlemen." "No one," says Gay's latest 
editor (1893), " could fail to see that Robin 
[of Bagshot was designed to represent Sir 
Robert Walpole's unrefined manners, con- 
vivial habits, and alleged robbery of the 
public. Macheath was provided with both 
a wife and a mistress, to indicate to the 
public that Lady Walpole had a rival in 
Miss Skerrett." In Spence's ' Anecdotes ' 
[Pope is represented as giving the following 
laccount of the origin of the piece : "Dr. Swift 
.had been observing once to Mr. Gay what an 
odd pretty sort of thing a Newgate Pastoral 
might make. Gay was inclined to try such 
^a thing for some time ; but afterwards 
[thought it would be better to write a comedy 
[on the same plan. This was what gave rise 
to 'The Beggar's Opera.' He began on it ; 
and when he first mentioned it to Swift, 
the doctor did not much like the project. 
As he carried it on, he showed what he 
wrote to both of us, and we now and then 
gave a correction or a word or two of 
advice, but it was wholly of his own -wTiting." 
" Quin,'' says Genest, " had so happy an ear 
for music, and was so famous for singing 

with ease a common ballad or catch, that 
Gay was persuaded to offer him the part of 
Macheath ; but after a short trial he gave 
it up, from despair of acquitting himself 
with the dissolute gaiety and Lold'vigour of 
deportment necessary to the character. It 
was then given to Walker ; and the ease 
and gaiety with which he acted Macheath 
established his reputation." At the first re- 
presentation " everybody concerned was in 
fear as to the ultimate fate of the play. Quin 
afterwards said that it was long in a dubious 
state ; that there was a disposition to damn 
it, and that it was saved by the song, ' Oh, 
ponder well ! be not severe.' " In one of 
the notes to 'The Dunciad'we read: "It 
was acted in London sixty-three [sixty- 
two] days uninterrupted [save for actors' 
benefit performances], and received the next 
season with equal applause. It spread into 
all the gi-eat towns of England. . . . It made 
its progress into Wale>;, Scotland, and Ire- 
land. . . , The ladies carried about with them 
the favourite songs of it in fans, and houses 
were furnished with it in screens. The 
person who acted Polly, till then obscure, 
became all at once the favourite of the town. 
Furthermore, it drove out of England (for 
that season) the Italian opera, which had 
carried all before it for ten years." "The 
total sura realized by the initial set of per- 
formances was," says Gay's latest editor, 
"£5351 15.?. Of this Gay received for four 
author's nights— the third, sixth, ninth, and 
fifteenth— £G93 13s. e>d. He sold the copy- 
right of the opera (together with that of 
the ' Fables ') for ninety guineas, and con- 
sequently made in all nearly eight hundred 
f)onnds." It was said of the piece that it 
lad made " Gay rich and Rich gay." Rich 
might well be jubilant, for his profits 
amounted to £4000. The opera was acted by 
children at Dublin in 1727 and at Lincoln's 
Inn Fields in 1729. It was revived at Drury 
Lane in 1738, with Beard as Macheath, 
Macklin as Peachum, Mrs. Clive as Polly, 
and Mrs. Pritchard as Lucy ; at Covent 
Garden in 1745, with Mrs. Clive as Lucy ; 
at Drury Lane in 1747, with Mrs. Gibber as 
Polly ; at the Haymarket in 1767, with Berry 
as Macheath, Shuter as Peachum, Bannister 
as Mat, and Mrs. Dancer as Polly ; at Drury 
Lane in 1777, with Baddeley as Lockit and 
Mrs. Baddeley as Polly ; at'the Haymarket 
in 1781 [under the management of Colman], 
with the male characters by women, and 
the female by men— Mrs. Cargill as Mac- 
heath, Mrs. Lefevre as Peachum, Mrs. Webb 
as Lockit, Mrs. Wilson as Filch, Bannister 
as Polly, Edwin as lAicy, Wewitzer as Diana 
Trapes, etc. ; at the same theatre, under 
the same conditions, in 1784, with Mrs. 
Wells as Macheath and Mrs. Inchbald as 
Ben; at Covent Garden in 1788, with 
Bannister as Macheath, Blanchard as Filch, 
Mrs. Billington as Polly, Mrs, Abington 
as Lucy; at the Haymarket in 1791 (for a 
benefit), with Mrs. Edwards as Blacheath, 
Johnstone as Lucy, Wewitzer as Mrs. Vixen, 
Bannister, jun., as Mrs. Slammekin; at 
Covent Garden in 1796 (for a benefit), with 
Incledon as Macheath, Munden as Peachum, 




Mrs. Martyr as Filch, Fawsett as Lucy, and 
:Mrs. Davenport as Mrs. Peachum ; at Covent 
Garden in 1813, with Miss Stephens as Polly ; 
at Covent Garden in 1816, for Mathews' bene- 
fit, with the beneficiaire as Machcath ; at the 
Lyceum in the same year, with Miss Kelly 
as Lxicy and Miss L. Kelly as Polly ; at the 
Haymarket in 1820, with Mdme. Vestris as 
Macheath, Terry as Peachum, and Mrs. C. 
Kerable as Lucy [twelve performances] ; at 
Drury Lane in the same year, "with an 
additional scene," representing Marylebone 
Gardens as they were about 1728 [Macheath 
is betrayed here instead of in a tavern] ; 
at the Lyceum in 1821, with Miss Forde 
as Polly; at St. James's in 1836-7, with 
Braham as Macheath, Miss Rainforth as 
Polly, Strickland as PeacMim, and J. P. 
Harley as Filch ; at the Lyceum Theatre in 
1840 ; at the Lyceum in 1848, with Mdme. 
Vestris as Lucy, Miss Fitzwilliam as Polly, 
W. H. Harrison as Macheath, Harley as 
Filch, F. Matthews as Peachum, Granby as 
Lockit, and Mrs. C Jones as Mrs. Peachum ; 
at the Strand in 1853, with ]\Irs. Howard 
Paul as Lucy, Miss Rebecca Isaacs as Polly, 
Leffler as Macheath, and Harrison as 3[at of 
the Mint ; at the Marylebone in 1853 ; at the 
Haymarket in 1854 ; at Sadler's Wells in 
1858; at the Gaiety in 1870, with Beverley 
as Macheath, Miss C. Loseby as Polly, Miss 
A. Tremaine as Lucy, Aynsley Cook as 
Mat, J. D. Stoyle as Filch, and T. INIaclean 
as Peachuvi ;' at the Alexandra Palace, 
London, in 1876, with Wilfred Morgan 
as Machcath, T. A. Palmer as Peachum, G. 
Fox as Mat, Miss Annie Goodall as Lucy, 
Miss Everard as Mrs. Peachum, and Mdme. 
Cave-Ashton as Polly. The piece has been 
performed in England of late years with J. 
Sims Reeves as Macheath. There is record 
of its being produced in Edinburgh in 1733, 
and it was represented at the Nassau Street 
Theatre, New York, in December, 1750, with 
Thomas Kean as Macheath. A burlesque of 
it, written by Hubert Jay Morice and 
called 'The Beggar's Uproar,' was brought 
out at the Surrey Theatre, London, in May, 
1870. See Macheath and Polly. 

Beg-g-ar's Pantomime (The). See 
Beggar's Opera. 

Beg-gar's Petition (The); or, A 
Father's Love and a Mother's Care. 
A drama in three acts, by G. Dibdin Pitt 
Cq.v.), first performed at 'the City Theatre, 
London, on October 18, 1841, with Shepherd 
as Robert Brightwell (the beggar), H. Widdi- 
comb as Jemmy Links, INIrs. Shepherd as 
Mrs. Brightwell and Mrs. E. Yarnold as 
Jane Brightwell. 

Beg-g-ar's TTproar (The). See 
Beggar's Opera. 

Beg-g-ar's "Wedding- (The). A ballad 
opera in three acts, by Charles Colley 
{q.v.), first performed at Dublin and after- 
wards (in I'? 29) at the Haymarket. Reduced 
to one act, and entitled 'Phebe,' it was 
played at Drury Lane in July, 1729, with 
Briilgewater as Chaunter, Cibber, jun., as 
Cant, Fielding as Justice (Quorum, Miss 

Raftor as Phebe, Mrs. Roberts as Hunter. 
*' Chaunter is the king of the beggars. 
Hunter is his reputed son ; Phebe is the re- 
puted daughter of Quorum. Hunter and 
Phebe are mutually in love. Hunter turns 
out to be Quorum's son. Quorum says 
Phebe is not his daughter, and consents to 
her union with Hunter. The Beggar's Wed- 
ding is then celebrated. Grigg is the 
bridegroom, and Tib Tatter the bride" 

Beg-g-ars' Bush (The). A tragi- 
comedy, first printed in 1647. Though the 
scene is laid in Flanders, the play is named 
after a well-known tree, called the "Beggars' 
Bush," situated on the road between Hun- 
tingdon and Coxton. It is ascribed by 
Dyce to John Fletcher, and by Fleay to 
John Fletcher (g.v.) and Philip Mas- 
singer {q.v.). The latter favours 1615 as 
the date of its first performance ; the 
former, 1622. Langbaine speaks of having 
seen it acted several times with applause, 
and Downes mentions it as having been i 
revived between 1663-1682, Slightly altered, | 
and with the title of ' The Royal Merchant,* 
it was played at Drury Lane in 1705, with I 
a cast including Wilks, Mills, Bullock, Est- I 
court, Norris. Mrs. Cox, and Mrs. Rogers. 
In 1767 the piece was once more " adapted" 
and produced again, as 'The Royal Merchant,* 
at Covent Garden as a comic opera, witbl 
Mattocks, Bensley, Shuter, Yates, and Mrs. i 
Mattocks in the cast. Altered once more» 
by the Hon. — Kinnaird, and entitled 'Thai 
Merchant of Bruges,' the piece was performed 
at Drury Lane in December, 1815, with K( 
as Goswin (Florez), Munden as Vandunk 
Oxberry as Higgin, Harley as Prigg, HoUant 
as Clause (Gerrard), Mrs. Horn as Gertrude\ 
(Bertha), and Miss L. Kelly as Jaculin. 

Begrone Dull Care ; or, How- 
it End P A comedy in five acts, by 
Reynolds (q.v.), first performed at Cover 
Garden on February 9, 1808, with Lewis 
Modern, Miss Smith as Selina, Pope as 
Arthur St. Albyn, Brunton as Danvers. and 
other parts by Emery, C. Kemble, Fawcett 
and Mrs. Davenport ; first played at Nei 
York in November of the same year. 

Begnm (The). An opera byREGiNAl 
DE Koven (q.v.). 

"Behave Pratty." See Ashfiei 

Behind a Mask. A comedy in thr 
acts, by Bernard H. Dixon and Artht 
Wood (q.v.), first performed at the Royalt 
Theatre, London, on March 8, 1871, wlf 
Miss H. Hodson. Miss Rachel Sanger, Arthi 
Wood (as a country theatrical manager! 
Alfred Bishop, C. Flockton, and F. Se 
mour in the cast. 

Behind the Curtain. A drama 
four acts, by George Roberts (q.v.), fir 
performed at the Holborn Theatre, Londoi 
on April IS, 1870, with a cast including Jl 
Billington (5o6 Olive), Arthur Wood(Famp)| 
J. C. Cowper, W. Mclntyre, Miss De 
borough, etc. 




Behind tlie Scenes ; or, Actors by 
Laniplig:h.t. A "serio-comic burlesque 
burletta" in one act, by Charles Selby 
(q.v.), first performed at the Strand Theatre, 
London, on September 12, 1839, with the 
author as Goosequill, Oxberry as Mr. 
Spooney Negus, G. Cooke as Wiggles, Mrs. 
Selby as Mrs. St. Clair. (2) ' Behind the 
Scenes : ' a farcical comedy in three acts, 
adapted by Felix Morris (7. r.) from 'Le 
P^re de la Debutante ' (q.v.), and first per- 
formed at Brooklyn, U.S.A., on February 
25, 1895, with the author as Achille Talma 
Dufard; produced at the Comedy Theatre, 
London, on the afternoon of July 4, 1896, as 
the work of F. MORRIS and G. P. Hawtrey. 

Behind Time. A farce in one act, by 
B. Webster, jun. iq.v.), first performed at 
the Adelphi on December 26, 1865, with 
J, L. Toole as Jeremiah Fluke. 

Behn, Aphra, dramatic and miscel- 
laneous writer, was the daughter of John 
Johnson, a barber, and was baptized (as 
"Ayfara") at Wye, Kent, in July, 1640. 
When a child she went to live with her 
parents at Swinani, where she became ac- 
quainted with Oronooko {q.v.), the Indian 
chief whom she subsequently made the hero 
of a prose romance. About 1650 she returned 
to England, where she married, shortly af ter- 
wards, a merchant named Behn, who died 
before 1G66. Later came a visit to the Low 
Countries on secret Government business, 
for which, apparently, she received no re- 
compense. Certain it is that, from this 
time, she devoted herself to a literary career. 
She had already had some experience of 
Court life, and she now cultivated the ac- 
quaintance of persons connected with the 
Theatre, notably Edward Kavenscroft, "with 
whom," says Edmund Gosse, " there is 
reason to believe that her relations were 
very close." The first play slie wrote was a 
tragedy in verse, ' The Young King,' adapted 
from a French story. The play by her which 
first saw the footlights was 'The Forc'd 
Marriage' {q.v.), produced in 1671. After 
this came, in succession, 'The Amorous 
Prince' (1671), 'The Dutch Lover' (1673), 
' Abdelazer' (1676), 'The Rover' (1677), ' The 
Debauchee' (1677), 'The Town Fop '(1677), 
'Sir Patient Fancy' (1678), a continuation 
of 'The Rover* (16S1), 'The Roundheads' 
(1682), ' The City Heiress ' (1682), ' The False 
Count' (16S2), 'The Lucky Chance' (1687), 
and ' The Emperor of the Moon ' (1687), all of 
which see. She died in April, 16S9, and after 
her decease two more dramatic pieces bv her 
appeared— ' The Widow Ranter' {q.v.) (pro- 
duced 1690), and ' The Younger Brother ' {q.v.) 
(printed 1696). To the latter a short memoir 
of her was prefixed. Her poems had been 
collected in 1684, and her novels (with a 
memoir) in 1698. Her plays were brought 
together in printed form in 1702. "Her 
genius and vivacity," says Edmund Gosse, 
'' were undoubted ; her plays are very coarse, 
but very lively and humorous, while she 
possessed an indisputable touch of Ivric 
genius "('Dictionary of National Biography, 
18 i5). See Agnes de Castro ; Astr^ea. 

Bel Demonic. A " love story," in four 
acts, by John Brougham {q.v.), founded 
on ' L'Abbaye de Castro,' and first per- 
formed at the Lyceum Theatre, London, on 
October 81, 1863, with the author as Cardinal 
Montalto, Fechter as Angela, Emery as Re- 
nuccio, G. Jordan as Coimt Campireali, Miss 
K. Terry as Lena, and other parts by F. 
Charles, Miss Elsworthy, etc. ; first per- 
formed in America at Niblo's Garden, New 
York, May 17, 1864, with Felicita Vestvali 
as Angela and Rose Eytinge as Lena. 'Bel 
Demonio ' is the name assumed by Angela 
when he puts himself at the head of a band 
of Zingari, with the view of enforcing his 
claim to the hand of Lejia (daughter of 
Campireali). He is thought to be plebeian, 
but is really of noble birth, and, in the end, 
carries off his lady-love from the midst 
of a multitude of dangers. See Broken 
Vow, The. 

Belarius, in 'CjTnbeline' {q.v.), is a 
British nobleman and soldier, who, being 
wrongly banished, in revenge steals the 
king's sons {Guideiius and Arviragus), but 
in the end surrenders them. 

Belasco, David. Dramatic writer; 
author of 'La Belle Russe' (1886), 'The 
Heart of Maryland ' (1S95), and other pieces ; 
also, co-author, with H. C. De Mille, of 
' The Senator's Wife ' (1S92) and ' Man and 
Woman ' (1898), and, with Franklyn Fvles, 
of ' The Girl I Left Behind me ' (1893). ' See 
Lost Paradise. 

Belavoir. The Prince in Planch6's 

' Discreet Princess' {q.v.). 

Belch, Sir Toby. Uncle of Olivia in 
•Twelfth Night '(r^.r.). 

Belchier, Daubridfcourt, who took 
hisB.A. degree at Oxford in 1600, afterwards 
settled in the Low Countries, and died there 
in 1621, translated from the Dutch the 
dramatic piece entitled ' Hans Beer-Pot, his 
Invisible Comedie of See me and See me 
Not' (1618). See Wood's 'Fasti Oxoni- 
enses ' (1721), Whincop's ' List of Dramatic 
Poets ' (1747), 'Biographia Dramatica' (1812X 
and ' Dictionary of National Biography ' 

Belcore, Sergeant, figures in all the 
English versions, adaptations, and bur- 
lesques of ' L'Elisir d'Amore ' {q.v.). 

Belcour, in Cumberland's 'West In- 
dian' {q.v.), is the son of Stockwell and the 
adopted son of Mr. Belcour. William Lewis 
{q.v.) was so successful in this part that he 
became known as "Belcour Lewis." (2) 
Eustache Belcour, in W. E. Suter's ' First 
Love ' {q.v.), has been the betrothed of 

Beleses. A soothsayer and satrap in 
Byron's ' Sardanapalus ' {q.v.). 

Belfield. The name of " the brothers" 
in Cumberland's play so called {q.v.). 

Belfille, Mrs. Actress ; made her first 
appearance at Hull as Lady Paragon, and in 
1784 " played a good line of business in the 




Norwich company." She represented Be- 
linda in ' All in the Wrong ' at Covent 
Garden in 1786, performed for a season at 
York, and died in 17S7. 

Belford. (1) Major Belford, in Colman 
sen.'s 'Deuce is in him' (q.v.), is engaged to 
Mdlle. Florival (q.v.). (2) Philip and Hetty 
Belford are characters in BUCHANAN'S 
' Clarissa Harlow e ' (q.v.), 

Belford, "Williara Rowles. Actor, 
born near Bristol, lS2i ; died June 2, 1881 ; 
began his professional career in 1847, at the 
Theatre Royal, Glasgow, as Sir Thomas 
Clifford in ' The Hunchback ' (q.v.), and, after 
some experience in the provinces, joined 
Phelps's company at Sadler's AVells, London, 
in 1851, starting as Sir Charles Cropland in 
"The Poor Gentleman' (q.v.). Among the 
parts played by him at this theatre were 
lAtcius in 'Timon of Athens '(1S5G), Lucentio 
in 'The Taming of the Shrew ' (1856), Fabian 
in 'Twelfth Night' (1857), Guiderius in 
'Cymbeline' (1857), Brush in 'The Clandes- 
tine INIarriage ' (1857), and Darnley in ' The 
Hypocrite' (1S5S). We find him in 1S61 
playing the King in ' Hamlet ' with the 
Keans at Dniry Lane. In the following 
year he " created" at the Strand the part of 
Dundreary in Oxenford's ' Sam's Arrival ' 
iq.v.), and at the same theatre in 1865 he 
was the original Mr. Bubble in ' One Tree 
Hill ' (q.v.). Among his other original roles 
may be mentioned Caderousse in 'Monte 
Cristo ' (1868), Higglei in Burnand's ' Morden 
Grange' (1SC9), Sir John Ilartington in 
"Twixt Axe and Crown' (1870), Randall 
in 'Randall's Thumb' (1871), William in 
Richards' ' Cromwell ' (1872), and Old Nolle- 
kins in 'Old London' (1873). In 1874-5. at 
the Gaiety, he played Mr. Page in 'The 
Merry Wives of Windsor ;' and in 1876 toured 
in the English provinces as Henry VIII. 
For occasional criticisms on his perform- 
ances, see Button Cook's ' Nights at the Play.' 

Belforest. Husband of Levidulcia in 
TOURNEUR'S ' Atheist's Tragedy ' (q.v.). 

Belfour, Hug-o John. Clergyman, 
born 1802, ordained 1S26, died 1827 ; pub- 
lished, under the pseudonym of "St. John 
Dorset," two five-act tragedies, entitled re- 
spectively ' The Vampire ' (1821) and ' Monte- 
zuma ' (1822). 

Belgravia. A character in Planche's 
* New Haymarket Spring Meeting ' (q.v.). 

Believe as you List. A comedy by 
Philip Massinger (q.v.), licensed in May, 
1631, and entered at Stationers' Hall in 
September, 1653, and June, 1660. This was 
one of the plays destroyed by Warburton's 

Belinda. (1) "An affected lady" in 
CONGREVE's 'Old Bachelor' (q.v.). (2) A 
girl in Tayerner'S ' Artful Husband' (q.v.), 
M'ho masquerades as Sir 3Iodish Pert. (3) 
Niece of Lady Brute in Vanbrugh's 'Pro- 
voked \\'ife ' (q v.). (4) Daughter of 3[r. 
Blandford in Murphy's ' All in the Wrong.' 
(5) The heroine of T. HOOK'S ' Soldier's 
Return ' (q.v.). (6) The heroine of J. Oxen- 

ford's ' Rape of the Lock ' (q.v.). (7) The 
heroine of W S. Gilbert's ' Engaged ' (q.v.\ 
(8) The "slavey" in Byron's 'Our Boys' 


Belisarius. (1) A tragedy by W. 
Philips (q.v.), founded on history, and first 
performed at Lincoln's Inn Fields on Aprill4, 
1724, with Boheme as the hero, Mrs. Brett 
as Almira, Mrs. Parker as Valeria, Ryan as 
Justinian, Quin as Hermogenes, etc. (2) A 
tragedy ascribed to J. P. Kemble (q.v.), per- 
formed at Hull in 1778 and at York in 1779. 
(3) A tragedy by H. Downman, M.D., per- 
formed at Exeter, and printed in 1786 and 
1792. (4) A scene from a play of this name 
appeared in ' The Oracle ' in October 17, 
1795. (5) A tragedy, in five acts and in 
verse, by Mrs. Faugeres, not acted, but 
published in America in 1795. 

Beliza. A character in Mrs. Cent- 
livre's ' Love at a Venture' (q.v.). 

Bell, (1) Jessie Bell is a country girl 
in Halliday's 'Daddy Grey' (q.v.) (2) 
Nelly Bell is the heroine of H. T. Craven's • 
'Our Nelly' (q.v.). (3) Baron Billy and- 
Lady Nancy Bell are characters in F. C. ' 
Burnand's 'Lord Level and Lady Nancy 

Bell, Archibald. Sheriff-depute of Ayr- 
shire, born 1755, died 1854 ; published in 1841 
two tragedies in verse, entitled * Count Cler- 
mont' and ' Caius Toranius.' 

Bell, Mrs. Hug-h. Dramatic writer: 
author of ' A Chance Interview ' (1SS9). ' A 
Lost Thread ' (1890), ' Time is Money ' (1890) 
' A Joint Household ' (1891), ' Nicholson'^ 
Niece' (1892), The Masterpiece' (1893) 
' Jerry-Builder Solness ' (1893), ' In a Tele 
graph Office' (1893), 'The Great Illusion 
(1895). ' The Bicycle ' (1S96) ; also, co-author 
with C H. E. Brookfield, of 'An Under 
ground Journey ' (1893) ; and translator o 

Bell, Minnie. Actress and dramati 
writer ; Avas in the original casts c 
' Estranged ' (1881), ' Bad Boys ' (18S5), ' Th 
Other Little Lord Fondleboy' (1887), etc 
as well as in those of the following piece.' 
adapted by herself—' Is Madame at Home' 
(1887), 'The Gavotte' (1890), and 'Lad 
Browne's Diary ' (1892). 

Bell, Peter. See Peter Bell th 

Bell, Robert. Dramatic and misce 
laneous writer, born at Cork 1800, died 1867 
author of three comedies, entitled ' Marriagi 
(1842), ' Mothers and Daughters ' (1843), an 
' Temper' (1847) (q.v.); and two other dr; 
matic pieces — ' Double Disguises' an 
' Comic Lectures ; ' and editor of a voluiE 
of ' Songs from the Dramatists.' 

Bell in Campo. A tragedy in t\i, 
parts, by Margaret, Duchess of Ne'^ 
CASTLE (q.v.) ; never acted, but printed wit, 
her other works in 1662. 

Bella, in Robertson's 'School' (q.v\ 
is a young governess, in love with Lo\ 
Beaufoy (q.v.). 




Bella's Birthday. A farce by C H, 
Stephenson ; Princess's Theatre, London, 
January 9, 1873.— 'Bella's Intended:' a 
comedietta by Edward Rose ; Alexandra 
Theatre, Liverpool, October 15, 1S83. 

Belladonna; or,TlieLittleBeauty 
and the Great Beast. An opera in 
three acts, music by Alfred Cellier, libretto 
by Alfred Thompson, first performed at 
Prince's Theatre, Manchester, on April 27, 
1878, with a cast including Mdme. Selina Do- 
laro, Federici, F. Marshall, A. Roberts, etc. 

Bellafront, in Dekker's ' Honest 
Whore' (q.v.), is, says Hazlitt, "a most in- 
teresting character. It is an extreme, and 
I am afraid, almost an ideal case. She gives 
the play its title, turns out a true penitent, 
that is, a practical one, and is the model of 
an exemplary wife." 

Bellair, in Etherege's 'Man of Mode' 
(q.v.), was probably intended by the author 
as a piece of self-portraiture. Bellair is the 
name also of characters in (2) Mrs. Cent- 
livre'S 'Love at a Venture' (q.v.) and (3) 
Mrs. Cowley's ' More "Ways than One' (q.v.). 

Bellamente. Husband of Clariana in 
Shirley's ' Love's Cruelty ' (q.v.). 

Bellamine, in Smythe's 'Rival Modes' 
(q.v.), is in love Avith Melissa (q.v.). 

Bellamira her Dream; or, The 
Love of Shadows. A tragi-comedy in 
two parts, by Thomas Killigrew (q.v.), 
printed with the rest of his works in 1(564. 
(2) ' Bellamira ; or, The Mistress : ' a 
comedy by Sir Ch.vrles SedleyC^'.v.), acted 
"by their Majesties' servants " at the "Theatre 
Royal in 1687. The scene is laid in London, 
but the characters and plot are adapted 
from the ' Eunuch ' of Terence. ' ' The parts 
of Lionel, Eustace, Pisqnil, and Silence 
correspond to those of Chcerea, Chremes, 
Dorus,andDorias. Daiifjer field a.nd Smoothly 
are Thraso and Gnatho. Phaedria is turned 
into Keepwell, a comic character. In the 
part of Thais, as Bellamira, the author . . . 
seems to have had his eye on the Duchess 
of Cleveland." "He represents her as an 
Imperious mistress, who governs and jilts 
her keeper " (Genest). Merryman is largely 
identical with Parmeno, and, as a very fat 
man, is contrasted with Cunningham, who is 
very thin. (3) 'Bellamira; or. The Fall of 
Tunis : ' a tragedy by Shiel, first performed 
atCovent Garden on April 22, ISIS, with Miss 
O'Neill as the heroine, C. Kemble as Man- 
fredi, Macready as Amurath, Young as 
Montalto, and Terry as Salerno ; first played 
at New York in the same year, with George 
Bartley as Montalto and Mrs. G. Bartley as 
Bellamira. Bellamira is the daughter of 
Montalto (governor of Tunis) and the wife of 
Manfredi (a Neapolitan nobleman). She 
falls into the hands of Amnrath, a renegade, 
who has superseded Montalto ; but is saved 
by Tunis being captured by the Spaniards. 

Eellamonde ; or, The King's 
Aveng-er. A drama in a prologue and 
three acts, by Edward Towers (q.v.) ; Pa- 
vilion Theatre, London, November 15, 1879. 

I Bellamy, Daniel. Miscellaneous Avriter, 
i born 1687 ; author of ' Love Triumphant : a 
j Pastoral Drama for Schools,' and some other 
dramatic pieces for young people, published 
1 in The Young Lady's Miscellany (1723). He 
] was also associated with his son, Daniel 
I Bellamy, clergyman (died 1788), in the com- 
position of some similar pieces included in 
' Miscellanies in Prose and Verse ' (1739-40). 
See the ' Biographia Dramatica ' (1812). 

Bellamy, Georg-e Anne. Actress, 
born (according to her own statement) on 
April 23, 1733 (according to Chetwood, in 
1727); christened "George Anne "by mistake 
for " Georgiana ; " daughter of Lord Tyrawley 
and a quakeress named Seal, who married 
a Captain Bellamy just before "George 
Anne's " birth. Through her father, " George 
Anne," in her youth, made the acquaintance 
of some notable people, such as Fox, Chester- 
' field, Pope, and Garrick. She appears to have 
I had some success in private theatricals 
before, in 1742, she appeared at Covent 
Garden as Prue in 'Love for Love' (q.v.). 
I She was engaged at that theatre for the 
season of 1744-5, during which she figured 
as Monimia in 'The Orphsin,' A.'ipatia in 
' The Maid's Tragedy,' Celia in ' Volpone,' 
Arsinoe in 'Mariamne,' and Anne Sullen. 
It was at this time that she undertook her 
first original part— that of Blanch in ' Papal 
Tyranny ' (1745). Between 1745 and 1748 she 
was at the Aungier Street Theatre, Dublin. 
In 1748-50 she was at Covent Garden ; in 
1750-53 at Drury Lane; and in 1753-59 at 
Covent Garden again. She visited Dublin 
(Smock Alley) in 1760-61, and Edinburgh in 
1764. At Covent Garden she figured in 
1761-62, and between 1764 and 1770. She 
died in February, 1788. Among the cha- 
racters she " created "—and they were not 
very numerous— were Volumnia in Thom- 
son's ' Coriolanus' (1749), Erixene inYonng's 
'Brothers' (1753), Virginia in Monoriett's 
' Appius ' (1755), and the heroine in ' Cleone ' 
(175S). Her Shakespearean parts included 
Juliet [which she played, with Garrick as 
Borneo, at Covent CJarden in 1750, against 
Barry and Mrs. Nossiter at the rival estab- 
lishment], Cordelia, Desdemona, Lady Mac- 
beth, Portia in 'Julius Ca:sar,' and Isabella 
in ' Measure for Measure ; ' among her other 
roles may be mentioned Marcia in ' Cato,' 
Leonora in ' The Revenge,' Almeria in ' The 
Mourning Bride,' Andromache, and Calista. 
For further details, see Genest's ' English 
Stage ' (1S32). " We can say of Mrs. Bellamy," 
observes C Dibdin, "that she was natural, 
easy, chaste, and impressive ; that as far 
as person, features, voice, and conception 
went, none of which were by any means of 
an inferior description, ske highly pleased 
and never offended." " In the latter part of 
her life she went off greatly in her acting, 
and consequently could not get an engage- 
ment ; but her distress arose chiefly from 
her extravagance." In 1785 appeared 'An 
Apology for the Life of George Anne 
Bellamy,' compiled, apparently, by Alex- 
I ander Bicknell, who "ingeniously worked 
' up his materials into five small volumes, to 




which a sketch was afterwards added." In 
the same year appeared ' Memoirs of George 
Anne Bellamv, by a Gentleman of Covent 
Garden Theatre.' See also Hitchcock's 

• Irish Stage ' (17S8-9-1), Jackson's ' Scottish 
Stage ' (1793), Chetwood's ' General History 
of the Stage' (1749), Tate Wilkinson's 

• Memoirs ' (1790) and ' Wandering Patentee ' 
(1795), and O'Keefe's ' Recollections ' (1S26). 

Bellamy, Somers. Dramatic writer ; 
author of ' Flirtation' (1877), ' Two Wedding 
Rings,' etc. ; and part author (with F. Romer) 
of ' Tact ' (1885), ' April Showers ' (1889). 

Bellamy, Thomas. Dramatic and 
miscellaneous writer, born 1745, died 1800 ; 
author of a plav called ' The Friends ; or, 
The Benevolent Planters' (1789). See the 
•Biographia Dramatica' (1812). 

Bellamy, William Hoare. Actor ; 
born at Cork, 1800 ; died in America, 1866 ; 
made his English debut as Sir Siiywn Rock- 
dale in ' John Bull,' and his American debut 
(at New York, in 1837) as Captain Copp in 
'Charles IL' (g.?;.)- Ireland describes him 
as "a most excellent serious 'old man.' a 
fine reader, and a sensible actor' ('New 
York Stage ').— Mrs. W. H. Bellamy (known 
at one time as Mrs. A. W. Penson) played 
such parts as Emily in ' A Nabob for an 
Hour,' and Lady Rooku'ood. She first ap- 
peared in America in 1838, and died in 1S57. 

Bellanora. Daughter of Gostanzo, in 
Chapman's 'All Fools' (q.v.). 

Bellapert, in Massinger's ' Fatal 
Dowry' (g.v.), is servant to Beaumelle (g.i'.). 

Bellario, in Beaumont and Fletcher's 
'Philaster' (^.r.), is the name assumed by 
Euphrasia (q.v.), when she disguises her- 
self as a page. (2) A character in Victor's 
' Altamira'"(2.f.), in love with the heroine. 

Bellasis, Lady. The widow in 'Sir 
Roger de Coverley ' {q.v.}. 

Bellaston, Lady. A character in R. 
Buchanan's ' Sophia' (q.v.). 

Bellavoir. A character in 'The Prin- 
cesses in the Tower ' (q.v.). 

Belle Affaire (La). See Lucky Hit. 

Belle Alliance (La). A pantomime by 
G. A. S\LX(q.v.), produced at Covent Garden 
in 1855-6. 

Belle and the Boor (The). A play by 
T. J. Williams (q.v.). 

Belle Belle. Daughter of Coitnt Colly- 
wobbol in H. J. BYRON'S ' Lady Belle Belle' 


Belle Clarisse (La). A drama in a 
prologue and four acts, perfonned at the 
Ladbroke Hall, London, on March 9, 1891. 

Belle Helene (La). A comic opera, 
libretto bv Meilhac and Halevy, music by 
<)ffenbach"(Paris, 1864), of which there have 
been several English versions : (1) by 
Charles Lamb Kenney, produced at the 

Gaiety, London, on October 23, 1871, with 
]SIiss Julia Mathews a<! Helen, Miss Annio ( 
Tremaine as Orestes, J. D. Stoyle as Calchas, 1 
Maclean an Agamemnon, Soutar as Menelaux^ < 
and F. Wood as Achilles; (2) by F. C. I 
BURNAND, brought out at the Alhambra, 
London, on August 16, 1873.— A version was 
played at New York in May, 1870, under the 
title of ' La Belle L.N.' See Helen. 

Belle-Isle, Mdlle. de. See Made- 
moiselle DE Belle-Isle. 

Belle Lamar. A drama by Dion 
BouciCAULT (q.v.), performed at Booth's 
Theatre, New York, on August 10, 1874, 
with a cast includinir Miss Katherine 
Rogers, F. B. Warde, and John McCullough. 
A revised version, entitled ' Fin MacCool,' 
was performed at Boston, U.S.A., in Feb- 
ruary, 1SS7, with the author as Fin, Miss 
L. Thorndyke as Doris, and H. J. Lethcourt 
as Philip Bligh. 

Belle L.N. (The). See Belle Helene. 

Belle Lurette. See Lurette. 

Belle Maman. See Gay Widow, A ; 
and Priceless Paragon. 

Belle Normande (La). A "musical 
buffoonery" in three acts, written by A. 
Maltby (q.v.) and R- Mansell, composed 
by Vasseur and Greve, first performed at 
the Globe Theatre, London, on January 26, 
ISSl, with F. H. CeUi ?LsArmand, H. Paulton 
as Epinard, A. Maltby as Farouche, Fiir- 
neaux Cook as Batifol, Miss K. Munroe as 
Eglantine, Miss Kate Lee as Titine, Miss 
M. Davis as Madame Pondicherry, etc. < 

Belle of New York (The). A musical I 
comedy in two acts, written Viy Hugh Mor- ■ 
ton, composed by Gustav Keiker, and pro- 
duced originally in America ; first performed 
in England at the Shaftesliury Theatre, Lon- 
don, April 12, 1898, with :\Iiss Edna May as 
Violet Gray (the title-part). Miss Phyllis 
Rankin as Fiji Fricot, Miss H. Dupont 
as Cora Angclique, Miss P. Edwardes as ; 
Mamie, Miss E. Snyder as Marjorie, Dan j 
Daly as Jchabod Bronson, H. Davenport as ( 
Harry BroiU07i, J. E. Sullivan as Von ■ 
Piimpernick, F. Lawtonas Blinky Bill, etc. ; 
revived at the Adelphi Theatre, London, 
November, 1901. 

Belle of the Barley-Mow (The); 
or, The "Wooer, the "Waitress, and 
the "Willian. A burlesque by H. T. 
Arden (q.v.), first performed at Cremome. 
London, September 23, 1867, -with W.Corri, 
Miss Corri, Miss C. Parkes, and T. H. 
Friend in the cast. 

Belle of the Hotel (The). A piece ir 
which Miss Fitzwilliam appeared at Niblo'.- 
Garden in August, 1S42, personating Mis 
Protea Srwoks, and giving varied sketche^ 
of character (Scotch, Irish, Yankee, French 
and Italian). 

Belle of the Season (The). A pla^ 

by Matilda Heron (q.v.), performed ii 

' New York in 1862, with the author a 




Florence V'p2)erton, supported by Mrs. H P. 
•(.^rattan, Mrs. C Wakot, A. H. Davenport, 
W. Davidge, C. Walcot, jun,, etc. 

Belle Russe (La). A drama in four 
acts, adapted by David Belasco, and first 
produced at Wallack's Theatre, New York ; 
played at Edinburgh on June 26, 1882 ; and 
at the Pavilion Tlieatre, London on April 
17, 1886. 

Belle Sauvag-e (La). See Indian 
Pri>'cess and Pocohontas. 

Belle's Stratag-em (The). A comedy 
by Mrs. Cowley (q v.), first performed (with 
music by Michael Arne) at Covent Garden, 
on February 22, 1780, with Wroughton as 
Sir George Touchivood, Lewis as Doricourt, 
Quick as 3Ir. Hardy, Lee Lewes as Flutter, 
Edwin as the auctioneer, Wewitzer as the 
French servant, Mrs. Hartley as Ladij 
Touchwood, Mrs, Mattocks as ifrs. Rackett, 
and Miss Younge as Letitia Hardy. It was 
revived at Drury Lane in March, 1790, with 
Kemble as Doricourt, Baddeley as Hardy, 
R. Palmer as Courtall, Bannister, jun., as 
Flutter, Mrs, Kemble as Lady Touchivood, 
Miss Pope as Mrs. liackett, and Mrs. Jordan 
as Letitia; at Covent Garden in January, 
1808, with Munden as Hardy, Farley as 
Courtall, Jones as Flutter, Mrs. Mattocks 
as Mrs. Rackett, and Mrs. H. Johnston as 
Letitia; at Covent Garden in September, 
1817, with Abbott as Sir George, C. Kemble 
as Doricourt, Fawcett as Hardy, Mrs. Gibbs 
as Mrs. Rackett, and Miss Brunton as Le- 
titia ; at Drury Lane in January, 1818, w ith 
Dowton as Hardy, Harley as Flutter, INIrs 
Glover as Mrs. Rackett, and Miss Smithson 
as Letitia; at Drury Lane in 1826. with 
Wallack, Miss Foote as Letitia, Browne as 
Flutter, Penley as Sir George; at the Lyceum 
in 1828, with Green as Flutter ; at the City 
of London Theatre in 1844; at Sadler's 
Wells Theatre in August, 1849, with Miss i 
Fitzpatrick as Letitia, G. Bennett as Sir 
George, H. Marston as Doricourt, and Mrs. 
Marston as Mrs. Rackett; at the St. James's 
Theatre in October, 1866, with Gaston 
Murray as Sir George, H. Irving as Doricourt, 
F, Matthews as Mr. Hardy, W. Lacy as 
Flutter, Mrs, F, Matthews as Mrs. Rackett, 
Miss Herbert as Letitia, Miss C. Addison 
as Lady Touchxuood, and Miss E. Bufton as 
Miss Ogle ; at the Strand Theatre in 1873-4, 
withW. Terriss as Doricourt, C. H. Stephen- 
son as Hardy, H. Cox as Flutter, Miss Ada 
Swanborough as Letitia, and Miss Nelly 
Bromley as Lady Touchwood; at the 
Lyceum Theatre in June, 1876, with H. 
Irving as Doricourt, E. H. Brooke as Flutter, 
W. Bentley as Saville. R. C. Carton as 
Villers, Miss Isabel Bateman as Letitia 
Hardy, Miss L. Buckstone as Lady Touch- 
wood, and Miss V. Bateman as 31 rs. Rackett ; 
at the Lyceum Theatre, London, on April 
16, 1881, with H. Irving as Doricourt, H. 
Howe as Hardy, W, Terriss as Flutter, A. W. 
Pinero as Saville, A. Elwood as Villers, 
Miss Sophie Young as Mrs. Rackett, Miss 
Barnett as Lady Touchivood, and Miss Ellen 
Terry as Letitia Hardy. The comedy was 

performed at New York in 1794, with 
Hodgkinson as Doricourt, Hallam as Flutter, 
and Mrs. Hodgkinson as Letitia; and in 
1839, with Murdoch as Doricourt and Miss 
May wood as Letitia; at the Fifth Avenue 
Theatre, New York, in 1872 ; at Daly's 
Theatre, New York, in 1893, with Miss Ada 
Rehan as Letitia. A. Bourchier as Doricourt, 
J. Lewis as Old Hardy, and Miss A. Prince 
as Mrs. Rackett. 

Bellenden, Major, Lady Marg-a- 
ret, and Edith, figure in Farley'.s 
' Battle of Bothwell Brigg ' {q.v.). 

Bellendon. A play, acted at the Rose 
Theatre, London, on June 8, 1594, "by the 
Lord Admiral's men " (' BiogTaphia Drama- 
tica '). 

Sellers, Fettiplace. Miscellaneous 
writer ; the author of ' Injured Innocence,' 
a tragedy (1732), and other works. 

Belles of the Kitchen (The). A 
farce performed at Niblo's Theatre, New 
York, in January, 1874, with the Yokes 
family in the principal parts ; performed at 
the Adelphi Theatre, London, in 1875. 

Belles without Beaux ; or, Ladies 
among- themselves was performed at 
Covent Garden in August, 1822, with Miss 
Kelly as Mrs. Dashington. 

Belleterre, Marquis de. The " poor 
nobleman " in C. Selby's drama of that 
name {q.v.). His daughter is named Hortense. 

Belleur, in Beaumont and Fletcher's 
'Wild-goose Chase' {q.v.), is in love with 
Rosalura {q.v). 

Bellew, Harold Kyrle. Actor and 
dramatic writer, born at Prescot, Lincoln- 
shire ; made his professional debut at 
Solferino, Australia, as Eglinton Roseleaf 
in ' Turn Him Out ' {q.v ). His first appear- 
ance on the English stage was at Brighton, 
on August 22, 1875, when he played Lord 
Woodstock in 'Lady Clancarty' {q.v.); his 
London debict took place at the Ilaymarket 
in December, 1875, as Paris in ' Romeo and 
Juliet' {q.v.). His first original part was 
that of Lord Percy in T. Taylor's 'Anne 
Bolevn ' (1876) ; he was also in the first cast 
of Rae's ' Birds in tlieir Little Nests agree ' 
(1876). He has since " created '" the follow- 
ing parts -.—Belvawney in ' Engaged ' (1S77), 
Percy Deverel in 'Light and Shade ' (1879), 
Horatio in ' The Lord of the Manor ' (]SSO), 
Leo Chillingham in ' Mimi ' (1881), Raphael 
de Corr^ze in 'Moths' (1882), Humphrey 
Goddard in 'Breaking a Butterfly' (1884), 
Gilbert Vaughan in ' Called Back ' (1884). 
Jacques Rosny in ' Civil AVar ' (1887), Pedro 
in ' Loyal Love ' (1887), Leander in ' Hero 
and Leander ' (1S92), and Philip Carrington 
in ' The Lights of Home ' (1892). He has 
also appeared in London as Osric in 'Hamlet' 
(1878), Glavis in ' The Lady of Lyons' (1879), 
De Beringhen in ' Richelieu ' (1879), Gibbet 
in ' The Beaux' Stratagem ' (1879), Frederick 
in ' The Poor Gentleman ' (1879), Orlando in 
' As You Like It ' (1880), Philip Warren in 
' Mankind ' (1882), Prince Philamir in ' The 




Palace of Truth ' (ISSi). and Hubert Graham 
in * In his Power' (1SS5). He has appeared 
in the En&hsh provinces as Romeo, and as 
the two Dei Franchi. In New York in 
1SS7 he figured as Captain Dyke in Lloyd's 
'Dominie's Daughter' (g.r.). In 1S95 he 
appeared there in ' The Queen's Necklace ' 
(^.r.) and ' Charlotte Corday ' (g.r.). He was 
seen in London in 1S97 in ' Francillon ' and 
' Charlotte Corday,' and in 1S99 in ' The 
Ghetto.' He is the author of two dramatic 
pieces : ' Yvonne ' (ISSl) and ' Hero and 
Leander' {q.v.), the latter an adaptation 

Bellg-uard, Lord. A character in's ' Sir Courtly Nice ' (g.r.). 

Belling" the Cat. A comedietta by 
Martin Becher, St. George's Hall, Lon- 
don, November 6, ISSC. 

Belling-ham, Chandos. The villain 
in BouciCAULT's ' After Dark ' {q.v.). 

Belling-ham (Henry) and "William 
Best. Authors of the following dramatic 
pieces:— ' Arline, the Lost Child' (1S64), 
'The Magic Horse and the Ice-Maiden 
Princess ' (1864), ' Prince Camaralzaman ' 
(1865), 'Princess Primrose' (1866). 'Darby 
and Joan' (1884), 'My Love and I' (1886), 
' Sol Gandv ' (18*7), ' Meddle and ]\Iuddle ' 
(1887), ' The Light of his Eyes ' (1893), ' Ruy 
Bias ; or, A Cad may Look at a Queen '(1893). 
and ' Keep your own Counsel' (1895), all of 
■which see.— H. Bellingham is the sole 
author of ' Bluebeard Re-paired ' (1866), and 
• A Socialist '(1887), which see ; and W. Best 
has -written ' Love and Physic ' (ISSS), which 
see also. 

Belliza. The "Amorous Bigot" in Siiad- 
WELL's play of that name {q.t.). 

Bellman of London (The). A play by 
Robert Daborne {q.v.). 

Eellmein, Captain. A character in 
Mrs. Centlivre's 'Beau's Duel' {q.v.). 

Bellmont, Sir "William and Georgre. 
Father and sou in A. Murphy's ' All in the 
Wrong' {q.v.). 

Bellmour. A character in Mrs. Pix's 

' Adventures in Madrid ' {q.v.). There is (2) 
a Lord Bellmour in To>rs 'Accomplished 
Maid' {q.v.), and (3) a Widow Bellmour in 
Murphy's ' Way to Keep him ' {q.v.). 

Bellows, Henry "Whitney, D.D. 

American L'nitarian minister, born 1814 ; 
author of ' A Defence of the Drama ' (1857), 

Bell-Ring-'er of Notre Dame (The). 
(I) A play by C. Z. Barnett (.^.r.). (2) A 
drama in three acts, by W. H. Abel, East 
London Theatre, July, 1871. 

Bell-Bing-er of St. Paul's (The); 
or, The Huntsman and the Soy. A 
lue.odrama by Thompson Townsend, first 
performed at Sadler's Wells on Marck 4, 
1839, with Cathcart as the hero. 

Bells (T::ic). a drama in three acts, 

adapted by Leopold Lewis {q.v.) from 
Erckniann-Chatrian's ' Le Juif Polonais,' 
and first performed at the Lyceum Theatre, 
London, on November 25, 1871, with H. 
Irving as Mathias, F. W. Irish as Hans, 
H. Crellin [Standing] as Christian, Gaston 
Murray as the Judge, A. Tapping as the 
Mesmerist, Miss G. Pauncefort as Catherine, 
and Miss Fanny Heywood as Annette; re- 
vived at the Lyceum in July, 1879, with 
Irving in his original part, Miss Alma 
Murray as Annette, F. Cooper as Christian, 
and S. Johnson as Hans; in July, 1881, with 
W, Terriss as Christian and Miss Winifred 
Emery as Annette; in May, 1SS5, with G. 
Alexander as Christiaii ; in April, 1887 ; 
in June, 1SS9 ; and in September, 1S92. 
(2) 'The Bells; or. The Polish Jew;' a 
drama adapted by G. F. Rowe and C. W. 
Barry' from ' Le Juif Polonais,' and per- 
formed at Booth's Theatre, New York, 
August 19, 1872, with J. W. Wallack as 
Mathias, R. Pateman as Dr. Franz, and 
Miss Bella Pateman as Margaret. (3) ' The 
Bells of the Sledge : ' a drama in a prologue 
and three acts, adapted by Horace Allex 
from ' Le Juif Polonais,' Theatre Royal, 
Leigh, Lancashire, December 26, 1891. (4) 
' The Bells Bell-esqued and the Polish Jew 
Polished off ; or, Mathias, the Muffin, the 
Mystery, the Maiden, and the Masher:' a 
burlesque of ' The Bells,' produced at Nor- 
wich on March 13, 1883. See Paul Zegers 
and Polish Jew. 

Bells in the Storm. (The). A drama 
by C. H. Hazlewood {q.v.), Sadler's Wells 
Theatre, London, February 14, 1874. 

Bells of Haslemere (The). A drama 
in four acts, by H. Pettitt {q.v.) and S. 
GRUNDY'((/.r.). first performedat the Adelphi 
Theatre, London, on July 28, 1887, with W. 
Terriss as Frank Beresford, Miss Millward 
as Evelyn Brookfield, and other parts by J. 
D. Beveridge, C.'Cartwright, J. Beauchamp, 
J. H. Darnley, Howard Russell, E. W. 
Garden, Miss Annie Irish, Miss C. Jecks, 
and Miss H. Forsyth ; produced at the 
Windsor Theatre, New York, December 23, 

Belmont. (1) Sir Eager, Charles, and 
Eosetta Belmont are characters in Moore's 
'Foundling' {q.v.). (2) Captain Belmont 
figures in Poole's 'Matchmaking' {q.v). 

Belmore, Alice and Lillie. Actresses ; 
daughters of George Belmore {q.v.). Alice 
Belmore has plav-ed in Loudon the fol- 
lowing original parts -.—Liz in ' Hoodman 
Blind' (1SS5), Xeone in 'Clito' (1886), Mrs. 
Freyne in ' The Golden Ladder ' (1SS7), 
Nancy in ' Ben My Chree' (18SS), Mrs. 
Melway in 'The People's Idol' (1890), etc. 
Lillie Belmore "created" the follow- 
ing roles:— Mrs. Strickley in 'The Golden 
Ladder' (1SS7). Biddy in 'The Good Old 
Times ' (18S9), Myra Keith in ' The People's 
Idol' (1S90), Sarah Slocum in 'Tommv' 
(1891), Mattea in ' Father Buonaparte ' (lS9i), 
Mdlle. Flora in ' The Acrobat ' (1891), Janet 
in 'The Reckoning' (1891), Eosalie in 
' Trooper Clairette ' (1S92), and Ada Smith 



in 'The Shop Girl' (1894). She played 
Audrey in ' As You Like It ' at the Prince 
of Wales's Theatre, London, in February, 

Belmore, Georg-e [George Benjamin 
Garstin]. Actor, died in New York, 
November 15, 1875 ; appeared at the Maryle- 
bone Theatre, London, in December, 1856, 
as Bokes in Shirley Brooks's ' Creole ' {q.v.). 
Among the parts he "created" the follow- 
ing may be named : — Stephen Hargrcaves in 
Cheltnam's 'Aurora Floyd' (18G3), Jacob 
Vance in ' The Deal Boatman ' (1863), Christo- 
pher Clipper in ' The Alabama ' (1864), Nat 
Gosling in 'The Flying Scud' (lfc66), Toby 
Taperly in ' Maud's Peril ' (1867), Bintrey 
in ' No Thoroughfare ' (1867), Plato in W 
Collins's ' Black and White' (1869), Augustus 
de Rosherville in ' The WMUow Copse ' (1869), 
Remy in ' Paul Lafarge ' (1870), KUhleborn 
in Reece's 'Undine' (1870), Andrew Arm- 
strong in ' Daisy Farm ' (1871), FridoUn in 
'Giselle' (1871), Sam Wcllcr in Albery's 
'Pickwick' (1871), Cromwell in Wills's 
' Charles L' (1872), and Newman Noggs in 
Halliday's ' Nicholas Nickleby ' (1875). He 
was also in the original cast of 'Ruth 
Oakley ' (1857), ' An April Fool ' (1864), ' The 
O'Flahertys' (1864), 'A Day of Reckoning' 
(1868), ' Tom Thrasher ' (1S68), and Taylor's 
'Handsome is as Handsome does' (1870). 
Other parts played by him were Boh Levitt 
in ' Mary Warner ' (1870), Sylvinet in ' Fan- 
chette' (1871), Zekiel in 'The Heir at Law 
(1873), Dicky Trotter in ' Janet Pride ' (1874), 
and Spotty in ' The Lancashire Lass (1875). 
In 1862 he married Miss Alice Cooke. 

Belraour. A word occurring frequently 
in dramatic nomenclature. For example, 
there is a Belmour in Rowe's ' Jane Shore ' 
{q.v.), in CONGREVE's ' Old Bachelor' (q.v.), 
in Whitehead's ' School for Lovers ' Iq.v.), 
and in Waldron'S ' Prodigal ' {q-v.). There 
are also a,Mr. and J/rs. Behaourm Beazley'S 
'Is he Jealous?' (q.v.), while Constance 
Belmour is the heroine of Webster's ' One 
Touch of Nature' iq.c). 

Belon, Peter (circa 1675-90). Author 
of a comedy called ' The Mock Duellist ; or, 

The French Valet ' (q.v.). 

Belphegror. A character in Dibdin's 
• Mirror ' (q-v.). 

Belphegor; or. The Marriag-e of 
the Devil. A tragic-comedy by John 
Wilson, licensed in October, 1690, acted 
at Dorset Garden, and printed in 1691. The 
devils, finding that the men who go to hell 
generally complain that it was their wives 
who sent them there, determine that one 
of their number shall become man, marry, 
and, after ten years' experience, return and 
report. Belphegor accordingly assumes the 
shape and name of Roderiyo, and espouses 
Imperia, by whom he is both henpecked 
and deceived. (2) 'Beli)hegor; or. The 
Wishes :' a comic opera in three acts, by 
Miles Peter Andrews (q.v.), first per- 
formed at Drury Lane on March 17, 1778, 
with Bannister as ^eZ^j/ief7or (a devil), Vernon 
as Booze (a woodcutter), Mrs. Wrighten as 

Dame Bin (his wife), Moody as Farmer 
Wheatear, and Parsons as Justice Solemn. 
" Booze shelters Belphegor from his pursuers. 
Belphegor in return gives Booze three wishes " 

Belphegror, the Mountehank. The 
hero of several English dramas, adapted 
from the ' Paillasse ' of MM. Dennery and 
Marc Fournier (produced at the Gaite, Paris, 
on November 9, 1850, with Frederic Lemaitre 
as the hero). (1) 'Belphegor the Mounte- 
bank ; or. The Pride of Birth : ' a play in 
three acts brought out at the Adelphi 
Theatre, London, on January 13, 1851, with 
B. Webster as the hero, Mdme. Celeste as 
Madeline, Miss Woolgar as N^i7ii, Miss Ellen 
Chaplin as Henri, " O." Smith as De Rollac, 
P. Bedford as Montroulade, Wright as Ajax, 
and H. Hughes as Montbazon. (2) ' Bel- 
phegor, the Itinerant : ' a drama in four 
acts, adapted by J. Courtney (q.v.), and 
first performed at the Surrey Theatre, Lon- 
don, on January 20, 1851, with Creswick as 
Belphegor, H.Widdicombas Vicomte Hercule, 
Miss Cooper as Madeline, Miss Mandlebert 
as Henri, and other parts by T. Mead (De 
Rollac), and the Misses J. and H. Coveney. 
(3) 'Belphegor, the Buffoon:' a play in 
three acts, by Thomas Higgie and T. 
Hailes Lacy, first performed at the Victoria 
Theatre, London, on January 27, 1851, with J. 
T. Johnson as Belphegor, Miss Amelia Mercer 
as Madeline, J. Bradshaw as Lavarennes, and 
T. Higgie as Fripon. (4) Contemporaneous 
with these three versions was a fourth, per- 
formed at the City of London Theatre on 
January 20, 1851, with E. F. Savile as the 
hero, W. Searle as the Duke, and Fredericks 
as De Rollac. (5) In April, 1S56, an adapta- 
tion in three acts, by Charles Webb, was 
produced at Sadler's Wells Theatre, under 
the title of ' Belphegor, the Mountebank, 
or Woman's Constancy,' and with Charles 
Dillon as Belphegor and Mrs. Dillon as 
Madeline. This play was removed in Sep- 
tember to the Lyceum Theatre, with the 
Dillons in their original parts. Miss Harriet 
Gordon as Zephyrina Petitpas, Miss Marie 
Wilton as Henri, J. L. Toole as Hilanon, 
Fanfaronade, J. G. Shore as Viscount Her' 
cule, P. Stuart as Lavaremies (De Rollac), 
and Barrett as the Duke de Montbazon. 
This piece was revived at Drury Lane in 
1878, with Dillon in his original part and 
INIiss Wallis as Madeline. (6) An adap- 
tation by Charles Fechter and John 
Brougham, entitled 'The Mountebank,' 
was produced at the Lyceum on April 17, 
1865, with Fechter as Belphegor, Mdlle. Bea- 
trice as Madeline, Paul Fechter as Henri, 
and other parts by Miss C. Leclercq, J. 
Ryder, S. Emerv, and Widdicomb. (7) An 
adaptation by John Coleman (q.v.).— The 
role of Belpheqor has been played by T. 
Swinbourne (Sadler's Wells, 1866), H. 
Neville (Olympic, 1878), and E. Compton 
(in the English provinces, 1885-6).— Ver- 
sions of ' Belphegor' were performed in 
New York in March, 1851— one at the 
Broadway Theatre, with F. Conway as the 
hero, Miss Julia Bennett as Madeline, and 



Miss A. Gougenheim as Nina ; the other 
at the BoAvery, with Eddy in the title part. 
In 1S58, Clarence Holt and his wife ap- 
peared SLS Belphegor Knd Madeline a.t Burton's 
Theatre.— A burlesque of Webb's ' Bel- 
phegor,' as performed at the Lyceum, was 
written by Leicester Buckingham, and 
produced at the Strand Theatre, London, 
on September 29, 1S56, with Miss Cuthbert 
as Belphegor, H. J. Turner as Madeline, and 
J. Clarke as Ikey. 

Belshazzar. A dramatic poem by 
Thomas Harrison ; never acted, but printed 
in 1727 and 1729. (2) A sacred drama by 
Hannah More (^'.r.), printed (with others) 
in 17S2. The perscnife include Sitocris, 
Daniel, courtiers, astrologers, etc. (3) A 
dramatic poem by Henry Hart Milman 
iq.v.), published in 1S22. 

Beltorij Mary. The heroine of H. J. 
Byrons ' Uncle Dick's Darling ' (q.v.). 

Belvawney. Friend of Cheviot Hill in 
Gilbert's 'Engaged' (q.vO- 

Belvidera. Daughter of P?-mZi and wife 
of Jaffier, in ' Venice Preserved' {q.v.). 
Thomson has the line — 

" And Belvidera pours her heart In loTe." 

Belvidere. See Almar, George. 

Belvil. Friend of the hero in Lajib's 
'Mr. H ' (,q.v.). 

Belville. (1) Nephew of Harcourt, and 
in love with Peggy, in ' The Country Girl ' 
iq.v.). (2) Lord of the manor, and brother of 
Captain Belville, in Mrs. BROOKE'S ' Eosina' 

Ben, in Congreve's ' Love for Love' (q.v.), 
is the son of Sir Sampson Legend, and a 
sailor. " What is Ben," says Charles Lamb, 
" but a piece of satire, a creation of Con- 
greve's fancy ; a dreamy combination of 
all the accidents of a sailor's character— 
his contempt of money, his credulity to 
women ?" " In that legitimate sailor, Ben," 
writes F. Reynolds, "Bannister was in- 

Ben, Bigr. A character in 'Sweeney 

Ben Bolt. A drama in two acts, by J. B. 
Johnstone (q.v.), first performed at the 
Surrey Theatre, London, on March 28, 1S54, 
with Shepherd in the title part, H. Widdi- 
comb as Reuben Rags, and Miss Clayton as 
Alice. Among the other characters are 
Christian Comfort, Ivan Ironlinl; Will 
Watch, and Mary Moonlight. 

Ben Nazir, the Saracen. A tragedy 
by Colley' Grattan (q.v.), performed at 
Drury Lane on May 21, 1827, with Kean in 
the title part, Wallack as Charles (Mavtel), 
Cooper as Eudes, Miss Smithsonas Bathilda, 
and Mrs. W. West as Emerance. Eiidcs, 
Duke of Aquitaine, has been captured by 
Ben Nazir, and Emerance, his daughter, in 
order to save him, has promised to wed the 
Saracen. However, she loves and is beloved 
by Charles, who penetrates into Ben Nazii 's 

camp, and, suspected of being a spy, ig 
arrested. Thereupon Emerance takes' poi- 
son, and Ben Nazir stabs himself. This 
plot is founded on fact (see Gibbon's 
' Roman Empire,' c. 52). The author, in an 
account of the performance, accuses Keaa 
of mangling his part and killing the play. 

Ben the Boats"wain. A nautical 
drama by T, Egerton Wilks (q.v.), first 
performed at the Surrey Theatre, London, 
in August, 1839, with T. P. Cooke in the 
title part (Ben Bowling) ; revived at Drury 
Lane in 1858, with John Douglass in the 
title part. 

Bendall, Ernest A., born 1846, be- 
came, in 1S72, theatrical critic of the London 
Figaro, and in 1874 was appointed to a 
similar post on the London Observer, which 
he still retains. He has written on the- 
atrical subjects in the Daily Neics, the St. 
James's Gazette, and the Theatre maga- 

Bendo (or Byndo) and Richardo. 
A plav acted at the Rose Theatre, London, 
March 4, 1591. 

Benducar. Chief Minister of Barbary, 
in Dryden's ' Don Sebastian ' (q.v.) 

Beneath the Surface ; or, The 
Loss of the Eurydice. A drama in 
four acts, by Mortimer Murdoch, first 
performed at the Grecian Theatre on June 
2, 1873 ; revived at the Marylebone Theatre, 
June 8, 1878. 

Benedick. A young lord of Padua, in 
* Much Ado about Nothing ' (q.v.). "When 
John Kemble played the part. Benedick," 
says Lady Pollock, ' was distinguished 
by a graceful dignity of demeanour, with 
a sneering bitterness of manner. He 
smiled, he did not laugh ; his jest was 
satire. He was a courtier and a scoffer. 
Macready's Benedick was a wholly different 
creation, whose very essence was mirth. 
Life was a sport to* him ; love a merry 
game. He was, from the crown of his head 
to the sole of his foot, all mirth. He had 
not a moment of gravity ; he laughed 
through the first scene and laughed away 
the last." 

Benedict, Sir Julius. Musical com- 
poser, born at Stuttgart, 1804 ; died June, 
1885 ; came to England in 1835, conducted 
(in 1836) a series of Italian comic operas at 
the Lyceum Theatre (under the management 
of John Mitchell), and, in 1838, conducted 
a series of English operas at Drury Lane 
(under Bunn). In 1850 he directed Jenny 
Lind's concerts throughout America, and 
was afterwards employed as orchestral chief 
at Her Majesty's and Drury Lane Theatres. 
He was knighted in 1871. He composed the 
music of the following operas (or operettas) 
in Enghsh :— 'The Gvpsv's Warning '(1833), 
' The Brides of Venice ' (1844), ' The Crusa- 
ders ' (1846), ' The Lily of Killarnev ' (1862), , 
and ' The Bride of Song' (1864), all of which 
see. He also contributed recitatives to the 
score of Welier's ' Oberon,' for perfonnance 
in Italian at Her Majesty's in 1860. 




Benedix, Roderick. The German 
[ramatist from whose ' Cinderella ' T. W. 
lobertson obtained the idea of his ' School ' 
g.v.), from whose ' Ein Lustspiel' R. 
iuchanan and H. Vezin adapted ' Bachelors ' 
q.v. and on whose 'Das LUgen' G. R. 
;ims and Cecil Raleigh founded ' The Grey 
-fare' {q.v.). See, also, Cousin Jack. 

Benefice (The). A comedy attributed 
Dr. Wild, and printed in 16S9. In the 
irst act, Invention and Furor Poeticus 
liscuss Shakespeare and other writers, 
i'he other acts set forth how Sir Homily 
ibtains, by a stratagem, a benefice from 
\Iarchurch, the patron. 

Benefit of Hanging- (The). See 
SMOKED Miser, The. 

Benefit of the Doubt (The). A 
•omedy in three acts, by A. W. Pineko, first 
)erfornied at the Comedy Theatre, London, 
m October 16, 1895, with Miss Winifred 
]mery as Theojjhila Eraser, Miss Lily Han- 
jury as Olive Allincjham, Miss R. Leclercq 
13 Mrs. Cloys, Miss Henrietta Lindley as 
M^rs. Emptaye, Miss Esme Beringer as Jus- 
ina Emptaye, Miss Eva Williams as Mrs. 
"iuinton Twelves, Leonard Boyne as John 
\Allinyham, J. G. Grahame as Alexander 
Eraser, Cyril Maude as Sir Fletcher I'ort- 
[vood, Aubrey Fitzgerald as Claude Emptaye, 
md other parts by J. W. Pigott, Stuart 
;)harapion, J. Byron, and E. Cosham ; per- 
■ormed at the Lyceum Theatre, New York, 
n January, 1896, with Herbert Kelcey as 
Allinyham, Stephen Grattan as Eraser, 
MissElita Proctor Otis as Mrs. Allinyham, 
and Miss Isabel Irving as Mrs. Eraser. 

j Benevolent Cut-throat (The). "A 
blay in seven acts, translated from an origi- 
nal German drama, written by tlie celebrated 
'Klotzboggenhaggen, by Fabius Pictor." A 
burlesque of the German drama, printed in 
' The Meteors ' (1800). 

Benevolent Man (The). A comedy 
by Maynard Chamberlain Walker, 
played at Smock Alley, Dublin, in 1771. 

Benevolent Merchant (The). See 
English Merchant, The. 

Benevolent Planters (The). See 
Friends, The. 

I Bengal Tiger (The). A farce in one 
tact, by C. Dance (q.v.), first performed at the 
Olympic Theatre, London, on December 18, 
1837, ^vith AV. Farren as Sir Paul Payoda 
and Mrs. Orger as 3Iiss Yellouieaf ; played 
lat New York in April, 1838, with I'lacide as 
Sir Paul; revived at the Adelphi, London, 
in 1859, with Alfred Wigan and his wife as 
Sir Paul and Yelloidcaf, and J. L. Toole 
as David ; at the Haymarket in 1S63 ; at 
the Princess's in 1870, with the Wigans. 

Bengough. Actor ; mentioned in the 
• Thespian Dictionary ' (1805) as " a favourite 
at Manchester," and as being "reckoned a 
useful actor." After a season at Bath, he 
appeared at Drury Lane in 1816 as Baron 
B'ildenheim in 'Lovers' Vows,' on which 

occasion Hazlitt wrote of him : " Mr. 
Bengough is an actor who shows consider- 
able judgment and feeling, and who would 
produce more effect than he does, if he took 
less pains to produce it. . . , Y^et the 
expression of natural pathos is what he 
seems to excel in. He treads the stage 
well." He "created" the chief part in 
' Melmoth the Wanderer '(g.v.). 

Bengough. Scenic artist; "first dis- 
played his taste and skill " at New Y'ork in 
1836, in 'The Maid of Cashmere.' Ireland, 
in his ' New York Stage ' (1866), speaks of 
him as having " died in New York, in 
poverty, several years ago." 

Benham, Arthur. Dramatic writer, 
died 1895. Author of ' The Awakening ' (1892) 
and ' Theory and Practice ' (1893) ; also, co- 
author with Estelle Burney of ' The County * 


Benicia Boy (The). See B. B. 

Benito. Servant of Aurelian (q.v.), in 
Dryden's ' Assignation' (5'. v.). "Benito," 
says Genest, "instead of promoting his 
master's schemes, is a very Marplot, but with- 
out designing to be so." 

Beni-Zoug-Zoug. A banditti chief in 
W\ Buough's 'Rasselas* (q.v.). 

Benjamin Bolus; or, The New- 
castle Apothecary. A " comic tale " 
by MUNDEN, the comedian (q.v.), performed 
at the Haymarket for his benefit, August 8, 

Benjamin Franklin. 
John Brougham (q.v.). 

A play by 

Benjamin, Park. American poet and 
miscellaneous writer, born 1809 ; author of 
' The Fiscal Agent ' (q.v.). 

Benmoussaf. A character in Dimond's 
* iEthiop' (q.v.). 

Bennet, Philip. Clergyman and poet,, 
died about 1752 ; author of a farce called 
'The Beau's Adventures' (1733). See 
' Biographia Dramatica' (1812). 

Bennett, George John. Actor and 
dramatic writer, born at Ripon, 1800 ; died" 
1879 ; was the son of an actor, and joined the 
navy in 1813. Leaving it in 1817, he made- 
his stage d(?but the following year at Lynn, in 
Norfolk. After some provincial experience, 
he made his first London appearance at 
Covent Garden in 1823, as Richard III. ; 
next year he was engaged at the Lyceum^ 
and in 1830 he went to Covent Garden, where 
he played under the management of Charles 
Kembie, Laporte, and Macready. In 1841 he 
went with the last named to Drury Lane, 
where he remained till 1843. From 1844 to 
1862. when he retired from the stage, Ben- 
nett played at Sadler's Wells under Phelps. 
Among his original parts were Conrad in 
Logan's ' Der Freischutz,' Tormaynus in 
'Brian Boroihme,' Restlereiy in White's 
'James VI.,' Eenton in 'John Savile of 
Hasted,' Douglass in ' Feudal Times,' etc. 
His other roles included Henry VIII., the 




King in 'All's Well that Ends Well,' Hotsimr, 
Macduff, Hubert, Caliban, Apemantus, Eno- 
barbus, Sir Toby Belch, Pistol, Bessus ('A 
King and No King'), Bosola ('Duchess 
of Malfi'), Sir John Frugal ('The City 
Madam ') Master Walter (' The Hunchback '), 
Sextiis in Payne's 'Brutus,' etc. He was 
the author of the following plays : ' The 
Soldier's Orphan ' (1844), ' Retribution ' 
(1850), and ' Justiza,' which see. See, also, 
Genest's ' English Stage ' (1832) ; the £ra 
for July 28, 1879 ; ' Dictionary of National 
Biography' (1885) ; and Bennett, Julia and 

Bennett, James. Actor, died March, 
1885 ; made his first professional appearance 
in London at the Lyceum Theatre, on March 
18, 1859, as lago. Among the parts which 
he " created " were those of Oliver Cromwell 
in E. L. Blanchard's ' Aston Hall ' (1854), 
and Creon in Watts Phillips's 'Theodora' 
(1866). He was seen at Niblo's Theatre, 
New York, in April, 1871, as Richard III. 
In the latter part of his career he was well 
known, in the English provinces especially, 
as an impersonator of the leading roles in 
the "legitimate." 

Bennett, Joseph.. Musical critic and 
dramatic writer ; author of the libretti of 
* Manon ' (1885), ' Thorgrim ' (1890), ' Djami- 
leh ' (1892), • Jeanie Deans ' (1894). 

Bennett, Julia. Actress ; daughter of 
G. J. Bennett (q.v.), and afterward Mrs. 
Barrow ; was the original of Rose de Belle- 
coeur in Planche's ' Caught in a Trap,' Rose 
Lawless in Boucicault's ' School for Schem- 
ing,' Miss Rocket in his ' Young Hearts and 
Old Heads,' etc. Among her other parts were 
Rosalind, Mrs. Oakley in ' The Jealous Wife,' 
Constance in ' The Love Chase,' Aniie 
Franklin in 'Presented at Court,' Martha 
Gibbs in 'All that Glitters,' Madeline in 
' Belphegor,' and Camilla in Sullivan's ' Old 
Love and the New.' She was "leading 
lady" at Manchester in 1842, and made her 
first appearance in New York in 1851 as 
Lady Teazle. 

Bennett, Mrs. Actress ; made her 
professional debut in 1883 at the Gaiety 
Theatre, London, as Violante in ' The 
Honeymoon,' and Juliet (in the balcony 
scene). She was afterwards at Sadler's 
Wells, " on tour," and at the Imperial 
Theatre, successively ; she was then engaged 
to play "lead" at the Surrey, where she 
remained for six years, appearing in popular 
modern melodrama. At the Strand Theatre 
in 1890 she represented Aldabella in a 
performance of ' Fazio ' (q-v.), and at the 
Criterion in 1887 she played Louise in a 
representation of ' Frou-Frou ' (q.v.). Her 
"original" parts include Grace Glynd in 
' The Village Forge ' (1890), Joan in ' A 
Summer's Eve ' (1891), Norah in ' The Ple- 
beians ' (1891), Victoria Dudley in ' The 
Gambler' (1891), etc. 

Bennett, Rosa. Actress ; daughter of 
G. J. Bennett {q.v.) and sister of Julia 
Bennett {q.v.); made her London debut at 

the Hayraarket in October, 1852, as Sophia 
in ' The Road to Ruin,' and her first appear- 
ance in America at New York in October, 
1854, as Lady Gay Spanker. Her repertory 
included the heroines of ' Like and Unlike, 
or the Sisters,' Fan7iy in ' Night and Morn- 
ing,' Lucy Middleton in ' The State Prisoner,' 
and Rose in ' Tit for Tat.' 

Bensley, Robert. Actor; had had, 
apparently, some experience in the English 
provinces before, on October 2, 1765, he 
made his first (recorded) appearance in Lon- 
don, at Drury Lane Theatre, as Pierre in 
' Venice Preserved ' (q.v.). At Drury Lane 
he remained for two years, migrating in 
September, 1767, to Covent Garden. There 
he stayed till 1775, when he returned to 
Drury Lane for an engagement that ex- 
tended over four years. In 1779 he was at 
the Haymarket, and from that date till 1795 
he divided his time about equally between 
that house and Drury Lane. His last pro- 
fessional appearance was on May 6, 1796. 
He had " created " the following (among 
many) r6les .-—Merlin in ' Cymon ' (1767), 
Mithranes in ' Cyrus ' (1768), Edgar in ' 
' Elfrida ' (1772), Selim in ' Edward and 
Eleonora ' (1775), Harold in ' The Battle of 
Hastings ' (1778), the Eiyig in ' The Jew of 
Lombardy ' (1779), Lord Glenmore in ' The 
Chapter of Accidents ' (1780), Rxieful in 'The 
Natural Son' (1784), Leonidas in 'The Fate 
of Sparta ' (1788), and Eustace de St. Pierre 
in ' The Surrender of Calais ' (1791). Among 
his most notable "stock" parts were 
Malvolio, lago, Prospero, and Ghost ini 
' Hamlet,' Mosca (in ' The Fox '), and Morose\ 
(in 'The Silent Woman'). He was also; 
seen as Banquo, Wolsey, Brutus, lachimo, 
Jaques, Buckingham ('Richard HI.'). 
Hubert ('King John'), Manly (' Plair 
Dealer '), Moody (' Country Girl '), anc 
Honeywood ('Good-Natured Man'). It is 
believed that in early life he was a lieu 
tenant of marines, and that after he retiree 
from the stage he was made a barrack-master 
The exact dates of his birth and his deatl 
have not been ascertained. The GentlemarJ. 
Magazine places the latter event in 1809 
"Bensley," says Boaden, " was a gentlemar 
and a scholar." "I often met Bensley,^ 
writes O'Keefe, " and found him an exceed 
ingly well-informed, sensible man. As ai 
actor he was most correct to his words, an( 
understood his author. His walk was th 
serious and sentimental, and very well i 
was for any author to get him in a ne^ 
piece." George Colman writes that " Bens 
ley, who always maintained an upper ran 
upon the stage, both intraged5' and comedj 
was respectable in all the characters h 
undertook, in spite of a stalk and a stare- 
a stiffness of manner and a nasal twang c 
utterance— which prevented his being ver 
popular in most of them." Charles Lamb 
eulogy of Bensley is well known : "Of a 
the actors who flourished in my tim<, 
Bensley had most of the swell of soul, wa 
greatest in the delivery of heroic concej 
tions, the emotions consequent upon tb 
presentment of a great idea to the fane; 




le had the true poetical enthusiam— the 
arest faculty among players. . . . His 
oice had the dissonance, and at times 
he inspiring effect, of the trumpet. His 
ait was uncouth and stiff, but no way em- 
arrassed by affectation ; and the thorough- 
red gentleman was uppermost in every 
lovement." See Boaden's ' Life of Mrs. Inch- 
aid' and 'Life of Mrs. Jordan,' O'Keefe's 
Recollections,' Colman's ' Random Records,' 
lampbell's ' Life of Mrs. Siddons,' ' The 
larrick Correspondence,' the ' Dramatic 
'ensor ' (1800), Gilliland's ' Dramatic 
lirror ' (1808), ' Records of a Stage Vete- 
in ' (1836), and the ' Dictionary of National 
;iography' (1885), See, also, Iago and 


Benson. Actor and dramatic writer, 
ied 1796 ; author of ' Britain's Glory' (q.v.) 
nd 'Love and Money' (q.v.). Having 
larried a sister of Mrs. Stephen Kemble, 
ie became connected with both Drury Lane 
Ind the Haymarket Theatres, and was 
feteemed a useful actor. Seized by brain 
^ver, he committed suicide. His daughter 
larried Vining. See the 'Thespian Dic- 
ionary ' (1805) and ' Biographia Dramatica ' 

Benson. (1) Lucy and /Jo.<re Benson 
re 'the Village Coquettes' in Dickens's 
urletta of that name (q.v.). (2) Ben- 
on, a barrister, is the leading figure 
1 Tom Taylor's ' To oblige Benson ' 


Benson, Francis Robert. Actor and 
heatrical manager, born at Alresford, 
lants, in 1859 ; made his first professional 
ppearance at the Lyceum Theatre, London, 
1 1S81, as Paris in ' Romeo and Juliet' (q.v.), 
nd afterwards had experience with com- 
anies travelling through the English 
rovinces. In 1883 he formed a company 
f his own, with which he has since 
3ured, save for seasons in London (1889-90, 
^00, 1901-2), during which he produced 
Hamlet,' 'Othello,' ' Coriolanus,' 'Antony 
nd Cleopatra,' ' The Merchant of Venice,' 
Henry V.,' ' Richard II.,' ' Twelfth Night,' 
The Tempest,' ' As You Like It,' ' A Mid- 
ummer Night's Dream,' ' The Merry Wives 
f Windsor,' 'The Taming of the Shrew,' 
nd 'The Rivals,' himself appearing as Ilam- 
't, Othello, Coriolamis, Antony, Shi/lock, 
lenry V., Richard II., Malvolio, Caliban, 
Fiando, Lysander, Dr. Caius, Petruchio, 
»ia Captain Absolute. His provincial pro- 
motions include (in addition to the above) 
Placbeth,' 'Much Ado about Nothing,' 
Bichard III.,' ' Romeo and Juliet, ' Timon 
I Athens,' ' The Belle's Stratagem,' ' She 
F?ops to Conquer,' ' The School for Scan- 
^, Rob Roy,' 'The Lady of Lyons,' 
Woney, ' Richelieu,' ' London Assurance,' 
piew Men and Old Acres,' 'Priest or 
jainter,' ' Robert Macaire,' ' The Corsican 
.rothers, etc. In all of these he has under- 
Ken a leading rOle. For many years in 
iccession he has provided the programme 
• }ne Stratford - on - Avon Shakespeare 
stivals. In February, 1891, he appeared 
tne Vaudeville Theatre, London, as 

Rosmer in Ibsen's ' Rosmersholm ' (q.v.). 
—Mrs. F. R. Benson has been seen in 
London as Oj^helia, Desdemona, Titania 
Eatherine in ' The Taming of the Shrew ' 

Bentivog-lio. (1) Francesca Bentivoglio, 
m Tom Taylor's -Fool's Revenge' (q.v.), 
is the wife of Galeotto Manfredi, the lord 
of Faenza. (2) II Conte Bentivoglio is a 
character in C. S. Cheltnam'S 'Dinner for 
Nothing' (q.v.). 

Bentley, John. Author of ' The Royal 
Penitent,' a sacred drama (1803). 

Bentley, Richard. Dramatic and 
miscellaneous writer, born 1708, died 1782 ; 
son of Richard Bentley, the famous scholar ; 
author of three plays—' The Wishes' (1761), 
'Philodamus' (1767), and 'The Prophet' 
(1788)— all of which see. See 'Dictionary 
of National Biography ' (1885). 

Bentley, Thomas. Dramatic writer ; 
son of Dr. Bentley, the scholar ; died 1782 • 
author of ' The Wishes,' a comedy ; • Philo- 
damus,' a tragedy ; and ' The Prophet,' an 
opera— all of which see. 

Bentley, Walter [Begg]. Actor, born 
at Edinburgh in 1849 ; made his first ap- 
pearance on the stage in New Zealand. His 
London debut took place at the Court 
Theatre in October, 1874, when he played 
Stephen Tickle (q.v.) in 'Peacock's Holiday ' 
(q.v.). In 1875 he " starred" in Scotland in 
leading " legitimate " parts, such as Hamlet, 
Macbeth, Othello, Iago, Richard III., Shi/- 
lock, Richelieu, Claude Melnotte, etc. At 
the Lyceum, London, in 1875-78, he figured 
as Laertes, Malcolm ('Macbeth'), Clarence 
(' Richard III.'). Moray (' Charles I '), 
Is'oailles ('Queen Mary'), Olaf (' Vander- 
decken'), Tristran ('Louis XL'), Christian 
('The Bells'), etc. In 1878 he appeared at 
the Haymarket as Asa Trenchard in ' Our 
American Cousin,' and in 1879 he played 
Rob Roy, Sir Thomas Clifford, and other 
leading parts at Sadler's Wells, 

Benvolio. Nephew of Montagu and 
friend of Romeo, in Shakespeare's tragedy. 
He figures in Dowling's travesty of ' Romeo 
and Juliet' as Mr. Ben Volio, "a steady 

Benyowsky, Count. The 'Memoirs 
and Travels ' of this worthy, written by 
William Nicholson, were printed in 1790 
and reprinted in 1893. His adventures were 
made the subject of a drama by Kotzebue, 
' Count Benyowsky ; or. The Conspiracy of 
Kamtschatka,' English translations of which 
were issued by the Rev. V>\ Render in 1798 
and by Benjamin Thompson in isoo. Two 
English plays have been founded on Ivotze- 
bue's work : (1) « Kamtchatka ; or, The 
Slaves' Tribute' (q.v.), said to have been 
written by Charles Kemble (1811), and 
(2) ' Benyowsky ; or. The Exiles of Kams- 
chatka,' a musical piece, adapted by James 
Kenney' (q.v.), and first performed at Drury 
Lane on March 16, 1826, with Bennett in the 
title part, WaUack as Stephanof, Harlev as 




Tristram Stark (a poet), Miss Foote as 
Athanasia, etc. In this piece, Benyoicsky 
and Stejjhanoff both conspirators against 
the Governor of Kamschatka, and in love 
■with his daughter Athanasia. She is given 
to Benyoivsky, and Stephanoff in revenge 
betravs his comrade. In the end, the 
governor makes common cause with Ben- 
yoicsky against his sovereign, and joins him 
and Athanasia in flying from Kamschatka. 

Benzon, Otto. See Make-Beliefs. 

Berard, Peter. Translator of 'The 
Uncle's Will,' a farce (ISOS). 

Bereng-aria, aueen, figures in Mac- 
Nally's 'Cu?ur de hion' (q.v.), Hallidav s 
' Richard Cceur de Lion ' (q.v.), and Balfe'S 
' Talisman' (q.v.). 

Berenice. Pi-incess of Eg>^pt, in Mrs. 
Wiseman's ' Antiochus the Great' (q-v.). 

Berg-mann, Madame. The chief 
character in W. Collins's 'Red ViarC^.r.). 
Beppo. A burlesque produced in 
America by W. F. Florence (q.v.). 

Beppo. (1) A young goatherd in J. :M. 
Morton's 'Prince for an Hour' ('^.r.). (2) 
A character in Byron's 'Young Fra Dia- 
volo' (q-v.). (3) A herdsman in Audran's 
•Mascotte' (q.v.). 

Bering-er, Esme. Actress, daughter 
of Mrs. O. Beringer (q.v.); made her pro- 
fessional debut in ISSS as Dick Tipton in 
Mrs. Burnett's 'Little Lord Fauntleroy' 
(q.v.). She was also in the London cast of 
her mother's drama, 'Bess' (1893). Her 
original roles have included Susan in ' The 
New Boy' (1S94) ; Lady Helen in 'The 
Ladies' Idol,' Euphemia Schu-artz in 'The 
Strange Adventures of Miss Brown,' and 
Justina Emptaye in 'The Benefit of the 
Doubt ' (1S95) ; ^Avice Bickcrdyke in ' The 
Late Mr. Castello,' Cassiopeia in ' A Mother 
of Three,' Constance in ' Woman's World,' 
Speranza in ' The Pilgi'im's Progress ' (1S96), 
and Ethel in 'The Free Pardon' and Kathleen 
in ' On Leave ' (1S97). She was in the origi- 
nal cast of ' In Days of Old ' and ' Rupert of 
Hentzau ' (1899), and " created" the leading 
female role in ' Captain Kettle ' (1902), ' Man 
and Himself ' (190.3), ' When a Man Marries ' 
(1904), and ' The Wheat King ' (1904). She 
played Romeo at the Prince of Wales's The- 
atre, London, on the afternoon of May 15, 
1S9C, the heroine of Gilbert's 'Pygmalion 
and Galatea' at the same theatre, June 1, 
1S97, and Hermia in * A Midsummer Night's 
Dream' at the Theatre Royal, Glasgow, 
June 14, 1897. 

Bering-er, Mrs. Oscar (Aim^e Daniel!) 
Dramatic writer ; author of ' Tares ' (1888), 

* The Prince and the Pauper,' an adaptation 
(1S90), ' Bess ' (1891), ' Snowdrop (1S91), ' The 
Hollv Ti-ee Inn,' an adaptation (1891), 

• Salve ' (1S95), ' A Bit of Old Chelsea' (1897), 
•Jim Belmont ' (1900), and ' Penelope ' (q.v.) ; 
co-author, with Henry Hamilton, of ' That 
Girl' (1S90), and with Miss Clo Graves of 
' Katherine Kavanagh ' (1S91). 

Bering-er, Vera. Actress, daughte 
of Mrs. O. Beringer (q.v.) ; made her pre 
fessional debut as Jack (a child) in hC' 
mother's play, 'Tares' (lS8s). She was th 
original Little Lord Fauntleroy in Mr; 
Burnett's dramatization of her story (1888 
and afterwards "created" the parts of th 
Prince and Tom Canty in ' The Prince an 
the Pauper' (1890), Aphrodite in 'ThatGir, 
(1890), Harry in ' The Holly Tree Inn ' (1891 
and Florimonde in ' The Pilgrim's Progres:, 
(1896). She played Ola f in 'The Pillars • 
Society ' (q.v.) in 1889, Juliet at the Prince' 
Wales's Theatre, London, on May 15, 189i 
Julie in 'Richelieu' at Hollo way in N 
vember, 1S9G, and Helena in ' A Midsumm 
Night's Dream ' at the Theatre Roys 
Glasgow, June 14, 1897. 

Bering-hen, The Sieur de, • 

Lytton's 'Richelieu' (q.v.), is one of tj 
king's attendants, and a conspirator. j 

Berinthia. A young widow in Vii 
BRUGII's ' Relapse ' (q.v.). 

Berkeley, Georg-e Monck. M 

cellaneous writer, born 1763, died Vii) 
author of ' Nina,' a comedy (17«7), and * L(! 
and Nature,' a musical piece (1797). i 

Berkeley, Sir "William. Goven 
of Virginia, 1660-1676 ; died 1677 ; aut) 
of 'The Lost Lady,' a tragi-comedy (q. 
and, possibly, of 'Cornelia' (q.v.). 

Berliot, Madame. See Madaji 
Berliot's Ball. j 

Bermudas. A "side-walk merchaif 
in A. Daly's 'Under the Gasligf 
(q.v.). I 

Bernard, Charles. Actor, voca]* 
and theatrical manager ; made his debu % 
the two first-named capacities in 18461 
the Strand Theatre, London, as the cool i 
'Love in a Village.' In the following : r 
he was employed as " second low come " 
at Sadler's Wells under Phelps, returig 
afterwards to the Strand, where he v 
mained for two or three seasons. J't 
came engagements at Drury Lane ui'r 
James Anderson and Alfred Bunn ; \i ; 
Bernard was the Ferrando in the orig il 
production of 'II Trovatore' ((7.r.), pla.2 
many other similar parts in Italian a 
English opera. He was for three s :t 
seasons in succession at the Standard h 
Sims Reeves, and subsequently at D 7 
Lane, In 1863 he took a comic opera ( i- 
panv on tour, and for the next three or ir 
years travelled through the provinces, s- 
i867 he was stage-manager at the Prin of 
Wales's, Liverpool. In 1S73 he bega lo 
build the Gaiety Theatre, Glasgow, w re 
for some years he maintained a stock n- 
panv of unusual excellence, and undei )_k 
several successful revivals— notably of ' '!is 
and Galatea' ('/.r.) and 'The Gentle f p- 
herd ' (q.v.). During the next few yeai ne 
became lessee also of the Theatre R >1. 
Newcastle, the Theatre Royal, Carlisle ad 




the Prince's. Manchester, besides con- 
trolling several touring companies. In 1S92 
he wad appointed manager of the Palace 
Theatre, London, but was soon attacked by 
the illness to which he finally succumbed 
in 1895. In 1885 he married INIiss Annie 
Alleyn (q.v.), who died in 1896, He was the 
author of several dramatic adaptations— 
?iotably of a version of ' The Vicar of Wake- 
field ' called ' Primroses ' iq.v.). 

Bernard, Charles de. See Maud's 
Peril and Still Waters Run Deep. 

Bernard, John. Actor, born at Ports- 
mouth, 1756 ; died in London, 1828 ; was the 
son of a naval lieutenant, and made his 
debut at Chew Magna in 1773 as Jaffier. 
He afterwards joined the Norwich circuit, 
and married Mrs. Cooper, a member of the 
company. In 1786 he became manager at 
'Swansea, and in October, 1787, made his first 
a,ppearance in London at Covent Garden as 
Archer in ' The Beaux' Stratagem.' In 1791 
he left the metropolis for the provinces, and 
in 1792 his wife died. From 1793 to 1796 
(when he married Miss Fisher) he Avas at 
Covent Garden again, and in 1797 he 
accepted an American engagement. His 
debut was made at New York in August, 
as Goldfinch in ' The Road to Ruin.' Later 
in the year he went to Philadelphia, where 
he stayed six years, going thence to Boston 
in 1803. In 1806 he went into partnership 
Avith Powers at the Federal Street Theatre, 
Boston, remaining there till 1810. During- 
1810-17 he travelled in the States and 
Canada. His last appearance was at Boston 
in April, 1819 [Ireland says 1813]. A contem- 
porary critic wrote: "Bernard has repre- 
sented Fribble, Jack Me(jgot, Sir Brilliant 
Fashion, etc., with success. There is a light 
neatness in his figure, countenance, and 
manner that is happily adapted to such 
parts." He was the author of ' The Poor 
Sailor ; or. Little Bob and Little Ben,' an 
operetta (1795), and of a few other pieces, 
played in the provinces. He was the father 
of Lionel and William Bayle Bernard, both 
of which see. His 'Retrospections of the 
Stage ' were published in 1830 ; further 
'Retrospections' appeared in the 'Man- 
hattan and New York Magazine ' (1884) and 
Tallis's ' Dramatic Magazine ' (1850-1). See 
also ' Biographia Dramatica' (1812), Genest's 
' English Stage ' (1832), Dunlop's ' American 
Stage' (1833), Ireland's 'New York Stage' 
(1866), and 'Dictionarv of National Bio- 
graphy ' (1885). 

Bernard, Lionel. Actor, born at 
Boston, U.S.A., 1818; died at Columbus, 
U.S.A., 1862; son of John Bernard (q.v.); 
made his d^.but at Philadelphia in April, 

Bernard, Mrs. Charles (n^e Tilden). 
Actress ; made her debut at New York in 
1797, appeared at Washington in 1818, re- 
turned to New York in 1828, and played at 
Philadelphia in 1831. She died before 1870. 

Bernard, Mrs. John (n^e Roberts). 
Actress; died 1792: first wife of John 

Bernard (q.v.) ; after her marriage played at 
Dublin (1780), obtaining popularity as Lucy 
in 'The Beggar's Opera;' succeeded Mrs. 
Siddons as "leading lady" at Bath, and 
made her London debut (with her husband) 
at Covent Garden in 1787. See the ' Thespian 
Dictionary ' (1805). 

Bernard, Mrs. John (nee Fisher). 
Actress ; second wife of John Bernard (q.v.); 
died at Boston, U.S.A., in 1805. 

Bernard, Richard. Clergyman and 
miscellaneous writer, born 1566-7, died 
1641 ; published a complete translation into 
English of the plays of Terence (1598, 1604, 
and 1617). 

Bernard, Victor. See Out of the 

Bernard, William Bayle. Dramatic 
writer, born at Boston, U.S.A., 1807; died 
at Brighton, 1875; son of John Bernard, the 
actor (q.v.) ; was clerk in the army accounts 
office, London, from 1826 to 1830, and from 
the last-named year devoted himself to 
dramatic composition, having already pro- 
duced (in 1827) a nautical drama, "'The 
Pilot.' He wrote over a hundred pieces, 
of which the following are the best known:— 
' Casco Bay ' (1827), ''"The Metempsychosis ' 
(1830), 'The Four Sisters ' (1831), ' The Dumb 
Belle ' (1832), ' Rip Van Winkle ' (1832), ' The 
Kentuckian' (1833), 'The Mummy' (1833), 
' The Nervous Man ' (1833), ' Lucille ; or. 
The Story of a Heart ' (1836), ' The Farmer's 
Story ■ (1836), ' The Middy Ashore ' (1836), 
' The Man about ToAvn ' (1836), ' The Yankee 
Pedlar' (1836), 'St. Mary's Eve' (1837), 
' Marie Ducange ' (1837), ' His Last Legs ' 
(1839), ' The Irish Attorney ' (1839), ' The 
Boarding School' (1841), 'Blanche de 
Valmy' (1845), 'The Round of Wrong' 
(1846), 'The Passing Cloud' (1848), 'The 
Balance of Comfort' (1854), 'Leon of the 
Iron Mask ' (1855), ' The Evil Genius ' (1856), 
' A Life's Trial ' (1857), ' The Tide of Time ' 
(1858), ' Faust ; or, The Fate of Marguerite ' 
(1866), ' The Doge of Venice ' (1867), ' Love's 
Revenge' (1868), 'The Man of Two Lives' 
(1869); also, 'The Conquering Game,' 'The 
Happiest Man Alive,' 'Locomotion,' 'A 
Maiden's Fame,' 'No Name,' 'The Old 
Regimentals,' ' Platonic Attachments,' 'A 
Practical Man,' 'Robespierre,' 'A Splendid 
Investment,' ' A Storm in a Teacup,' ' The 
Woman-Hater,' and 'Woman's Faith' (all 
of which see). He was also co-author, with 
Westland Marston, of a play called 'Tre- 
vanion ' (1849). Henry Morley wrote of him 
in 1858 as "a playwright who does not look 
to France for his material, and though he 
wants the Frenchman's art in the construc- 
tion of a plot, is well furnished with English 
wit and English earnestness of feeling." 
He AATote a good deal of theatrical criticism 
for the newspapers, and, besides editing 
his father's ' Retrospections,' was the author 
of a 'Life of Samuel Lover' (1874). See 
'Men of the Time' (9th edit.), Fra news- 
paper for August, 1875, and ' Dictionary of 
National Biography' (1885). 




Bernard-Beere, Mrs. See Beere, 
Mrs. Bernard. 

Bernardo. An officer in 'Hamlet' 


Bernauer, Ag-nes. See Agnes Ber- 


Berners, Lord (John Bourchier). 
Translator of Froissart ; died 1532 ; author 
of 'Ite in Vineam Meam,' a sacred play. 
See Wood's 'Athense Oxonienses,' Fuller's 
'Worthies,' and Walpole's 'Royal and 
Noble Authors.' 

Berry. Actor, died January, 1760 ; " was 
engaged at Drury Lane in 1728-9. For 
some years he chiefly played singing parts ; 
in 1734-5 he came into a more regular line 
of acting. The Dramatic Censor says he 
was respectable in some parts, but drowsy 
in others " (Genest). 

Berry, Mary. One of the famous 
Misses Berry, the friends of Horace Walpole ; 
born 1763, died 1852 ; was the author of a 
comedy called ' Fashionable Friends,' pro- 
duced at Drury Lane in 1802; also, of a 
farce, called ' The Martins.' Her ' Journals 
and Correspondence' (1783-1852) appeared 
in 1865. 

Bertha. (1) Daughter of the Duke of 
Brabant in Beaumont and Fletcher's 
•Beggar's Bush' (g.v.l (2) Daughter of 
Caleb Plummer in E. Stirling's ' Cricket 
on the Hearth' {q.v.). (3) A character in 
W. S. Gilbert and F. Clay's ' Gentleman 
in Black' {q.v.). (4) A character in 'The 
Point of Honour.' 

Bertha, the Sewingr-Machine Girl. 

A play by Charles Foster {q.v.\ founded 
on a novel, and first performed at the 
Bowery Theatre, New York, in August, 

Berthe, the Daug-hter of Boland. 
A play adapted from ' La Fille de Roland ' 
of Henri de Bornier, and produced in 
America in November, 1878, with ^Nliss Mary 
Anderson as the heroine. "The nobility 
and purity of this tragic drama," WTites 
Miss Anderson, " always touched the 
audience. The period it pictures is chivalric 
Charlemagne, still on the throne, full of 
honourable years, and the blood of Oliver, 
Roland, and their noble companions showing 
in the valiant deeds of their sons, and the 
pure and courageous characters of their 

Berthold. (1) A character in Matu- 
RlN's 'Fredolpho' {q.v.). (2) Prince Ber- 
thold, in Browning's ' Colombe's Birthday ' 

Bertholde, Marie. The heroine of 
H. R. Addison's ' Marie ' (^.r.). 

Bertoldo, Prince. Brother of King 
Roberto of Sicily, in Massinger's ' Maid 
of Honour' {q.v.). 

Bertram ; or. The Castle of St. 
Aldobrand. A tragedy in five acts, by 
E. C, Maxurin iq.v.)\ first performed at 

Drury Lane on May 9, 1816, with Kean in 
the title part. Pope as St. Aldobrand, Miss 
Soraerville as Imogine, etc. ; first played a1 
New York in September of the same year.; 
with Mrs. Barnes as the heroine ; performec 
at Sadler's Wells in 1847, with Phelps in tht 
title part ; revived at Marylebone Theatre 
in 1853, with Mrs. Wallack as Imogine 
" Imogine, loving and loved by an exilec 
ruffian {Bertram), marries, in his absence 
Bertram's enemy, St. Aldobrand, in orde 
to save her sire from ruin. Bertram, th' 
outcast, is wrecked near the castle of th' 
wedded pair ; and of course the old lover 
encounter each other. Imogine forgets he 
duty to her husband, whom Bertram kills 
after seducing his wife. . . . Imogine goe 
mad, and dies ; whereupon' Bertram . . 
kills himself " (Doran). 

Bertram. (1) Count of Rousillon i 
'All's Well that Ends Well' {q.v.). (2) . 
conspirator in Byron's 'Marino Faliero. 
{q.v.). (3) The "fiend-father" in R. Lacy' 
' Robert the Devil ' {q.v.), and W. S. Gil 
BERT'S burlesque so named {q v.). (4 
Captain Bertram is a character in Dunlap 
'Fraternal Discord' (g.t'.), and a person i 
named figures (5) in ' The Birthday ' {q.v. 
(6) Henry and Lucy Bertram are characte 
in the various versions of Scott'S ' Gt 
Mannering' {q.v.). (7) There is a Prin 
Bertram in Dryden's 'Spanish Friar '(g.v 
and (8) Sir Stephen and Frederick Bertra', 
are father and son in Cumberland's ' Jei 
{q-v.). ' 

Bertrand. A character, respectively, 
(1) ' The Foundling of the Forest ' and ( 
'The Woman of the People' {q.v.). { 
There is a Dr. Bertrand in Lady Dl 
FERIN'S ' Finesse ' {q.v.). 

Bertrand, E. C. English playwrig] 
born about 1842, died 1887 ; author 
' Grandfather's Clock,' ' Blind Justice,' ' 
Black and White.' 

Bertrand et Raton. See Minist 
AND THE Mercer. 

Bertuccio, Israel. A character 
Lord Byron's 'Marino Faliero' (g.v.). 
Bertuccio is the name of the "fool " in T 
Taylor's ' Fool's Revenge ' {q-v.). 

Bertulphe. "Provost of Bruges," 
Sheridan Knowles's play of that na 

Berynthia. An heiress in Bake 
' Hampstead Heath ' {q.v.). 

Besant, Sir "Walter. Novelist fi 
miscellaneous writer ; co-author, w i 
James Rice, of dramatic versions of ' Rea • 
money Mortiboy ' (1874) and ' Such a G i 
Man ' (1880\ and, with Walter Her J 
Pollock, of ' The Charm ' (1884), ' The BaD • 
Monger' (1887), and some ' Drawing-R(,» 
Comedies ' published in 1896. His no , 
' They were Married,' has been draniatij ■ 
See, also, Armorel of Lyonesse and i 
Little Girl. 



Besemeres, John. See Daly, John. 

Bess. A play in three acts, by Mi's. 
Oscar Beringer (g-v.), produced at the 
Theatre Roval, Cape Town, December, 1891 ; 
first performed in England at Peterborough 
on November 7, 1892, with W. H. Vernon as 
Joe, Miss Esme Beringer as Nan, and Miss 
Genevieve Ward as Bess ; in London, at the 
St. James's Theatre, on the afternoon of 
June 12, 189.3, with the above players in 
their original rdles, H. V. Esmond as Phil, 
Seymour Hicks &s Ambrose, J. D. Beveridge 
as Dr. }Ve7iham, Miss H. Forsyth as Mrs. 
Wenham, Miss K. Phillips as Keziah, etc. 

Bess. Daughter of the beggar of Bethnal 
Green, in Sheridan Knowles's ' Beggar's 
Daughter' (q.v.). Bessy is the name of 
the corresponding character in Dodsley's 
* Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green ' (^q.v.). 

Bess, Queen. See Good Queen Bess. 

Bess, Starlight, figures in J. B. Buck- 
stone's ' Flowers of the Forest' ((7. r.). 

Bessie. A "petite drama" by E. H, 
Brooke {q.v.), produced at the Royalty 
Theatre, London, on May 1, 1878. 

Bessie, Elizabeth. Actress ; author 
of 'The Understudy' (1S92), and co-author, 
with S. Herberte-Basing, of ' Gringoire ' 

Bessus, in Beaumont and Fletcher's 
'A King and No King' (?.v.), is "a swagger- 
ing coward, something between Parolles and 
Falstaff" (Hazlitt). See Bobadil. 

Bessy. See Bess. 

Best, "William. See Bellingham, 

Best Bidder (The). A farce in two 
acts, by M. P. Andrews {q.v.\ first per- 
formed at Drury Lane on December 11, 1782, 
with Parsons Sis'Sir Tedious, Palmer as Count 
Bam, Dodd as Lord Beauhoot, Barrymore as 
Captain Standard, Baddeley as Snare-'em, 
Suett as Inkhorn, and Mrs. Wrighten as 
Mrs. Brocade. 

Best Intentions (The). A play in 
one act, by Percy F. IMarshall and 
Richard Pl'rdon, Opera House, North- 
ampton, December 11, 1890. 

Best Man (The). A farce in three 
acts, by Ralph Lumley (q.v.), first per- 
formed at Toole's Theatre, London, on 
March 6, 1894, with J. L. Toole in the title 

trole (Price Puttlow), INIiss B. Lamb as Mrs. 
Montaubyn, and other parts by J. Billington 
(Sir Lovel Gage), G. Shelton, Miss E. John- 
stone, etc. ; first performed in America at 
Syracuse, New York State, October, 1894. 

Best Man Wins (The). A farce by 
Mark Melford, first performed at the 
Novelty Theatre, London, January 27, 1890. 

Best People (The). A comedy in four 
acts, by Mrs. Fairfax, produced at the 
Globe Theatre, London, on July 14, 1890. 

I , Best Way (The). A "petite comedy" 
I m one act, by Horace Wigan (q.v.), first 

performed at the Olympic Theatre, London, 
on September 27, 1S66, with J. Clayton as 
Erskine Speed, the author as Theodore Tonic, 
and Miss Lydia Foote as Alice. 

Bethlehem G-abor. A play by John 

Betly. An opera by Donizetti, per- 
formed with an English libretto at the 
Gaiety _ Theatre, London, in September, 
1870, with Miss F. Lancia, Cummings, and 
Aynsley Cook in the principal parts. 

Betrayed. (1) A play by W. G. Wills 
(g'.?;.), adapted from Sardou's * Pa trie,' and 
first performed at the Theatre Royal, Edin- 
burgh, on August 18, 1873, with Miss Sophie 
Young as Dolores, and other parts by Miss 
Ellen Meyrick, J. Dewhurst, T. N. Wenman, 
Carter Edwards, E. D. Lyons, R. Lyons, 
and F. Harvey. (2) ' Betrayed ; or, The 
Vicar's Daughter:' a drama in five acts, 
adapted by R. Mansell from Goldsmith's 
' Vicar of Wakefield,' and first performed 
at the Queen's Theatre, Manchester, on 
June 28, 1886. 

Betrayer of his Country (The). 
A tragedy by Henry Brooke (q.v.), acted 
at Dublin in 1741 ; revived in 1754 under the 
title of 'Injured Honour,' and printed in 
1778 as ' The Earl of Westmorland.' 

Betrothal (The). A drama in five acts, 
by G. H. Boker (q.v.), performed at Phila- 
delphia in September, 1850 ; at the Broadway 
Theatre, New York, on November 18, 1850, 
with Richings, Couldock, F. Conway, Frede- 
ricks, Davidge, Whiting, Mrs. Abbott, and 
!Mdme. Ponisi (Constanza) in the cast ; pro- 
duced at Drury Lane Theatre, London, on 
September 19, 1853, with G. V. Brooke as 
Marsio, Miss Anderton as Constanza, and 
other parts by E. L. Davenport, Belton, 
Miss Fetherstone, and Mrs. Belton. 

Betsy. A comedy in three acts, adapted 
by F. C. BURNAND (q.v.) from the ' B^be' of 
Hennequin and De Najac (Gymnase, 1877), 
and first performed at the Criterion Theatre^ 
London, on August 6, 1879, vnfh Miss Lottie 
Venne in the title part, W. J. Hill as Alex- 
ander Birkett, Lytton Sothern as Adolphus 
Birkett, H. Standing as Redmond McManuSy. 
G. Giddens as Richard Talbot, A. Maltby 
as Sam Dawson, Mrs. Stephens as Mrs. 
Birkett, Miss :M. Rorke as Mrs. McManus, 
and Miss M. Taylor as Xellie Bassett; revived 
at the same theatre in October, 1882, with 
W. J. Hill, L. Sothern, H. Standing, and 
A. Maltby in their original parts, H. Reeves 
Smith as Talbot, Miss Eleanor Bufton as 
Mrs. Birkett, Miss K. Rorke as Mrs. 
McManus, Miss A. He^vitt as Mdme. Polenta, 
and Miss Nelly Bromley as Betsy; at 
the same theatre in August, I888, with 
Miss Venne, H. Standing, G. Giddens, and 
A. Maltby in their original parts, W. 
Blakeley as Alexander Birkett, Aubrey 
Boucicault as Adolphus, Miss F. Robertson 
as Mrs. Birkett, Miss E. Terriss as Nellie, 
Miss F. Frances as Mrs. McManus, and Miss 
R. Saker as Mdme. Polenta; at the same 
theatre in August, 1889, with all the players 




just named, save Miss Saker ; at the same 
theatre in August, 1892, with W. Blakeley 
and G. Giddens as before, Miss Jenny Rogers 
as Betsy, D. James, jun., as Dawson, Welton 
Dale asAdolphus, S. Valentine as McManus, 
Miss F. Frances as Mrs. McManus, Miss M. 
Studholme as Nellie, and Miss Ellis Jeffreys 
as Mdme. Polenta; at the same theatre in 
December, 1896, -with Miss Annie Hughes as 
Betsy, Miss C. Addison as Mrs. Birkett, 
Miss Sybil Carlisle as Mdme. Polenta, A. 
Bishop as Birkett, sen., Aubrey Boucicault 
as Birkett, ju7i., J. H. Barnes as McManus, 
K. Douglas as Talbot, and J. Welch as 
Dawson ; at Wyndham's Theatre, July, 1902. 

Betsy Baker ; or, Too Attentive 
by Half. A farce in one act, by J. Maddi- 
SON Morton {q.v.), first performed at the 
Princess's Theatre, London, on November 
13, 1850, with Mrs. Keeley in the title part, 
Miss Murray as Mrs. Mouser, Keeley as 
Marmaduke Mouser, and J. Yining as 
Crummy; first played at New York in 
February, 1857, with Burton as Mouser, 
G. Jordan as Crummy, Miss Weston as Mrs. 
Mouser, and INIrs. Skerrett as Betsy. Betsy 
has also been played in America by Mrs. 
John Drew and Mrs. W. H. Smith. The 
farce was revived at the Gaiety, London, 
in March, 1871, with Mrs. Keeley in her 
original part ; and at Toole's Theatre, 
London, on July 1, 1882, with Mrs. Keeley, 
J. L. Toole as Mouser, John Billington as 
Crummy, and Miss Effie Liston as Mrs. 
Mouser. Fitted witli lyrics by Sheldon 
Wilson and with music by Meyer Lutz, it 
was performed at the Gaiety, London, in 
December, 1S83, as ' The Laundry Belle ' 
iq.v.). Another musical setting of the farce, 
by Lawrence Hanray, was brought out at 
the Bijon Theatre, Bays water, in February, 

Better Ang-el (The); or,TlieIieg:acy 
of "Wrong-. A dramain two acts, by Wybert 
Reeve, first performed at the Theatre Royal, 
South Shields, in February 1868. 

Better Half (The). A comedietta in 
one act, by T. J. Williams {q.v.\ adapted 
from ' Madame Andre ; ' first performed at 
the Strand Theatre, London, on June 26, 
1865, with a cast including Parselle, Belford, 
and Miss E. Johnstone. See Woman of 

Better Late than Never. (1) A 
comedy by William Davies (<?.i'.), written 
for a private theatre, and published, with 
four other pieces, in 1786. (2) A comedy by 
M. P. Andrews and F. Reynolds {q.v.), fir^t 
performed at Drury Lane on November 17, 
1790, with Mrs. Jordan as Augusta, Palmer 
as Sir Charles Chouse, Kemble as Saville, 
Baddeley as Grump, Mrs. Goodall as Mrs. 
Flurry, Dodd as Flurry, Bannister, jun., as 
Litigamus, R. Palmer as Pallet, and Miss 
Pope as Diary (a maid). Saville (nephew of 
Grump) is a gambler, and Augusta, who is 
in love with him, endeavours to cure him of 
the vice. In the end she gives him her hand 
and fortune. Chouse has an intrigue with 
Mid. Flurry. The piece was played in 

America in 1796. (3) A comedy in two 
acts, by JoiiN BROUGHAM (q.v.), first per- 
formed at Brougham's Theatre, New York, 
on January 25, 1869, with the author as 
Major Fergus O'Shaughnessy. (4) A drama 
by Edwin Palmer, Middlesborough, Sep- 
tember 5, 1870. (5) A comedy by F. C. 
Burnand (q.v.), adapted from 'L'Homme 
qui Manque le Coche,' and first performed 
at the Royalty Theatre, London, on June 27, 
1874, with a cast including C. Kelly, F. B. 
Egan, W. Sidney, J. Bannister, Fosbrooke, 
and Miss Maggie Brennan. 

Better Luck Next Time. A comedy- 
drama in three acts, bv Reginald Moore, 
Theatre Royal, York, May 20, 1870. 

Betterton, Julia. See Glover, Mrs. , 

Betterton, Lord and Lady, figure ' 
in R. SULiVAN's 'Elopements io High Life.' ( 

Betterton, Mrs. Thomas [Mary , 
Saunderson]. Actress, died April, 1712;, 
was married to Betterton in December, 1662. 
She "created" the following (M-ith other) 
parts : — Mrs.Aurelia in ' The Cutter of Cole- 
man Street' (1661), Porcia in 'The Adven- 
tures of Five Hours' (1663), Graciana in 
'The Comical Revenge' (1664), in 'The 
Amorous Widow' (1670), Virginia in 'The 
Unjust Judge ' (1670), Belinda in ' The Man 
of the Mode ' (1676), Florella in ' Abdelazer ' 
(1677), Jocasta in Lee and Dryden's 
'CEdipus' (1679), Lucretia in 'Lucius Junius 
Brutus' (1681), and the Duchess of Suffolk 
in ' The Innocent Usurper ' (1694). Among 
her other roles were lanthe in ' The Siege 
of Rhodes' (1661), Ophelia (1C61), Juliet 
(1662), Lady Macbeth (1664), Queen Katherine 
in ' Henry VIII. ' (1664), and the Duchess of 
Main (1664). After her husband's death 
in 1710— they had had a happy married life 
of forty-eight years— she lost (it would seem), 
at least for a time, her reason; and the 
calamity no doubt hastened her own decease 
Pepys was so struck by her performance as 
lanthe, that it is by that name he refers tc 
her usually in his ' Diary ; ' evidently h( 
admired her acting greatly. Colley Cibbei 
says of her: "Time could not impair he: 
skill, though he had brought her persoi 
to decay. She was, to the last, the admira 
tion of all true judges of nature and lover 
of Shakespeare, in whose plays she chiefl; 
excelled, and without a rival. When sh 
quitted the stage, several good actresse 
were the better for her instruction. Sh 
was a woman of an unblemished and sobe • 

Betterton, Thomas. Actor, bor 
1635 (?), died April 28, 1710 ; son of Matthev 
Betterton, who is described as an unde; 
cook to Charles II., but described himse 
in his will as " gentleman." Thomas Bette 
ton was early apprenticed to a bookseller- 
according to some authorities, to Joh 
Holden, "a friend of Sir W. Davenant, an 
the father of one of Sir AVilliam's lad;' 
players ; according to other writers, to Job 
Rhodes, formerly wardrobe-keeper to ti 
actors at Blackfriars. Betterton, it • 




believed, was himself for a short time 
in business as a bookseller. In 1660 he 
joined the company with which Rhodes 
reopened the Cockpit in Drury Lane as 
a theatre. He seems to have come to 
the front at once, among his early parts 
being those of Pericles, Archas in Fletcher's 
'Loyal Subject,' Deflores in Rowley and 
3Iiddleton's ' Changeling,' and Marullo in 
Massinger's 'Bondman.' When, in June, 
1661, Davenant opened the new theatre in 
Portugal Row, Lincoln's Inn Fields, with a 
company knoAvn as "the Duke's," Betterton 
was his " leading man," and is supposed to 
have assisted him largely in the production 
of his ' Siege of Rhodes ' (in which Betterton 
played Soliman), which was brought out 
with "new Scenes and Decorations, being 
the first that e'er were introduced in Eng- 
land." Between 1661 and 1665, when per- 
formances were temporarily stayed by the 
Plague, Betterton was seen at Lincoln's Inn 
Fields as Hamlet (1661), Sir Tohy Belch (1661), 
Mercutio (1662), Bosola in ' The Duchess of 
Malfy' (1662), Henry VIII. (1663), Macbeth 
(1664) ; as well as in the following " original " 
■psivts— Colonel Jelly in 'The Cutler of Cole- 
man Street ' (1661), Brisac in ' The Villain ' 
(1662), Don Henrique in ' The Adventures of 
Five Hours ' (1663), Lord Beau/ord in ' The 
Comical Revenge' (1664), etc. Between 
1667 (when the theatres were reopened) and 
1671, Betterton "created" Richard III. in 
'The Ens^lish Princess' (1667) and Sir 
Solomon in Carrol's play so named (1669). 
Davenant had died in 166S, and the reins of 
"management had been assumed by his son, 
Dr. Charles Davenant, with Betterton and 
Harris {q.v.) as his colleagues. The com- 
pany was not too prosperous, and it was 
decided to remove to a larger theatre. 
" The site chosen was in Salisbury Court, 
Fleet Street," where once had been the Earl 
of Dorset's garden, and where "a magnifi- 
cent building was erected." In this "every 
opportunity was afforded for elaborate 
scenery and stage appointments." Better- 
ton "is said to have visited Paris, by the 
special command of the king, in order to 
observe how the English theatre could be 
improved in the matter of scenery and 
decorations. If he made such a journey," 
observes his latest biographer (1S91), "it 
was most probably about this time." The 
Dorset Garden Theatre was opened in 
November, 1671, and Betterton continued 
to be associated with it till 1682. During 
this period he "created" the following 
(with other) roles : Dorimant in ' The Man 
of the Mode ' (1676), Philip II. in Otway's 
' Don Carlos ' (1676), Titus in Otway's ' Titus 
and Berenice' (1677), Antony in Sedley's 
Antony and Cleopatra ' (1677), Wittmore in 
Sir Patient Fancy' (1678), Goodvile in 
Otway's 'Friendship in Fashion' (1678), 
jjiranes^ in Lee's 'Theodosius' (16S0), 
itdipus in Dryden and Lee's play so named 
(1679), Ccesar Borgia in Lee's play so named 
(1680), Castalio in Otway's ' Orphans ' (1680), 
Jyucius Junius Brutus in Lee's plav so 
named (1681), Beauqard in Otway's ' Soldier's 
fortune' (1681), Torrismond in Dryden's 

' Spanish Friar ' (1681), and Jaffier in Otwav's 
' Venice Preserved ' (1682) ; besides appear- 
ing as Macbeth in Davenant's adaptation 
(1672), Timon of Athens in Shadwell's adap- 
tation (1678), Troilus in Dryden's adaptation 
(1679), and King Lear in Tate's adaptation 
(1681). By 1682 both "the Duke's" com- 
pany and its rival, "the King's," had begun 
to suffer from lack of public support. 
Accordingly it was determined to unite the 
two enterprises, removing them to the 
Theatre Royal, where they began operations 
in November. Betterton's performances at 
this house included the " creation " of the 
Duke of Guise in Dryden and Lee's play (1682), 
Beaugard in 'The Atheist' (1684), Gayman 
in Behn's ' Lucky Chance ' (1687), Jupiter in 
Dryden's ' Amphitryon ' (1690), King Arthur 
in Dryden and Purcell's work (1691), and the 
Old Bachelor and the Double-Dealer in Con- 
greve's comedies so named (1693) ; besides 
figuring as Othello (l&S'i), Arbaces in 'King 
and No King ' (1683), ^Ecius in Rochester's 
adaptation of ' Valentinian' (1684), and 
Brutus in 'Julius Ca?sar' (1684). In 1692 
Betterton lost, through shipA\Teck, all the 
money he had invested in the East Indian 
venture of a friend. About this time, the 
managers of the Theatre Royal sought to 
reduce expenses by cutting down the salaries 
of the elder players, who accordingly seceded 
from the theatre, and. fortified with a royal 
licence, opened, in April, 1895, a building 
erected for them on the Tennis Court, 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, and popularly known 
as the New Playhouse. There they started 
with Congreve's ' Love for Love ' (q.v.), in 
which Betterton "created" Valentine, liis 
subsequent original roles including Sir John 
Brute in ' The Provoked Wife ' (1697), Aga- 
memnon in Granville's 'Heroic Love' (1698), 
and Orestes in Dennis's 'Iphigenia' (1699). 
In 1700 Betterton received the royal com- 
mand to assume the management of the 
company, which had become somewhat dis- 
organized. He occupied this position till 
1705, his original parts in the interval in- 
cluding Fainall in ' The Way of the World' 
(1700), Memnon in Rowe's ' Ambitious Step- 
mother' (1700), Tamerlane in Rowe's play 
so named (1702), Horatio in Rowe's ' Fair 
Penitent ' (1703), and Sir Timothy Tallapoy 
in Rowe's ' Biters ' (1704-5). In the course 
of these five years he was also seen as 
Falstaff in the first and second parts of 
' Henry IV.' (1700) and ' The Merry Wives 
of Windsor' (1703-4), Angelo in Gildon's 
adaptation of ' Measure for Measure ' (1700), 
Bassanio in Lansdowne's adaptation of ' The 
Merchant of Venice ' (1701), and Antony in 
•All for Love ' (1703-4). March 31, 1705, was 
the date of his last appearance at Lincoln's 
Inn Fields and as a manager. From that day 
to his death he was a salaried actor only, 
being engaged at Vanbrugh's Theatre in the 
Haymarket, where he ^' created" Don Alvarez 
in Vanbrugh's 'Mistake' (1705), Theseus in 
Smith's ' Phaedra and Hippolitus ' (1707), and 
Virginius in Dennis's ' Appius and Virginia ' 
(1709), also appearing as Melantius in ' The 
Maid's Tragedy,' Morose in 'The Silent 
Woman,' Dominic in 'The Spanish Friar," 




and Leontius in ' The Humorous Lieutenant.' 
On April 7, 1709, ' Love for Love ' was per- 
formed at Drury Lane for the benefit of 
Betterton. who reappeared as,^^!^)^ 
Dogget, Mrs. Barry, and Mrs. Bracegirdle 
also in their original parts ; the receipts 
amounted, it is said, to over .500 guineas. 
He died, of gout, on April 2S, 1710, and was 
buried in Westminster Abbey on May 2. 
He had man-ied, in 1662, Mary Saunderson, 
who survived him. (See Betterton, Mrs. 
Thomas.) Although the leading actor of 
his day, at no time"(it is said) did he receive 
a larger salary than four pounds a week. 
Betterton was' the author (or compiler) of 
the following adaptations, all of which 
see :— ' The Amorous Widow ; or. The Wan- 
ton Wife,' and ' The AVoman made a Jus- 
tice ' {circa 1070), ' The Roman Virgin ; or, 
The Unjust Judge ' (1670), ' The Revenge ' 
(16S0), ' The Prophetess' (1690), ' King Henry 
IV.' (1700), ' Sequel to Henry IV.' (1719), and 
'The Bondman' (1719). Pepys has many 
references to Betterton. On November 4, 
1661, he records that in his opinion, and in 
that of his wife, Betterton is "the best 
actor in the world." On May 2S, 1663, he 
writes: "Saw 'Hamlett' done, giving us 
fresh reason never to think enough of Bet- 
terton." "Betterton," writes CoUey Cibber, 
" was an actor, as Shakespear was an 
author, both without competitors I form'd 
for the mutual assistance and illustration 
of each other's genius ! How Shakespear 
wrote, all men who have a taste for nature 
may read and know— but with what higher 
rapture would he still be read could they 
conceive how Betterton play'd him ! Then 
might they know the one was born alone to 
speak what the other only knew to write : 
... To preserve this medium, between 
mouthing and meaning too little, to keep 
the attention more pleasingly awake by a 
temper'd spirit than by meer vehemence of 
voice, is of all the master-strokes of an 
actor the most ditiicult to reach. In this 
none yet have equall'd Betterton. ... A 
farther excellence in Betterton was, that he 
could vary his spirit to the different cha- 
racters he acted. Those wild impatient 
starts, that fierce and flashing fire, which 
he threw into Hotspur, never came from the 
unruffled temper of his Brutus. ... He had 
so full a possession of the esteem and regard 
of his auditors, that upon his enti'ance into 
every scene he seem'd to seize upon the eyes 
and ears of the giddy and inadvertent 1 . . . 
In all his soliloquies of moment, the strong 
intelligence of his attitude and aspect drew 
you into such an impatient gaze and eager 
expectation, that you almost imbib'd the 
sentiment with your eye before the ear 
could reach it, ... I never heard a line in 
tragedy come from Betterton wherein my 
judgment, my ear, and my imagination were 
not fully satisfy'd. . . . Betterton had a 
voice of' that ki'nd which gave more spirit 
to terror than to the softer passions ; of 
more strength than melody. The rage and 
jealousy of Othello became him better than 
ihe sighs and tenderness of Casfalio. . . . 
The person of this excellent actor was 

suitable to his voice, more manly than 
sweet, not exceeding the middle stature, 
inclining to the corpulent ; of a serious 
and penetrating aspect; his limbs nearer 
the athletick than the delicate proportion ; 
yet however form'd, there from the 
harmony of the whole a commanding mien 
of majesty, which the fairer-fac'd or (as 
Shakespear calls 'em) the curled darlings 
of his time ever wanted something to be 
equal master of." "Such an actor as Mr, 
Betterton," wrote Steele in the Tatter, 
"ought to be recorded with the same 
re.spect as Roscius among the Romans. I 
have hardly a notion that any performer 
of antiquity could surpass the action of Mr. 
Betterton in any of the occasions in which 
he has appeared upon our stage." Bet- 
terton, it may be noted, is one of the char 
racters in Douglas Jerrold's ' Nell Gwynne' 
(q.v.). See Pepys' ' Diary,' Langbaine's 
' Dramatic Poets ' (1691), ' Roscius Angli- 
canus ' (170S), Gildon's ' Life of Mr. Thomas 
Betterton ' (1710), Gibber's ' Apologv' (1740), 
Curll's ' Eufflish Stage ' (1741), ' Life of Mr. 
Thomas Betterton' (1749), T. Gibber's ' Lives 
of the Poets ' (1753), ' Biographia Britannica' 
(1777-1793), Davies' ' Dramatic Miscellanies ' 
(17S4), Dibdin's 'History of the Stage' 
(1795), ' Biographia Dramatica ' (1S12), Gait's 
♦Lives of the Players' (1831), Genest's 
'English Stage' (1S32), 'Dictionary of 
National Biography' (1SS5), and R. W. 
Lowe's ' Betterton ' (1S91). 

Betterton, "William. Actor ; a mem- 
ber of the company ^\'ith which John Rhodes 
reopened the Cockpit in Drury Lane in 1660 ; 
dro^vned while swimming in the Thames at 

Bettina. (1) The "blossom of Churning- 
ton Green" in H. J. Byron's burlesque 
so named. (2) The heroine of Audran's 
•La Mascotte' (q.v.). 

Betty, Henry. Actor, son of W. H. W. 

Betty ('/.'-■.); born in London, September, 
1819 ; was educated for the ministry, but 
after a few years' study elected to join 
the histrionic profession. He appeared at 
Gravesend in October, 1835, as Selim in 
' Barbarossa,' but his first regular engage- 
ment was at Hereford, where he made his 
debut in August, 1838. After this, he 
played a round of leading "legitimate" 
parts in all the chief towns in the provinces, 
receiving in 1840 an invitation to appear 
in London, which he declined. His first 
appearance in the metropolis was made at 
Covent Garden on December 28, 1S44, when 
he was seen as Hamlet. Representations 
of Macbeth, Othello, Rolla, Alexander the 
Great, William Tell, and Claude Mdnotte 
followed. In September, 1845, he acted 
at the Pavilion Theatre, and in February, 
1846, at the Queen's, whence he returned 
to the Pavilion. His last engagement was 
at the Olympic. He died in 1S97. See 
' Theatrical Times,' November 14, 1846. 

Betty, WiUiam Henry West. 

Actor, born at Shrewsbury, ."September, 
1791 ; died in London, August, 1874 ; lives 




in theatrical history as " The Infant Ros- 
cius." While he was still very young, his 
parents removed from Shrewsbury to 
County Down, Ireland, where his father 
traded as farmer and linen-manufacturer. 
The boy early showed aptitude for learning 
and reciting dramatic verse, in which he 
was encouraged and instructed by his 
accomplished mother. A performance by 
Mrs. Siddons at Belfast is said to have fired 
him with the desire to tread the "boards," 
and he made his dehut, accordingly, at 
Belfast on August 19, 1803, as Ostnan in 
the 'Zara' (q.v.) of Aaron Hill, also appear- 
ing there during the same month as Douglas, 
Holla, and Romeo. His success was im- 
mediate and great, and in the following 
November and December he figured at the 
Crow Street Theatre, Dublin, adding to his 
list of parts Hamlet, Prince Arthur (' King 
John'), Tailored in 'Tancred and Sigis- 
munda,' and Frederick in ' Lovers' Vows.' 
After this came engagements at Cork, 
Waterford, Glasgow (May and June, 1804), 
Edinburgh, and Birmingham (August, 1804), 
his efforts exciting "society" and the 
masses to equal enthusiasm. His first 
appearance in London took place at Covent 
Garden on December 1, 1804, the rOle being 
Selini in 'Barbarossa.' He was engaged 
for twelve performances at fifty guineas 
each, with a "benefit." On December 10 
he began at Drury Lane (as Douglas) an 
engagement for twenty-eight nights, the 
gross takings for the period amounting to 
more than £17,000. The youthful player 
quite turned the head of the public ; he was 
presented to Royalty ; and on one occasion, 
we are told, the House of Commons ad- 
journed in order to be in time to see his 
representation of Ilamlet. A provincial 
tour was followed by a London rcntree in 
1805; he then appeared for twenty-four 
nights at Covent Garden and Drury Lane 
alternately. Later in the year he added, in 
London, to his repertory the rdlcs of 
Richard III., Macbeth, Zanga in 'The 
Revenge,* and Dorilas in ' Mer'ope.' After- 
wards came further representations in the 
country; and on March 26, 1808, young 
Betty made, at Bath, his last appearance 
as a boy-actor. He studied for a time under 
a private tutor, and then at Christ's College, 
Cambridge (July, 1808, to June, 1811), which 
he left at the death of his father. On 
February 15, 1812, he made his debut as an 
adult player at Bath, and in the character 
of the Earl of Essex. In London (Covent 
Garden) he reappeared on November 3, 
1812, in his old part of Selim. His triumphs 
as a young man were not so conspicuous 
as those obtained when he was a prodigy ; 
and though he remained on the metro- 
pohtan and provincial stage till August 9, 
1824 (when he said farewell at the South- 
ampton Theatre), he did not arouse the 
same measure of enthusiasm as of yore. 
For the next fifty years he lived in retire- 
ment. See 'Life of the Celebrated and 
Wonderful Young Roscius' (1804), Genest's 
' English Stage' (1832), and the ' Dictionary 
of National Biography ' (1885). 

Betty : or, The Country Bumpkins. 
A ballad farce by HEiNRT Carey {q.v.), per- 
formed at Drury Lane in December, 1732. 

Betty Martin. A farce, adapted by 
A. Harris {q.v.) from 'Le Chapeau de 
L'Horloger' of Mdme. Girardin, and first 
performed at the Adelphi Theatre, London, 
on March 8, 1855, with Mrs. Keeley in the 
title part. "Mrs. Keelev," wrote Henry 
Morley, "is in force as BMy Martin, the 
distressed maid of a choleric maior. She 
has broken the house clock, and inflicts 
tortures on Major Mohawk, not only by her 
terrors at the catastrophe, but by her in- 
genious efforts to prevent its discovery." 
See Clockmaker's Hat. 

Between you and me and the Post. 

A burlesque of ' Arrah-na-Pogue' {q.v.) by 
J. SCHONBERG ; Rushton's Theatre, New 
York, 1866. 

Between the Posts. A comedietta 
in one act, by Mrs. Hugh BELL(g.«;.), first 
performed at Newcastle-on-Tyne in Sep- 
tember, 1887 ; turned by the authoress into 
French under the title of ' L'Indecis,' and 
represented at the Royalty Theatre, London, 
in November, 1887, with M. Coquelin in the 
chief part. See Man that Hesitates, The. 

Beulah Spa ; or, Two of the B'hoys. 

A farce by Charles Dance {q.v.), first per- 
formed at the Olympic Theatre, London, on 
November 18, 1833, with Mdme. Vestris as 
Caroline Grantley, and other parts by Mrs. 
Tayleure, J. Vining, J. Brougham, F. Mat- 
thews, Keeley, and Webster, jun. ; first per- 
formed at New York in October, 1834. 

Beveridg-e, James D. Actor, bom 
at Dublin in 1844 ; made his professional 
d(^but at Oldham in August, 1861, in 
' Pizarro,' and his first appearance in 
London at the Adelphi in October, 1869, 
as Lord Alfred Colebrooke in Byron and 
Boucicault's 'Lost at Sea' {q.v.). At the 
Princess's, he played Laertes to the Hamlet 
of Fechter, afterwards returning to the 
Adelphi to "create" Ernest Glendinning 
in Byron's ' Prompter's Box ' (1870). After a 
three years' tour with the "Caste" com- 
pany, he reappeared in London as the 
original Claude Ripley in Byron's ' Time's 
Triumph' (1873). He was then seen as 
First Actor in 'Hamlet' at the Lyceum 
(1874-5). Among subsequent performances 
in the provinces were his Marc Antony 
in ' Julius Ca?sar,' Henry Beauclere in 
* Diplomacy,' and the Prince in ' Broken 
Hearts.' Since 1879 J. D. Beveridge has 
figured in London in the original casts of 
'Mary Stuart' (1880), 'His Wife' (1881), 
' Taken from Life ' (1881), ' In the Ranks ' 
(1SS3), 'The Last Chance' (1885), 'The 
Harbour Lights' (1885), 'The Bells of 
Haslemere' (1887), 'The Union Jack '(1888), 
'The Silver Falls ' (1888). 'London Day by 
Day' (1889), 'Jess' (1890), 'The English 
Rose' (1890), 'The Trumpet Call' (1891), 
' The W^hite Rose ' (1892), ' The New Boy ' 
(1894), 'Old Heidelberg' (1903), etc. He 
has also been seen in London in revivals of 




'An English Gentleman' (1S79). 'The Castle 
Spectre' (Osmond) (ISSO), 'Adrienne Lecou- 
vreur' {Prince de Bouillon) (ISSO'), 'Macbeth' 
pracdun) (1SS6), 'The Shaughraun' (Kin- 
chela) (iSS9), 'Black-Eyed Susan ' (1S96), etc. 
In 'Hazel Klrke,' at the Vaudeville in 
lbS6, he played Aaron Rodney. 

Beverley. (I) The hero of Moore's 
'Gamester' (5. r.); described by a critic as 
*' but a poor creature, who at no time enlists 
the sympathies of his audience. His pas- 
sion for play is without the enthusiasm that 
might have' gained for it some measure of 
respect. The spectator can only feel con- 
tempt for a man vrho so readily permits 
himself to be duped, and endures his mis- 
fortunes with so little fortitude. Still, 
Beverley is permitted one of those agonizing 
death-scenes which have always been dear 
to tragedians." (2) Beverley, in A. Murphy's 
' All in the Wrong,' is in love with Belinda. 
(3) Beverley, in 'the Virtuous Wife' (q.v.), 
is the husband of Olivia. 

Beverley, Mrs. Wife of "the game- 
ster" in Moore's play of that nsnae (q.v.). 
Of Mrs. Siddons's assumption of this 
character Hazlitt vrrote : " We remember 
her manner in ' The Gamester,' when 
Stukeley declares his love to her. The 
look, tirst of incredulity and astonishment. 
then passing suddenly into contempt, and 
ending in bitter scorn, and a convulsive 
hurst of laughter, all given in a moment, 
and laying open every movement of the soul, 
produced an effect which we shall never 
forget." Charlotte Beverley in the same play 
is sister to the hero, and beloved by Leicson 

Beverley, Ensign. The name under 
which Captain Absolute in 'The Eivals' 
(q.v.) is first known to Lydia Lanyuish. 

Beverley, Henry. Actor, bom at 
Hull ; after playing in the provinces, made 
his London debut at Covent Garden in ISOO 
as David in ' The Rivals ; ' was the original 
of Boreas in J. S. Coyne's 'All for Love,' 
Gripe in Kerr's ' Intimate Friend,' etc. ; 
and shared low-comedv parts with Keelev 
at the West London Theatre (lS17-l9y. In 
Oxberry's ' Dramatic Biography ' (1S26) we 
find him described as " an actor who, with 
many things to forget, possesses more 
genuine humour than half the comedians 
of our national theatres."— His wife (a Miss 
Chapman) made her first appearance in 
London at Covent Garden in ISOl. as Cherry 
in ' The Beans' Stratagem.' See the 
* Thespian Dictionary ' (ISua). 

Beverley, Henry Roxby. Actor, 
son of William Beverley ; born 1796, died 
1863 ; made his first professional appearance 
at the theatre in Tottenham .Street, London, 
then called the Regency, and managed by 
his father. He is best remembered "for his 
performances at the Adelphi Theatre in 
1S3S, when he enacted Xearnan Nogos in 
' Nicholas Nickieby,' and figured in ^^ The 
Dancing Barber' and other pieces. In 1S39 
he became lessee of the Victoria Theatre, 

and afterwards played many engagements 
in the provinces. A"ccording to John Ryder 
(J. Coleman's ' Players and Playwrights'), 
H. Beverley was called "The Beauty," 
because he was so ugly, and was "the 
drollest comedian I ever saw in my Ufa, 
not even excepting Liston." 

Beverley, Robert Roxby. See 
Roxby, Robert. 

Beverley, Samuel Roxby. See 
Roxby, Samuel. 

Beverley, "William [Roxby]. Thea- 
trical manager ; originally in the navy ; at 
one time (1S15-1S21) lessee of the theatre 
in Tottenham Street, London, then called 
the Regency, where he introduced French 
plays and players to London audiences;' 
afterwards director of the Theatre Roya . 
Manchester, and later, of the theatrical cii*| 
cuit comprising Shields, Stockton, Durham, 
Sunderland, and Scarborough. His sons, 
Robert, Samuel, and Henry (q.v.), were allj 
actors ; his son WilUam (q.v.) was a weF 
known scenic artist. See RoxBY, ROBI 
and Samuel. 

Beverley, "William Roxby. Seer 
artist, born ISIO, died 1SS9 ; son of W. 
Beverley (q.v.); is said to have begun '. 
career as a provincial actor, under ' 
father's management. He seems, howev€ 
to have found out speedily that his for 
was the pictorial, not the histrionic ; 
soon acquired local distinction as a paint 
for the theatres, notably at Manchester. 
Among his earliest engagements was one at 
the Coburg (afterwards the Victoria) Theatre, 
which was followed by one at the Princess's, 
then under the management of J. ]\Iedes 
Maddox. From 1S47 to 1S55 he was at the 
Lyceum, then under the direction of Charles 
M'athews and Mdme. Vestris, and there he 
supplied most of the scenery for the long 
series of fairy extravaganzas by J. E. 
Planche. From the Lyceum he passed tc 
Drury Lane and Covent Garden, working at 
the former during the winter and at the 
latter during the summer, for a period 01 
sixteen years (1S55-71). At the latter house 
he painted the principal scenes for the 
opei-as pi'oduced by Gye ; at the former, ht 
provided the pictorial background for man} 
of Shakespeare's plays, for plays based 01 
the novels of Walter Scott, and for numerou 
pantomimes. He also furnished the sceni' 
decoration for Albert Smith's ' :Mont Blanc 
entertainment at the Egyptian HaU (1S52). 

Bevil is the name of a character ir 
respectively, (1) Lord Orrery's ' As Toi 
Find It,' (2) Steele's ' Conscious Lovers, 
and (3) Miles's 'Artifice.' (4) Fraiwis 
George, and Harry Bevil are three brother 
(an "^M.P., a soldier, and a lawj-er) i 
O'Brien's 'Cross Purposes' (q.v.). 

Bewitcbed. "A three -act farcis 
scream" by E. E. KlDDER (g.r.), performe 
in America in 1SS7-8. with Sol .Smith Russet 
in the principal role. The plot turns 
the charms worked by a wonderful amule 




•which Colonel Chillecurry brings home with 
him from India. 

Beyond. A dramatic " study," founded 
on a story by Rene Maizeroy, and performed 
at the Criterion Theatre, London, on the 
afternoon of February 1, 1894, by Mrs. 
Beniard-Beere and Arthur Bourchier. 

Blilutzlierran"blaothruni ; or, The 
Dwarf of the Diamond Dell. A pan- 
tomime by Frederick Marchant, pro- 
duced at the Britannia Theatre, London, 
December 26, 1868. 

Bianca. (1) Mistress of Cassio in 
'Othello' (q.v.). (2) Daughter of Baptista 
and sister of Katherine in 'The Taming 
of the Shrew' {q-v.). (3) A character in 
MiDDLETON'S ' Women beware Women ' 
{q.v.). "The proneness of Bianca to tread 
the primrose path of pleasure, after she 
has made the first false step, and her 
sudden transition from unblemished virtue 
to the most abandoned vice, form a true and 
striking picture." (4) Bianca, in Milman's 
'Fazio' {.q.v.), is the wife of the hero. 

Bianca. (1) A tragedy by R. Shepherd, 
printed in 1772. (2) ' Bianca ; or, The 
Brave's Bride:' a "legendary opera," in 
four acts, written by J. Palgravk Simp- 
son {q.v.), composed by M. W. Balfe {q.v.), 
and first performed at Covent Garden 
Theatre on December 6, 1860, with Miss 
Louisa Pyne as Bianca, W. Harrison as For- 
tespada, the bravo, and H. Corri and C. 
Lyall in other parts. 

Bianca Capello. A dramatic narra- 
tive, translated from the German of ilelss- 
ner by A. Thomson, and printed in 1796. 
Bianca, who was the wife of Cosmo de Me- 
dici, is the heroine of a novel by Lady 

Bianca Visconti. A tragedy by N. P. 
Willis {q.v.), first performed at the Park 
Theatre, New York, on August 25, 1837, with 
I\Iiss Clifton in the title part, Placide as 
Fasquali, and C. Mestayer as Giulio. 

Biarritz. A musical farce in two acts, 
dialogue by J. K. Jerome, lyrics by Adrian 
Ross, and music by F. Osmond Carr ; first 
performed at the Prince of W^ales's Theatre, 
London, on April 11, 1896, with Arthur 
Roberts as John J. Jenkins, and other parts 
by F. Kaye, E. Thome, Miss P. Broughton, 
Miss M. Hylton, Miss K. Loftus, etc. 

Bias, Justice. A character in J. 
Walker's ' Factory Lad' {q.v.). 

Bibb and Tucker. A comedy in two 
acts, adapted from 'Tricoche et Cacolet' 
{q-v.), and first performed at the Gaiety 
Theatre, London, on August 14, 1873, with 
L. Brough and J. L. Toole in the title parts, 
and other roles by R. Soutar, T. Maclean, 
and Miss E. Farren, 

Bibber. (1) A tailor in Dryden's ' Wild 

Gallant' {q.v.) ; the original of Tom Thimble 
{q.v.) in ' The Rehearsal ' {q.v.). (2) A cap- 
tarn in Jones's ' Green Man ' {q.v.). 

Bibbs. The name of four characters in 
W. E. SUTER'S Quiet Family' {q.v.)— Mr. 
and Mrs. Barnaby Bibbs, and Mr. and Mrs. 
Benjamin Bibbs. 

Bibby. The name of an actor who ap- 
peared at the Park Theatre, New York, in 
February, 1815, as Sir Archy McSarcasm^ 
subsequently playing Bichard III., Shy- 
lock, Sir Pertinax McSycophant, and other 
parts. In 1816 he was seen at Covent 
Garden as Sir Pertinax and in other rdles. 
and Hazlitt then wrote of him that he had 
" a great deal of that assumed decorum 
and imposing stateliness of manner which, 
since the days of Jack Palmer, has been a 
desideratum on the stage. In short, we 
have had no one who looked at home in a 
fuU dress coat and breeches. Besides the 
more obvious requisites for the stage, the 
bye-play of the new actor is often excellent : 
his eye points what he is going to say ; he 
has a very significant smile, and a very 
alarming shrug with his shoulders" ('The 
English Stage,' 1818). Bibby afterwards le- 
turned to New York, left the stage, and 
turned his attention to the law. Ireland, 
in his ' New York Stage ' (1866), speaks of 
him as having attracted attention by the 
perfection of his imitations of George 
Frederick Cooke. 

Bibliothekar (Der). A farcical comedy 
in four acts by Von MoSER, English adapta- 
tions of which have appeared under the titles 
of 'The Librarian' {q.v.) and 'The Pi'ivate 
Secretary' {q.v.\ It was performed, in the 
original German, at the Bowery, New York, 
in November, 1884, and at the Opera, 
Comique, London, on October 20, 1894. 

Biceps, Frank. A medical student in 
T. Parry's ' Eugenia Claircille.' 

Biche au Bois (La). See Black 
Crook, The; Princess changed into a. 
Deer ; ami White Fawn. 

Bickerstafif, Isaac. Dramatist, born 
1735, died 1787 ; author of ' Leucothoe ' 
(1756), 'Thomas and Sally' (1760), 'Love in 
a Village ' (1763), 'The Maid of the Mill' 
(1765), ' Daphne and Ariadne ' (1765), ' The 
Plain Dealer' (1766), 'Love in the City' 
(1767), 'Lionel and Clarissa' (1768), 'The- 
Absent Man' (1768), 'The Royal Garland' 
(1768), 'The Padlock' (176S), 'The Hvpo- 
crite (1768), ' The Ephesian Matron ' (1769), 
'Dr. Last in his Chariot' (1769), 'The 
Captive' (1769), 'A School for Fathers' 
(1770), ' 'Tis Well it's No Worse ' (1770), ' The 
Recruiting Sergeant ' (1770), ' He Would if 
he Could' (1771), and 'The Sultan' (1775) 
He also wrote an oratorio ' Judith ' (1764), 
and is said to have been the author of ' The 
I Spoiled Child' {q.v.). See 'The British 
Theatre,' ' The British Acting Drama,' Inch- 
bald's ' Collection of Farces,' ' The Bio- 
graphia Dramatica ' (1818), Hazlitt's ' Comic 

Bickerstaff's Burial (A) ; or, "Work 
for the Upholders. A farce by Mrs. 
Centlivre {q.v.), first performed at Drury 
Lane on March 27, 1710, with Norris, Bick- 
erstafif, and Mrs. Knight in the chief parts. 



"The scene lies in an island in which it is 
the custom of the country for a wife to be 
buried with her husband, if he should hap- 
pen to die first ; and vice versa. The plot 
is taken from one of Sindbad's voyages in 
the ' Arabian Nights ' " (Genest). The piece 
seems to have been revived, some years 
afterwards, under the title of ' The Custom 
of the Country.' See Gallic Gratitude ; 
Illustrious Stranger. 

Bickerstaff's TJnburiea Dead. A 

moral drama in two acts, first performed at 
Lincoln's Inn Fields on January 14, 1743. 
" It is, of course, founded on the Tatler. 
The Unburied Dead are persons of both 
sexes, who lead useless lives. They are 
brought before Bickerstaff for examination " 
(Genest). Two of the characters are called 
Seizecorpse and Coquette Lady. The piece 
was revived at Covent Garden in ITOti, under 
the title of ' Live Lumber ; or, The Un- 
buried Dead.' 

Bicknell, Alexander. Author of 
• The Patriot King,' a tragedy (1788). 

Bicknell, Mrs. Actress, died 1723 ; was 
the original representative of Cherry in ' The 
•Beaux' Stratagem,' Alison in ' The Wife of 
Bath' (,q.v.\ Kitty in 'What d'ye call it?' 
Mrs. Clinkett in ' Three Hours after Mar- 
riage,' I/acZy Wrangle in 'The Refusal,' etc. 
She also undertook Phcedra (' Amphitryon '), 
Miss Priie ('Love for Love'), Miss Hoyden 
(♦ The Relapse'), Sylvia(' Recruiting Officer'), 
Lady Sadlife ('The Double Gallant'), and 
other parts. The Tatler (1709) speaks of her 
as having " a'certain grace in her rusticity." 
See Genesfs ♦ English Stage ' (1832). 

Bicycle Girl (The). (1) A play by 
M. A. Wolf, first performed at Red Bank, 
New Jersey, U.S.A., August 21, 1895. (2) 
A play by Louis Harrison, first performed 
at Park Theatre, Philadelphia, September 
23, 1895.— (3) ' Bicyclers : ' a dramatic piece 
by John Kendrick Bangs, first performed 
at the Tremont Theatre, Boston, U.S.A., 
November 14, 1S95. (4) 'The Bicycle:' a 
comedietta by Mrs. Hugh Bell (q.v.), per- 
formed at the Comedy Theatre, London, 
March 12, 1896. See Cycling and Lady 

Biddle, Edward. Author of a dra- 
matic fragment called ' Augustus ' (1717). 

Biddy? Miss. The heroine of Gar- 
rick's ' 31iss in her Teens ' (q.v.). 

Bideth.e Bent. A character in operatic 
and dramatic versions of 'The Bride of 
Lammermoor' (q.v.). 

Bidlake, Rev. John. Master of Ply- 
mouth Grammar School ; author of ' Vir- 
ginia,' a tragedy (1800). 

Bier Kroeg. See Barnett, C. Z. 

Bifl&n. (1) A character in ' A Fast Train ' 
(q.v.). (2) Arabella Biffin is aunt to Clara 
in ' Aggravating Sam ' (q.v.). (3) There is 
a Miss Biffin in J. B. Buckstone'S * Popping 
the Question ' (q.v.). 

Big- Bandit (A). A musical piece in 
one act, written by Malcolm Watson, 
composed by Walter Slaughter : St. George's 
Hall, London, April 30, 1894. 

Big- Bonanza (The). A farcical comedy 
in four acts, adapted by Augustin Daly 
(q.v.) from the ' Ultimo ' of Von Moser, and 
first performed at the Fifth Avenue Theatre, 
New York, in February, 1875, with Jamea 
Lewis as Prof. Cadwallader, Miss F. Daven- 
port as Eugenia Cadwallader, INIrs. Gilbert 
as Carolina Cadwallader, Miss E. Rigl as 
Virgie, and John Drew as Bob Buggies; 
revived in August, 1875, with Maurice 
Barryraore as Bob. See ON 'Change. 

Big Pony (The). A comic opera, 
written by A. C. WHEELER and composed 
by E. J. Darling, produced in New York in 
March, 1887, with N. C. Goodwin in the 
title part and Miss Lilian Grubb as the 

Big Rise (The). A play by Augustus 
Thomas (q.v.), suggested by the Mississippi 
floods, and performed in America. 

Big-ot (The). A play by F. C. Grove, per- 
formed at the Lyric Hall, Ealing, November 

19, 1890. 

BigTvigga. A fairy "counsel" in F. 
Talfourd's ' Abou Hassan ' (q.v.). 

Bijou. A character in G. A. 1 Beckett's 
' Postilion ' (q.v.). See Babil and Bijou. 

Bilberry. (1) A ploughboy in H. T. 
Craven's 'My Preserver' (q.v.). (2) There 
is a Billy Bilberry in C. H. Hazlewuod's 
'Ashore and Afloat' (q.v.), and (3) a Mr. 
Bilberry figures in J. M. MORTONS 'Irish 
Tiger' (q.v.). 

Bilboa. See Bayes. 

Biles. A lawyer's clerk in H. T. Craven's 
' Miriam's Crime ' (q.v.). 

Bilious Attack (A). A farce in one 
act, by ARTHUR Wood (q.v.), first performed 
at the Holborn Theatre, London, on April 
18, 1870, with the author as Job Jinniwin, 
"a bilious subject." 

Bilkins, Taylor. Author of 'In 
Three Volumes,' a farce (1871), 'A Christ- 
mas Pantomime' (Court Theatre, London, 
1871), etc. 

Bill, Bloodred. A character in Ste- 
phens and Solomon's ' Claude Duval ' (q.v.). 

Bill Johnson, the Hero of the 
Thousani Isles. A patriotic drama 
first performed at New York in 1839, with 
J, P. Adams in the title part. 

Bill Jones. See Amherst, G. A. 

Bill of Exchange. A comedy b: 
David Fisher, Theatre Royal, Brighton 
September 18, 1879, 

Bill of Fare (The) ; or, For Furthe: 
Particulars 'Enciuire Within. I 
farcical sketch in one a<:t, first performei 
at the Havmarket on June 15, 1822, witl 
Terrv as Solomon Strutt (a country manager) 



Oxberry as Samuel Stinrjo, ^V. West as 
Jiobin Rattletrap, Lee as Looney Mactwolter, 
and Mrs. Chatterley as Cicely Homesimn 
and in six other characters. 

Bill of tlie Play (The). See Play- 

Billee Taylor. A nautical comic opera, 
words by H. P. Stephens {q.v.), music by 
Edward Solomon {q.v.), first performed at 
the Imperial Theatre, London, on October 
30, 18S0, with Frederick Rivers in the title 
part, Fleming Norton as Captain Flapper, 
Arthur Williams as ,S'iV Mincing Lane, J. 
D. Stoyle as Ben Barnacle, F. A. Arnold as 
Christopher Crab, Miss Kathleen Corri as 
Phoebe Fairleigh, Miss Emma Chambers as 
lArabella Lane, Miss Edith Vane as Sudan, 
'Miss Harriett Coveney as Fliza JJabbsey, and 
'Miss Ewell as J"a?ie Scraggs ; performed at 
the Standard Theatre, New York, in 1881 ; at 
the Gaiety Theatre, London, in November, 
,1885, with Miss Coveney as Eliza, Miss 
iMarion Hood as Phoebe, Arnold Breeden as 
\Billee, Arthur Roberts as Barnacle, and 
Squire, Jarvis, and G. Honey in other parts ; 
at Toole's Theatre, London, in August, 1886, 
with Miss Emily Spiller as Billee, Miss 
Harriett Vernon as Phoebe, Miss Coveney 
as Eliza, H. De Lange as Ben Barnacle, 
and Arthur Williams as FlapiJer. See Billy 

Billiards. A comedy by E. F. Thorne, 
produced at Niblo's Garden, New York, on 
the afternoon of September 5, 1878, with 
the author as Sam Sample. In the course 
of the performance a "match" game of 
billiards was played. 

Billibarlo. A gamin of Naples in R. 
B. Brough's ' Masaniello' ('j-.^-.). 

Billing- and Cooing*. A comedy in 
two acts, by JoH.x Oxenford (q.v.), first 
played at the Royalty Theatre, London, on 
.June 16, 1865, with J. G. Shore as Sir 
Thomas Turtle, who, in the end, pairs off 
with Lady Bell Honeycombe, Gilbert Easy 
marrying Jiilia Stately, and Theodore Fret- 
Ueigh espousing Clarissa Tantrum. 

Billington, Adeline [Mrs. John 
iBiUington]. Actress ; after experience in 
the provinces (including an appearance as 
\Juliet to the Borneo of Miss Charlotte Cush- 
iman), made her first appearance in London 
in 1857 at the Adelphi, as Venus in Selby's 
!' Cupid and Pysche' (q.v.). She remained 

iat that theatre till 1868, appearing in the 
original London casts of 'The Colleen 
Bawn' (Mrs. Cregan), 'The Life of an 
Actress' (Julia), 'Aurora Floyd' (Mis. 
Powell), 'Rip Van Vfinkle ' (GretchcJi), 'No 
Thoroughfare' (The Veiled Lady), Byron's 
'Babes in the Wood' (Lady Macassai-), 'A 
Woman of Business' (Hon. Shrimpington 
Siiuillpiece), and ' Maud's Peril ' (Susan 
Taperley), as well as in revivals of 'The 
lElowers of the Forest ' (Ci/nthia), ' Lost in 
;London' (Tiddy Dragglethorpe), 'Green 
{Bushes' (Miami), and 'Fazio' (Aldabella). 
She afterwards "created" the roles of Mrs. 

Baker in 'Formosa' (1869), Margaret in 
' Hinko '^(1871), Pragma in ' Babil and Bijou' 
(1872), Mrs. Valentine in ' Rough and Ready' 
(1874), Duchess d'Aubeterre in ' Proof ' (1878), 
Io7ia Hessel in 'Quicksands' (1880), Mrs\ 
Darlington in ' Youth ' (1881), Dame Chris- 
tiansen in ' Storm-Beaten ' (1883), Lady 
Sherlock in 'Rank and Riches ' (1883), 3Wwc. 
de Perigny in 'Princess Georges' (1885), 
Lady Charteris in 'Mr. Barnes of New 
York' (1888), and Marie Anne in ' The Grand- 
sire' (1889), besides appearing as Mrs. 
Brulgruddery in 'John Bull' (Gaiety, 1872), 
Servia in ' Virginius ' (Surrey, 1880), the 
Widow Melnotte (Lyceum, 1883), Mrs. Hard- 
castle (Opera Comiqne, 1887), Mrs. Malaprop 
in 'The Rivals' (Optira Comique, 1887), 
Paulina in 'The Winter's Tale '(1887), the 
Nurse in ' Romeo and Juliet,' and Daphne 
in 'Pygmalion and Galatea' (q.v.). Mrs. 
Billington has been seen in the country 
in the leading female role of ' Chained to the 
Oar,' ' Olive Branch,' and * Rough and 

Billington, John. Actor, born 1830 ; 
began his professional career in the English 
provinces, and in April, 1857, made his 
London debut at the Adelphi as Harry 
Mou'bray in ' Like and Unlike ' (q.v.). During 
the next eleven years he appeared at the 
same theatre in the following ori;iinal roles : 
Walter in ' The Poor Strollers (1858), Dubois 
in ' Ici on Parle Frangais ' (1859), Frederick 
Wardour in ' The House or the Home ' 
(1859), Beaumont Fletcher in ' One Touch of 
Nature ' (1859), St. Valeric, father and son, 
in ' The Dead Heart ' (1859), Owen Percival 
in ' Paper Wings ' (1860), Count D'Arcy in 
'Magloire' (1861), Ned Plummer in 'Dot' 
(1S62), John Mellish in ' Aurora Floyd ' (1863), 
Alfred Casby in ' Hen and Chickens ' (1863), 
Mr. Hall in ' A Woman of Business' (1864), 
Kit Coventry in ' Through Fire and Water ' 
(1865), Ahmedoolah in ' A Sister's Penance' 
(1866), Luke Blom field in 'Dora' (1867), Sir 
Ralph in 'Maud's Peril' (1867), Walter 
Wilding in ' No Thoroughfare ' (1867) ; as 
well as in the original London casts of 
' The Colleen Bawn ' (Hardress Cregan), 
'The Octoroon' (George Peyton), 'Rip Van 
Winkle ' (Hendrick in the last act), and as 
Modus in ' The Hunchback ' (1865). Among 
other parts of which he has been the first 
representative may be named Bob Olive in 
'Behind the Curtain' (1870), Sir Percival 
Glyde in 'The Woman in White' (1871), 
Martin Gurder in ' Dead Man's Point ' (1871), 
Mark Musgrave in ' Rough and Ready ' (1874), 
Gottfried in ' Gretchen ' (1879), Lord Hesketh 
in ' The Upper Crust' (1880), Major-General 
Mogador in ' Auntie ' (1882), Josiah Pap- 
tvorth in 'Girls and Boys' (1882), Mr. 
Pappendick in 'The Don' (1888), and Sir 
Lovel Gage in ' The Best Man ' (1894) ; besides 
figuring in the original London casts of 
' The Jilt ' (Colonel Tudor) and ' The Butler ' 
(Sir J. Tracy). John Billington has also 
been seen in London in the following parts : 
Joe Tiller in 'Poll and my Partner Joe' 
(1857), De Lacy in 'Rory O'More' (1864), 
Harry Stanley in ' Paul Pry ' (1866), Mercutio 




(1867), Laertes (1S6S)— all at the Adelphi ; 
Sir Francis Claude in 'The C4olden Plough' 
(1877), Josiah Grainger in ' IMarried in Haste ' 
(1880), Major Treherne in 'Cyril's Success' 
(1880). Mr. Crummy in ' Betsy Baker' (1880), 
John Peeryhingle in ' Dot' (1880), and William 
Penn Holder in ' One Touch of Nature ' 

Billington, Mrs. [Elizabeth Welch- 
sell]. Actress and vocalist ; born, probably, 
in 1768, died 1818 ; daughter of Carl Weich- 
sell, flautist, and irederica Weirman, 
vocalist ; at sixteen married James Billing- 
ton, a performer on the double-bass ; began 
her career as an operatic artist at Dublin 
in ' Orpheus and Eurydice,' and made her 
London debut bX Covent Garden on February 
13, 1786, as Eosetta in 'Love in a Village.' 
After many successful appearances on the 
stage and the platform, she Avent in 1794 to 
Italy, where she sang in several operas 
composed for her by Branchi, Himmel, 
Paer, and Paisiello. "Napoleon heard her 
there, and said she had ''une belle voix." 
In October, 1801, she made her London 
rentrie at Covent Garden as Mandane in 
Arnes ' Artaxerxes,' and from that time till 
1809, when she retired, she was a great 
favourite both in the theatre and in the 
concert-room. The compass of her voice 
was remarkable—" three octaves from A to 
A in altissimo, the upper notes being ex- 
quisitely beautiful." Sir Joshua Reynolds 
painted her as St. Cecilia listening to the 
angels, and Haydn's comment was that she 
should have been painted with the angels 
listening to her. "Her voice," writes W. 
Robson, " was full and powerful, and her 
science great ; in fact, she was the prima 
donna of her dav, when Mara's sun had 
set" ('The Old Playgoer'). Oxberry says 
she was "an indifferent actress." See Ox- 
berrv's ' Dramatic Biography ' (1825). ' Dic- 
tionary of Music and Musicians ' (1879). 

Billiter. (1) A hotel proprietor in H. 
T. Craven's ' Coals of Fire' {q.i\). (2) There 
is a Major Billiter in H. J. Byro.n'S ' Part- 
ners for Life' {q.v.). 

Billstickers Beware. A farce pro- 
duced at the Prince of AVales's Theatre, 
Birmingham, September 20, 1875. 

Biliy Doo. A farce in one act, by C. M. 
Rae (?.r.), first performed at the Globe Thea- 
tre, London, on April 20, 1874,with J . L. Toole 
in the title part, L. Brough as Dick Spooner, 
A. Cecil as Theophilus Spruce, and Miss E. 
Johnstone as Seraphina Wiggins. 

Billy Snivel. A farce, played at New 
York in 1S39, with G. Graham as the hero. 

Billy Taylor. The hero of ' Billy Tay- 
lor ; or", The Gay Young Fellow : ' a burletta 
by J. B. BuCKSTOXE(g.r.), first performed at 
the Adelphi Theatre, London, on November 
9, 1829, viith J. Reeve as the hero, " O. " Smith 
as Carolus Lanternius (a watchman). Miss 
Apjohn as Kitty Sligo, Gallot as Captain 
Flatbottom, Sanders as Ben Blockhead, and 
Mrs. Fitzwilliam as Merry Wagstajf\Lieut. 
Carr). Billy Taylor is also the chief cha- 

racter in (1) a pantomime written by G. A. 
Sala, C. K. Sala (Wynn), and G. Ellis, and 
produced at the Princess's Theatre, London, 
at Christmas, 1851 ; (2) a pantomime by G. 
H. George, brought out at the Oriental 
Theatre, London, in December, 1871 ; (3) a. 
burlesque by F. C. Burnand (g.f.), called 
'The Military Billy Taylor' {q.v.). See 
Billee Taylor. 

Bimbo. Jester of Impecunioso XXL, in 
R. B. Brough's ' Doge of Duralto ' (q.v.). 

Bin, in Douglas Jerrold's * House- 
keeper' (7. r.), is a wine-carrier. To Felicia 
and Soi:ih>/ he says, " If you would have your 
husband love, worship, honour, and respect 
you, never be -without a corkscrew." 

Bingro. (I) The driver of the hansom, in 
A. Harris's ' Doing the " Hansom " ' (q.v.). 
(2) Dr. Bingo is a character in J. S.'s 
' Queer Subject ' {q.v.), and (3) Paul Bingo, 
E.A., figures in H. J. Byron's ' Cyril's Suc- 
cess ' (q.v.)- 

Binko. A character in Douglas Jer- 
rold's ' Hazard of the Die' (q.v.). 

Binks the Bag-man, A farce in one 
act, by J. Stirling Coyne (q.v.), first per- 
formed at the Adelphi Theatre, London, on 
February 13, 1843, with "Wright in the title 
part, Pa"ul Bedford as Jack Robinson, and 
Mrs. F. Matthews as Mrs. Crimmins; first 
played at New York in May of the same 
year, with Placide as Binks. 

Binnacle, Ben. (1) A sailor in C. Z. 
Barnett's ' Loss of the Royal George' (q.v.). 
(2) A Ben Binnacle figures also in E. Stir- 
ling's ' Blue Jackets ' (q.v.). 

Binns. A character iu Coghlan's ' Lady 
Flora' (q.v.). 

Biog-rapliia Dramatica. See Com- 
panion to the Playhouse. 

Biondello. Servant to Lucentio in 

' The Taming of the Shrew ' (q.v.). 

Biorn. An opera in five acts, libretto by 
Frank Marshall, music by Signer Lauro 
Rossi, first performed at the Queen's The- 
atre, London, on January 17, 187". 

Birbanto. Lieutenant to Conrad in 
W. Brough's ' Conrad and Medora ' (q.v.). 

Birch., Samuel. Alderman and drama- 
tist, born 1757, died 1841 ; was the author 01 
the following stace pieces :— ' The Mariners 
(1793), 'The Pa^cket Boat' (1794), 'Th( 
Adopted Child ' (1795), ' The Smugglers 
(1796), 'Fast Asleep' (1797), and 'Alber 
and Adelaide' (1798), besides other pros< 
and verse. See the ' Biographia Dramatica. 

Bird, B.obert Montg-omery, M.D 

American dramatist and miscellaneou 
writer, born 1803, died 1854 ; author of th^ 
following tragedies :— ' The Broker of Bo 
gota,' ' The Gladiator,' and ' Oraloosa.' 

Bird, Theophilus. An actor in Killi 
grew's company at Drury Lane in and afte 
1663 ; " broke his leg when dancing L 



uckling's 'Aglaura'" (Doran). He is 
lentioned in the ' Historia Histrionica.' 

Bird in a Cagre (The). A comedy by 
AMES Shirley {q.v.), acted at the Phoenix, 
1 Drury Lane, and printed in 1633, with an 
•onical address to William Prynne {q.v.), at 
lat time a prisoner of state. The title is 
erived from the central incident— PAi- 
nzo's success in penetrating, in a large 
irdcage, into the building where Eugenia, 
is sweetheart, the Duke of Mantua's 
aughter, has been confined, by way of 
eeping her from her suitors. The Duke 
ardons Philenzo, and the lovers are united, 
mong the characters is Bonamico, who 
ssists Philenzo. The comedy was altered 
iid revived at Covent Garden'in April, 1786. 

Bird in the Hand "Worth Two in 
bie Bush (A). A play in three acts, by 
REDERiCK Phillips (g. v.), first performed 
ii the Surrey Theatre, London, on January 
• [), 1857, with Shepherd as Roderick Praise- 
worthy and H. Widdicomb as Capias 
t?. jfearAre; first played at New York in May 
If the same year ; revived at Lina Edwin's 
Iheatre, New York, in September, 1870 ; 
l)vived at the Globe Theatre, London, in 
epteraber, 1878, Avith a cast including J. 
ernandez, Shiel Barry, and R. C. Carton. 
jee Test of Truth. 

JBird of Paradise (The). A farce 
[iapted by Alfred Thompson (^n.v.) from 
le French, and first performed at the 
aiety Theatre, London, on June 26, 1869. 

Bird of Passag-e (The). A farce, 
ayed at New York in 1849, with Brougham 

i Chick. 

Birds (The). A comedy by Aristo- 
lANES {q v.), translated into English by 
iry (1S24), Green (1889), and Rogers (1896). 
JB Birds of Aristophanes, The. 

Birds, Beasts, and Fishes. A pan- 
•mime, produced at the City of London 
tieatre at Christmas, 1854. 

Birds in their Little Nests agree. 
"fanciful conceit" in one act, by C. M. 
AE (g.r.), first performed at the Haymarket 
1 November 13, 1876, with a cast including 
iss Kathleen Irwin, Miss Ella Dietz, Miss 
aria Harris (as the three " pretty little 
cky birds "), and Kyrle (Bellew) and W, 
ordon(as the two " naughty cats "). The 
laracters also include a couple of " old 

Birds of a Peather. A play by 
ERBERT Hall Winslow, produced in 

merica (1892), 

Birds of Aristophanes (The). A 
dramatic experiment " in one act, " being 
1 humble attempt to adapt the said ' birds ' 
' tl^is climate, by giving them new names, 
3w feathers, new songs, and new tales," by 
R. Planche (?.v.),lirst performed at the 
aymarket on April 13, 1846. with J. Bland 
' x„-D^^"^ ^f ^^« Birds, Tilbury as " a 
)et, Bnndal as "an architect," and Miss 
. Morton as the Nightinjale. " My ambi- 

tion," writes the author, " was to lay the 
foundation of an Aristophanic drama, which 
the greatest minds would not consider it 
derogatory to contribute to." 

Birds of Prey ; or, A Duel in the 
Dark. A drama in three acts, bv T. W. 
Robertson (q.v.). A play called ' Birds of 
Prey ' was produced at New York in 1858. 
'Birds of Prey' is also the title of an 
operetta by Cross and Hawkins, performed 
at Huddersfield in April, 1884. 

Birds -without Feathers. A musical 
piece, performed at the Haymarket on 
October 1, 1824, with a cast including Mdme. 


Birdseye, Adolphus. A character in 
L. Buckingham's 'Don't Lend your Um- 
brella' (q.v.). 

Birkett, Alexander and Adolphus. 

Father and son in Burnand's ' Betsy ' (q.v.). 

Birkie, James, of that Ilk. A cha- 
racter in Murray's ' Cramond Brig ' (q.v.). 

Birniing:ham(Warwickshire).— The first 
plays performed in Birmingham were pro- 
duced in booths located in "The Fields" 
(afterwards Temple Street). The first per- 
manent building devoted to the drama is 
described as "something like a stable," and 
was located in Castle Street. This was in 
1730 or thereabouts. About 1740 " there was 
a theatre in Moor Street, to which, it ia 
recorded, visits were paid by companies from 
London ; this, however, was turned into a 
Methodist chapel, and was opened as such by 
John Wesley in 1764. Meanwhile— in 1752— 
a tolerably large theatre had been erected in 
King Street, on a site now covered by New 
Street railway station ; in 1789 this was 
transferred into a chapel for the Countess 
of Huntingdon's "connexion." In 1774 a 
playhouse was built in New Street. This 
was burned down in 1792, and rebuilt in 1795. 
Its first manager, Yates, had endeavoured 
in 1777 to obtain a licence from Parliament, 
but though supported by Burke he did not 
succeed, and the structure did not become 
a patent playhouse or Theatre Royal till 
1807. This was during the lesseeship of 
Macready, father of W. C. Macready, which, 
begun in 1795, ended in 1813. In 1820 the 
theatre was again burned down, and rebuilt 
in the same year. It has had as successive 
lessees R. W. Elliston, Alfred Bunn, Mercer 
Henry Simpson, Mercer Hampson Simpson, 
and Charles Dornton. The present fagade, 
it may be added, dates from 1780, having 
survived the fires of 1792 and 1820. The 
Prince of Wales's Theatre, which dates from 
1856, was originally a concert hall. In 1862 
it was licensed as "The Royal Music Hall 
Operetta House," and presented entertain- 
ments of the "German Reed" sort. In 
the following year it became a playhouse 
pure and simple, under its present title, 
and till 1866 it had for its lessee E. Swan- 
borough. Late in that year James Rodgers 
took up the lease, which was afterwards held 
by his son. Captain Rodgers. The building 
was entirely reconstructed in 1875-6. Th© 



Grand Theatre (Corporation Street) was 
opened in 18S3, under the management of 
Andrew Melville, who was also its pro- 
prietor, and sold it in 1893 to its present 
manager, J. W. Turner (g.r). The Queen's 
Theatre (Snnw Hill) was opened in 1885 as a 
music-hall, but in the following year was 
bought bv Andrew Ulelville and reopened 
(after alterations) as a playhouse. The lease 
was acquired in 1893 by Clarence Soanes. 
The Theatre Royal, Aston Cross, was opened 
in 1S93. For the early theatrical annals of 
Birmingham, see the ' History and Descrip- 
tive Sketch ' of the city, published in 1830. 
For details of more recent years (1862 to 
1879). see 'The Birmingham Theatres' by 
T. Edgar Pemberton (1890). 

Birming-liam Mr. de, in R. Reece's 

'Dora's Device' (q.v.), is in love with and 
beloved by Bora. 

Biron. (1) A lord in attendance on the 
King of Xavarre, and in love with Rosaline 
(q.v.), in 'Love's Labour's Lost' (q.v.). He 
may be accepted as the prototype of Bene- 
dick (q.v.). " In this character," says Walter 
Pater, " which is never quite in touch with, 
never quite on a perfect level of understand- 
ing with, the other persons of the play, we 
see, perhaps, a reflex of Shakspere himself, 
when he has just become able to stand aside 
from and estimate the first period of his 
poetry." (2) Btro7i, in Southern's ' Isa- 
bella,' is the husband of the heroine. (3) 
Eugene de Biron is a character in ' Henri 
Quatre' (q.v.). 

Birrel, Andrew. Author of ' Henry 
and Almeria,' a tragedy (1802). 

Birtla. A comedy in three acts, by T. W. 
Robertson (q.v.), first performed at the 
Theatre Royal, Bristol, October 5, 1870, with 
E. A. Sothern as Jack Randall, J. H. Slater 
as Paul Hewitt, Miss Amy RoseUe as 
Sarah Heivitt, Miss Louise WiUes as Lady 
Adeliza, H. Vincent as Earl of Eagleelyffe, 
and T. A. Palmer as "The Duke." 

Birth and Breeding". A comedv 
adapted by Jerome K. Jerome from 
Sudermann's 'Die Ehre' (qv.), and per- 
formed (for copyriglit purposes) at the 
Theatre Royal, Edinburgh, on September 
18, 1890. 

Birth of Beauty (The) ; or, Harle- 
quin William the Conqueror. An 
historical extravaganza by W. M. Akhurst, 
Sanger's Theatre", London. December 26, 
1872, with G. H. Macdermott as William,. 
Miss Lennox Grey as Silverskin, Miss 
Akhurst as Allbuttons. 

Birth of Harlequin (The). A pan- 
tomime produced at New York in 1792, with 
Durang as the hero. 

Birth of Hercules (The). A masque 
by William Shirley (q.v.), set to music by 
Dr. Arne, and intended for representation 
at Covent Garden in 1763. It was printed 
in 1765. 

Birth of Merlin (The) ; or, Th( 
Child has found his Father. A 

tragi-comedy, printed in 1662, and attributec 
on the title page to Shakespeare and Row 
ley (q.v.). In this play, Merlin is repre 
sented as the offspring of the Devil ani 
Joan, the sister of a clown ; and he is born 
not only with a beard and the faculties of i 
man, but with the gift of prophecy Th 
Devil seeks to carry off Joan, but Merli. 
rescues her, and imprisons his father in 
rock. Allied to this comic business is th 
story of Constantia and Modesta, the tw 
daughters of Donobert, who wishes thei 
to marry two nobles ; they prefer to b(' 
come nuns. " Rowley himself probabl 
acted the clown, who is the best character 

Birth of Venus (The). An open; 
words by J. H. Herbert, music by ll 
Jakobowski, first performed at the Lyceu- 
Theatre, Baltimore, U.S.A., February 1 

Birtha. Wife of Gog (q.v.) in PocoCK 
' Alfred the Great ' (q.v.). 

Birthday (The). (1) An "entertaii 
ment of three acts," by Mrs. Penny, found(, 
on 'The Spectator,' "No. 123, and prints' 
in a volume of poems (1771). (2) A music- 
comedy in two acts, founded by O'KeeiJ 
(q.v.) on a piece by St. Foix, and first pe^ 
formed at the Haymarket Theatre ' 
August 12, 1783 (the then Prince of Wale, 
birthday). (3) A "musical pastoral," fii 
performed at the Royalty Theatre, Londc 
in July, 1787. (4) A comedy in three ac 
altered by T. Dibdin (q.v.) from Kot: 
hue's ' Fraternal Enmity,' and first P' 
formed at Covent Garden on April 8, 17' 
with ^Nlunden as Captain Bertram. Fawci 
as Jack Junk (liis servant), Waddy 
Circuit (a lawyer), Mrs. Davenport as M 
Moral (a housekeeper), and H. Johnstc 
and Mrs. Pope as the lovers (Henry a 
Emma). The action takes place on 1 
birthday of Capttain Bertram and his broth 
who have quarrelled over a lawsuit, and 
the end are reconciled. See rRATER> 
Discord and Reconciliation. (5) 
comedy in one act, by George Bancrc 
(q.v.), first performed at the Court Theai 
London, December 8, 1894. 

Birthdays. A comedy-drama in th 
acts, oy George Roberts, first perforraei 
the Theatre Royal, Newcastle, on Febru 
20, 1SS3. 

Birth-Nig-ht (The) ; or, Mode . 
French Reformation. A comic op > 
in three acts, printed in 1796. 

Birthplace of Podg-ers (The). ■• 
"domestic sketch," by John Holli> - 
HEAD (g.i-.), first performed at the Lycf i 
Theatre, London, on March 10, 185S, wit] . 
L. Toole as Tom Cranky and J. G. Shor s 
Edmund Earlyhird. Among the other ,- 
sonce are Erasmus and Amelia Maresi ', 
and Alonzo and Penelope Lexicon. '. s 
farce was suggested by some investigat s 
as to the house in which Chatterton die a 




[olborn— a house then occupied by a work- 
ig cabinet-maker. 

Birth.rig:h.t. A drama in four acts, by 
OHN Douglass (q.v.)-. Theatre Royal, 
[udderstield, June 1, 1S94 ; Lyric, Hammer- 
mith, May 31, 1897. 

Bisarre, in Farquhar's Inconstant' 
J.V.), is a lively, unconventional lady. See 


Biscotin. The innkeeper in 'Madame 
'avart ' (q.v.). 

Biscuit, Ned. A character in 'Sir 
:oger de Coverley ' (q.v.). 

Bishop, Alfred. Actor ; appeared at 
le Royalty Theatre, London, in 1870, as 
hdey in Reece's ' Whittington, Jun.'(^.t>.), 
nd at the same theatre in 1871, as Mr. De 
irmingham in Reece's ' Dora's Device ' (q.v.) 
ad Prince John in his ' Little Robin Hood ' 
.v.). His other original rdles include 
orny Kavanagh in Gilbert's ' On Guard ' 
,872), Sarnem in Reece's '"William Tell 
[old Over Again' (1876), Dr. Barloio in 
lurnand's ' Our Babes in the Wood ' (1877), 
\yshe in ' The House of Darnley ' (1877), Sir 
fhn Maudsley in 'Reclaimed' (1S81), Mr. 
\mee in ' Lords and Commons ' (1883), Dr. 
. )elaney in ' Sweet Lavender ' (1888), Earl 
' Dorincourt in ' The Real Little Lord 
auntleroy (1888), Archdeacon Jellicoe in 
Dick Venables' (1S90), Ferrari in 'The 
iolin Players' (1890), Sir William Ashton 
1 'Eavenswood' (1890). the Karl of JSver- 
lam in 'An Ideal Husband' (1895), Pro- 
'ssor Doxvle in 'The Squire of Dames' 
.895), Captain Crxtickshank in 'Rosemary' 
896), and the Eev. Peregrine Hinde in ' The 
hysician' (1897). Alfred Bishop has also 
ijicted in London the following, among 
any, parts i—AbU Chanzeuil in ' The 
signing Favourite' (Royalty, 1871), Panta- 
on in Byron's ' Jack the Giant Killer ' 
aiety, 1878), Prince Caramel in 'Princess 
3to' (Op^ra Comique, 1881), Pownceby in 
^lother-in-Law' (Opera Comique, 1881), Sir 
)lomon Fraser in 'The Overland Route' 
. faymarket, lSS2),BeauFarintoshm ' School' 
• ftaymarket, 1883 ), Sir W. Grafton in ' Peril ' 
Taymarket, 1884), Sir Lucius 0' Trigger 
'aymarket, 1884), Mr. Beardcr, M.P. in 
he ChurchM-arden ' (Olympic, ISSG), Blore 
'Dandy Dick' (Toole's, 1887), Buxton 
5 iOtt in 'Young Mrs. Winthrop' (Terrv's, 
J m, Joseph Chandler in ' The Middleman ' 
[naftesbury, 1890), the Friar in 'jNIuch 
do about Nothing ' (Lyceum. 1891), Lord 
Umbei-lain in 'Henry VIII.' (Lyceum, 
, -3' 192), Gloster in ' King Lear ' (Lyceum*, 1892), 
\rkett, sen., in ' Betsy ' (Criterion, 1896). 

1 ^ ^ishop, Anna (nde Riviere). Vocalist 

' rt actress; second wife of Sir Henry 

shop (q.v.) ; made her London debut in 

ly, 1839 ; sang in New York, in 1847, as 

nda di Chamouni. 

Bishop, Kate. Actress ; was seen at 
e thanng Cross Theatre, London, in 186S 
■ifn A^ -Sf'J-Zoit) in a revival of Bvron's 
100.000. One of her earliest original 

- W 

parts was that of Alice in 'Love's Doctor' at 
tlie Royalty in 1870. Amongst other roles 
of which she was the first "representative 
may be named the following : — At the 
Court Theatre : Fdith Temple in ' Randall's 
Thumb' (1871), PijMte in 'Creatures of 
Impulse' (1871), and Jessie Blake in 'On 
Guarct' (1871). At the Strand Theatre: 
Fllen in 'The Lady of the Lane' (1872), 
Jonathan Wild in ' The Idle Prentice ' 
(1872), and 3[ary Sfoss in 'Old Soldiers' 
(1873). At the Vaudeville: Don Caesar 
de Bazan in ' Ruy Bias Righted' (1874), 
Violet Melrose in ' Our Boys ' (1875), Mabel 
Clench in ' The Girls' (1879), Ada, Rivers in 
' Castles in the Air ' (1879), Maud Cameron 
in ' Ourselves ' (1880), Margaret Seveme in 
' Cobwebs ' (1880), Alice in 'Jacks and Gills' 
(1880). Carrie in 'The Guv'nor' (1880), Mrs. 
Popplejohn in ' Divorce' (1881), Mary Graham 
in ' Tom Pinch ' (1881), and Alice Merton in 
' Punch • (1881). At the Globe Theatre :. 
Blanche Ingram in ' Jane Eyre ' (1882). At 
the Vaudeville : Pose Mump'leford in ' Con- 
fusion ' (1883). Miss Bishop has also been 
seen in London as Eliza in ' Paul Pry ' (St. 
James's, 1870), Ida in ' Two Roses ' (Vaude- 
ville and Lyceum. 1879), Mrs. F. Young- 
husband in 'Married Life' (Vaudeville, 
1880), Mrs. Barkings in 'Woodcock's Little 
Game' (Gaiety, 1880), Zaida Dalrymple in 
' Imprudence ' (Folly, 1881), and DoraThorn- 
haugh in ' Home ' (St. James's, 1881). 

Bishop, Samuel. Head-master of 
Merchant Taylors' School, born 1731, died. 
1795 ; author of ' The Fairy Benison,' an 
interlude (1796), and part-author, with 
Woodward, of ' The Seasons ' (q.v.). 

Bishop, Sir Henry Rowley. Musical 
composer, born in London, 1786, died 1855 ; 
began to write for the stage in 1804, when 
he furnished the score for a dramatic piece 
called ' Angelina,' performed at Margate. 
In 1810 he was appointed composer and 
director of the music at Covent Garden 
Theatre, a post which he held for eight 
consecutive years. In 1825 he received 
a similar appointment at Drury Lane 
under Elliston, in 1830 became musical 
director at Vauxhall, and in 1840-1 held the 
same position at Covent Garden under 
Madame Vestris. The following is a list 
of the dramatic pieces (in addition to 
'Angelina') for which he provided the 
original music :— ' Caractacus ' (1806), 'Love 
in a Tub' (1806), 'The Mysterious Bride' 
(ISOS), ' The Circassian Bride ' (1809), 
' Mora's Love ' (1809), ' The Vintagers ' (1809), 
' The Maniac' (1810), ' The Knight of Snow- 
don' (1811), 'The Virgin of the Sun' (1812), 
' The .'Ethiop' (1812), ' The Renegade' (1812). 
' Haroun Alraschid ' (1813), ' The Brazen 
Bust' (1813), 'Harry le Roy' (1813), 'The 
Miller and nis Men ' (1813), ' For England, 
Ho ! ' (1813), ' The Wandering Boys ' (1814), 
' Sadak and Kalasrade ' (1814), ' the Grand 
Allianre ' (1814), ' Doctor Sangrado ' (1814), 
' The Forest of Bondy ' (1814), ' The Noble 
Outlaw' (1815), 'Telemachus' (1815), 'The 
Magpie or the Maid ' (1815\ ' John du 
Bart' (1815), 'Who wants a Wif e ? ' (1816), 



•The Humorous Lieutenant' (1817), 'The 
Duke of Savoy ' (1S17), ' The Father and his 
Children' (1817), 'The Illustrious Traveller' 
(1818), 'December and May ' (1818). 'Fortu- 
natus' (1819), 'The Heart of Midlothian' 
(1819), ' A Roland for an Oliver ' (1S19), 
• Swedish Patriotism ' (1819), ' The Gnome 
King' (1819), 'The Antiquary' (1S20), ' The 
Battle of Bothwell Brig' (1820), 'Henry 
Quatre' (1820), 'Don John' (1821), 'Mon- 
trose' (1822), The Law of Java' (1822), 
♦Maid Marian' (1822), 'Clari' (1823), 'The 
Beacon of Liberty' (1823), 'Cortez' (1823), 
Native Land' (1824), 'Charles II.' (1824), 
•The Fall of Algiers ' (1825), 'Edward the 
Black Prince' (1825), 'The Coronation of 
Charles X.' (1S25), 'Aladdin' (1826), 'The 
Knights of the Cross ' (1826), ' The English- 
man in India' (1826), 'Under the Oak' 
(1830), 'Adelaide' (1830), 'The Tyrolese 
Peasant ' (1832), ' Home, Sweet Home ' (1832), 
' The Magic Fan ' (1832), ' The Sedan Chair ' 
(1832), 'The Battle of Champagne' (1832), 
'The Romance of a Day' (1832), «Yelva' 
(1833), 'The Rencontre' (1833), 'Rural 
Felicity ' (1834), ' The Doom Kiss ' (1836), 
' Manfred' (1836), and ' The Fortunate Isles ' 
<1841). Bishop further wrote original music 
for revivals of the following Shakespeare 
plavs:-- -'A Midsummer Night's Dream' 
<18i6), 'The Comedy of Errors' (1819), 
•Twelfth Night' (1820), and 'The Two 
Gentlemen of Verona' (1821). He con- 
tributed original music to ' The Farmer's 
Wife ' (1814), ' The Maid of the Mill ' (1814), 
-Brother and Sister ' (1815), ' Comus ' (1815), 
•Guy Mannering- (1816), 'The Heir of 
Verona' (1817), and *Zuma' (1818), and 
.adapted to the English stage Boieldieu's 
•John of Paris' (1814). ' Don Giovanni' (as 
'The Libertine') (1817), 'The Barber of 
Seville' (1818), 'The Marriage of Figaro' 
(1819), and Rossini's 'Hofer' (1830). See 
' Imperial Dictionary of Biography ' (1865), 
'Dictionary of Music and Musicians' (1879). 

Bishop, T. Vocalist ; sang at Niblo's 
Gardens in 1837 ; afterwards an Olympic 
favourite, and a member of the Seguin 
opera troupe (1852). 

Bish.op (The). A farcical comedy in 
three acts, by Wilford F. Field, Totten- 
ham, October 25, 1894. 

Bishop of the Fleet (The). A ro- 
^mantic drama, in a prologue and three acts, 
by C. A. Clarke and F. Mouillot ; Lon- 
desborough Theatre, Scarborough, Decem- 
ber 26, 1889. 

Bismuth. A character in ' The Philo- 
sopher's Stone' (q.v.). 

Bispham, David. Actor and vocahst, 
born in Philadelphia; after studying in 
Italy, sanq- at concerts in London. His 
stage debut took place at the Savoy Theatre, 
London, in 'The Ferry Girl' (q.v.), and he 
vas afterwards in the original casts of 
'Juan; or. The Brigand of Bluegoria' 
(1890) and 'The Basoche' (Due de Longue- 
ville) (1891). 

3isson, Alexandre. See Family 

Circle, The; Great Unpaid; Lai 
Killer, The; Lixtle Tippet; Setili 
OUT OF Court. 

Bit of Scandal (A). A play by Heni 

Guy Carletox {q.v.), first performed 
Washington, U.S.A., in April, 1893. 

Biter (The). A comedy by Nichol 
RowE (g.t'.),tirst performed at Lincoln's I 
Fields on December 4, 1704, with Bettert 
as Sir Timothy Tallapoy, Pack as Pm. 
Verbruggen as Clerimont, Booth as Friend 
Mrs. Barry as Mra. Clfver, Mrs. Bracegin 
as Mariana, Mrs. Mountfort as Angeli 
]Slrs. Leigh as Lady Stale, and Leigh as So 
ble-scrabble. Sir 'Timothy has engaged 
daughter Angelica to Pinch, but discov 
him to be a "biter," and repudiates h 
handing over Angelica to Friendly. Cli 
mont and Mariana are husband and w 
Lady Stale is in love with Friendly. Scrib ■ 
scrabble is a city solicitor, and 2'rick a ; • 
vant. "The Biters," says Genest, "were ; 
unlike the Humbuggers, and a fair sub s 
for ridicule." 

Bitter Fruit. A drama in three a., 
by A. W. DUBOURG iq.v.), first performer t 
the Alexandra Theatre, Liverpool, on > 
tober 6, 1S73, with Miss Bateman as j s, 
Graham, Miss Pauncefort as a Sister Sii- 
rior, E. H. Brooke as Upton Travers, and.'. 
Herbert as Staff-Surgeon Sholto. 

Bitter Love (A). See Wife axd St j. 

Bitter Reckoning- (The) ; or i 
Rover from Many Lands. A dran n 
three acts, by C. H. Hazlf.wood, first r- 
formed at tlie Britannia Theatre, Lon a, 
on June 19, 1871. 

Bitter-Sweets : a Story of le 
Footlig-hts. A drama by Alfred Pa y, 
first performed at tlie Theatre Royal, ' n- 
bridge, in August, 1878. 

Bitter "Wrong- (A) : a Wife in I ?• 
land no "Wife in France. A don ac 
drama, in five acts and seven tableau by 
George Lander and John Dougis; 
Standard Theatre, London, April 14, li . 

Bitterbliss, Mr. and Mrs., i H. 

WiGAN's 'Charming Woman' (7. u.). 

Bitters, Nancy. A domestic se mt 
in R. B. Brough's ' Crinoline' (q.v.). 

Bizarre. A page in Bland 'd's 

' CindereUa ' (1878). 

Black and "White. A play by W he 
Collins (q.v.)a.nd Charles Fechterw.), 
first performed at the Adelphi Tl: fcre, 
London, on March 29, 1869, with C. F iter 
as Maurice de Layrac, :Miss Ca itta 
Leclercq as Emily Milburn, IMrs. sigli 
Murray as Ruth, A. Stirling as S 'hen 
Westcraft, E. Atkins as David Mich ia^, 
G. Belmore as Plato. 

Black Ang-us. A melodram; -pro- 
duced at New York in 1833. 

Black Batman of the Nort/ 1 A 

play ascribed to Henry Chettle.of whithe 




first part was acted by the Lord Admiral's 
servants in 1598. In the second part, played 
later in the year, Chettle was assisted by 
Robert Wilson. 

Black Beard; or, The Captive 
Princess. A melodrama in two acts, by 
J. C. Cross, first performed in 1798 at the 
Royal Circus, London, with Grossman as 
Black Beard, Mdlle. de la Croix as Orra (his 
wife), and D'Egville as Ccesar (" his faith- 
ful black"), played by Blanchard at the 
Coburg. Genest, recording its production 
at Bath in 1816, describes it as " a spectacle 
with songs, compiled by Cross from the 
history of the buccaneers in America. In 
one of the scenes, the whole stage was made 
to represent the deck of a man-of-war." 
The piece was produced at New York in 
1833. (2) A play by Lemuel Sawyer, per- 
formed in America. (3) ' Harlequin Black- 
beard ; or. Old Dame Trot and her Comical 
Cat : ' a j)antomime at the City of London 
Theatre, Christmas, 1863. 

Black Book (The). A drama by J. 
Palgrave Simpson {q.v.'), adapted from 
' Les Memoires du Diable ' (Vaudeville, 
Paris, 1856), and first performed at Drury 
Lane Theatre, London, on February 2, 1857, 
with C. J. Mathews as Wolf, Miss M. Oliver 
as Mina, and Honey, Tilbury, Miss Cleve- 
land, and Mrs. Selby in other parts ; first 
played at New York in March of the same 
year, with G. Jordan as Wolf and Mrs. 
Grattan as Dame Asi^en. 

Black Business (A). A "mellow- 
drama" by Arthur Matthison, performed 
at the Theatre Royal, Hudderstield, on 
August 19, 1878. 

Black but Comely. A drama in three 
acts, by Stephanie Forrester, "partly 
adapted" from Whyte Melville's novel of 
that name, and first performed at the 
Gaiety Theatre, London, on the afternoon 
of September 16, 1882, with a cast including 
the authoress. 

Black Castle. See Amherst, G. A. 

Black Cat (The). (I) An " Oriental 
burlesque," words by C. M. Rodney, music 
by C. E. Howells, first performed at Walsall, 
July 31, 1893 ; Elephant and Castle Theatre, 
London, August 14, 1894. (2) A play in 
three acts, by John Todhunter (g.v.), per- 
formed at tlie Opera Comique Theatre, 
London, under the auspices of the Indepen- 
dent Theatre Society, on the evening of 
December 8,1893, with a cast including Miss 
HaU Caine, Miss Mary Keegan, Miss Gladys 
Homfrey, Miss Dora Barton, Alfred Buck- 
law, Orlando Barnett, and Neville Doone. 
The "black cat" — a fascinating divorcee — 
diverts to herself the affections of a young 
married painter, whose wife thereupon 
destroys herself. 

Black Crook (The). (1) A fairy opera, 
founded on the story of ' La Biche au Bois,' 
written by Charles M. Barras, composed 
by T. BaUer, and produced at Niblo's 
Garden, New York, September 12, 1866. It 
ran until January 4, 1868, having received 475 

representations ; was revived on December 
12, 1870, and withdrawn on April 8, 1871, 
after 122 performances ; was again revived 
on December 18, 1871, and withdrawn on 
February 24, 1872, having been played 57 
times ; was revived once more on August 18 
1873, and withdrawn on December 6, 1873, 
after 120 performances ; played also from 
April 3, 1882 to July 1, and from March 29, 
1886, to May 24. (2) A fairy opera, the 
libretto founded by J. and H. Paulton on 
'La Biche au Bois,' the music by F. Clay 
and G. Jacobi ; first performed at the 
Alhambra on December 23, 1872, with 
Mdlle. Compile d'Anka in the title part, 
Miss Julia Seaman as the Princes'^ Aika, 
Miss Kate Santley as Gabrielle, H. Paulton 
as Dandelion, E. Cotte, and others ; played 
at the Amphitheatre, Liverpool, in IMay, 
1875, with Miss L. Moodie as Aika, W Elton 
as Dandelion ; revived (re-arranged and re- 
written) at the Alhambra Theatre, London, 
on December 3, 18S1, with Miss Constance 
Losebyin the chief part, and other characters 
by Miss Lizzie Coote, Miss Julia Seaman, 
Miss Kate Sullivan, Harry Paulton, Henry 
Walsham, W. Hargreaves, and L. Kelleher. 

Black Diamonds; or, The Ligrhts 
and Shadows of Pit Life. A drama 
in five acts, by Louis S. Denbigh and R. 
Fenton Mackay, produced (for copyright 
purposes) at Southend on September 3, 1890 ; 
performed at the Surrey Theatre on July 
11. 1892. 

Black Doctor (The). The title given 
to various adaptations of ' Le Docteur Noir ' 
of MM. Anicet-Bourgeois and Dumanoir. 
(1) At the City of London Theatre, pro- 
duced on November 9, 1846 ; (2) by I. Y. 
Bridgeman (g.v.), first performed at the 
Victoria Theatre, London, on November 13, 
1846, with W. Searle as Andre, Miss Vincent 
as Pauline, and Mrs. R. Barnett as the 
Countess Aur el ia; (3) at the Lyceum Theatre, 
London, in November, 1856, under the title 
of 'Fabian' (q.v.). The " black doctor" is 
Fabian, a Creole, and the scene is laid in the 
Island of Bourbon and Paris. A version 
was played at New York in April, 1847, and 
revived there in 1853. Fabian was in the 
repertory of G. V. Brooke. 

Black Dog- of Newg-ate (The). A 
play in two parts, by Richard Hathwaye, 
John Day, W. Smith, and a fourth author 
unknoAvn ; performed in 1602. 

Black Domino (The). The title of 
several pieces, adapted from 'Le Domino 
Noir,' an opera comique in three acts, 
written by Scribe, composed by Auber, and 
first performed in December, 1837 : — (1) A 
musical burletta in one act, by C. J.Mathews 
iq.v.), first performed at the Olympic The- 
atre, Londrn, on January IS, 1838, with the 
author as Julio, ]Mdme. Vestris as Camilla, 
and Mrs. Macnamara as Dorothea. (2) 
' The Black Domino ; or. The Masked Ball : ' 
a comic drama in three acts, by T. Egerton 
W'lLKS {q.v.), first performed at Sadler's 
Wells Theatre, London, on February 6, 
1838, with Miss Vincent in the title part. 




(3) ' The Black Domino ; or, A Night's 
Adventure :' an opera in three acts, music 
by Auber, words by B. Webster (q.v.), 
first performed at the Haymarket on June 
10, 1846, with Brindal as Lord Pumice- 
stone, J. Bland as Gil Podrida, Mdme. A. 
Thillon as Juanita, Miss P. Horton as 
Paquita, and other parts by H. Holl and 
Mrs. L. S. Buckingham ; played at New 
York in .Tuly, 184S, and in 1852, with Mdme. 
Thillon in her original part. (4) A comic 
opera in three'acts, music by Auber, libretto 
by H. F. Chorley (fi'om Scribe), first per- 
formed at Covent Garden on February 20, 
1861, with Miss Louisa Pyne as Angela, H. 
Haigh as Horace, H. Corri as Gil Perez, 
jMiss Lefiier as Jacintha, Miss Thirlwall as 
Brigitta, etc. See Queen's Ball.— 'The 
Black Domino,' a play by Robert Bucha- 
nan {q.v.) and G. R. SiMS iq.v.^, was pro- 
duced at the Adelphi Theatre, London, on 
April 1, 1893, with a cast including C. 
Glenny, W. L. Abinadon, Arthur Williams, 
Miss Clara Jecks, Bessie Hatton, Miss 
Evelyn Millard, and Mrs. Patrick Campbell. 

Black Dwarf (The). A p^ay, adapted 
by John Coleman and Charles Calvert 
from Paul Feval's ' Le Bossu,' and first 
performed at Leeds. See Wizard, The. 

Black Eag-le (The). See Almar, G. 

Black Flag- (The) ; or, Escaped 
from Portland. A drama in four acts, 
by Henry PrrrTiTT, first performed at the 
Grecian Theatre, London, on August 9, 
1879 ; revived at the Olympic Theatre, Lon- 
don, on March 17, 1892. 

Black God of Love (The). See 
Graves, Joseph. 

Black Hand (The). See Fitzball, E. 

Black Hawks (The). A drama in 
four acts, produced originally in America, 
and first performed in England at the 
Queen's Theatre, Birmingham, on June 25, 
1894, with Colonel Joe Bruce as Arizona 

Black Hearts; or, The King- of 
Darkness. A drama in three acts, by 
E. Towers, performed at the New East 
London Theatre on May 30, 1868. 

Black Hug-h, the Outlaw. A 
domestic drama in two acts, by W. Rogers, 
first performed at the Surrey Theatre, Lon- 
don, with a cast including Stuart (as the 
hero), Dibdin Pitt, Vale, Almar, Mrs. Vale, 
and Mrs. Wilkinson ; played at New York 
in 1836. 

Black Hussar (The). An opera, 
adapted by Sydney' Rosenfeld from ' Der 
Feldprediger ' of Carl INIillocker, and per- 
formed at Wallack's Theatre, New York, 
in May, 1885, with Mark Smith as the field- 
preacher, and other parts by Mdme. Cot- 
trelly, jNIarie Jansen, Lily Port, De Wolf 
Hopper, and Digby Bell. 

Black Joune. A play mentioned by 
Henslowe as being in the repertory of the 
Rose Theatre. 

Black Knig-ht (The) figures in the 
various adaptations and burlesques o) 
'Ivanhoe' ('/.«.). 

Black Man (The). An interlude ^ 
attributed to Cox, the comedian, anc' 
printed in 1659. 

Black or Golden. See Palmer, T. A 

Black Phantom. See Will Watch. 

Black Prince (The). (1) A traged 
by Roger, Earl of Orrery {q.v.), first pei 
formed at the Theatre Royal on Octobe 
19, 1667, with Kynaston in the title pari 
Mohun as Edivard III., Wintershall as Kin 
John of France, Bift-t as Count Guesclii 
Hart as Lord Delaunre, Mrs. Marshall a 
Plantagcnet, Mrs. Knapp as Sevina, an 
Nell Gwynne as Alizia. "Love," saj 
Gene-st, "is the whole business of this pla 
It can hardly be called a tragedy. . , . Tl 
play has little to do with history, and ths 
little is incorrect." (2) An opera-boufle ': 
three acts, words by H. B. Farnie {q.v. 
music by Lecocq, produced at the S 
James's Theatre, London, on October 2 
1874, with a cast including Misses Selh' 
Dolaro, Nelly Bromley, Emily Duncan, ai 

B. Hollingshead, J. L. Hall, J. Rouse, etc 

Black Reefer (The). A play produC' 

at New York in 1847. 

Black Rover (The). See Isidora. 

Black Schooner (The). A play p: 
duced at Noav York in 1839. 

Black Sheep. (1) A comedy in thi, 
acts, by J. Stirling Coyne {q.v.), fi: 
performed at the Haymarket on AprU . 
1861, with Buckstone as Mr. Bunny 
philanthropist), Compton as Tom Short 
Mrs. Charles Young (Mrs. H. Vezin) , 
Mhel Maynard, and other parts by Ho'i 
Rogers, Braid, Mrs. Wilkins, and Ml 
Poynter "The plottings of the 'bl; 
sheep,' the dishonest lawyer and 
hypocritical philanthropist, are the cec 
of action in the piece" (Henry Morl(, 
(2) A drama in three acts, founded '■, 
ICdmund Yates's novel of that name, I 
J. Palgrave Simpson {q.v.) and Edmi; 
Yates {q.v.), and first performed at > 
Olympic Theatre, London, on April 25, l: , 
with C. J. Mathews as Steivart Routh, IN . 

C. J. ;Mathews as Harriet Routh, and ot-f 
characters by Addison, Ashley, H. Wi|', 
J. Clarke, G. Vincent, and Mrs. Caulfi<,; 
performed at the Crystal Palace with r 
Charles Young as Routh. (3) A "pa:?- 
mime pastoral," written by Andre Rai .• 
LOVicH, composed by Cotsford Dick, V t 
Theatre, Albert Hall, London, April ', 
1894. (4) A burlesque written and cii- 
posed by Frederick Solomon {q.v.), it 
performed at Brooklyn, U.S.A. — 'A B k 
Sheep : ' a play in three acts, by C I- 
Hoyt ; Buffalo, U.S.A., September, 1 ; 
Hoyt's Theatre, New York, January 6, ] '>. 

Black Spirits and "White. A ,y 
by T. Dibdin {q.v.), produced at Sad 's 
Wells in 1826. "Black spirits and w " 




red spirits and gray" is the first line of 
the charm used in the incantation scene in 
Middleton's 'Witch' (q.v.). 

Black Squire (The). A comic opera 
in three acts, written by H. P. Stephens 
(q.v.), composed byFlorian Pascal ; Theatre 
Royal, Torquay, November 5, 1896. 

Black Statue (The). A pantomime 
performed at the Britannia Theatre, Lon- 
don, in December, 1874. 

Black Thorn (The). A play produced 
at Third Avenue Theatre, ^ew York, on 
May 16, 1887, with J. J. Sullivan in the 
chief part. 

Black Vulture (The); or, The 
Wheel of Death. A drama produced 
at the Adelphi Theatre, London, with " O." 
Smith in the title part, Yates as Octolar, 
and Buckstone, Mrs. Fitzwilliam, and others 
in the cast. 

Black "Wedding- (The). A play 
entered at Stationers' Hall in November, 

Blackacre, The "Widow, in Wycii- 

ERLY's 'Plain Dealer' (q.v.), has been 
described by Macaulay as "beyond question" 
the author's best comic character. "She 
is," he says, "the Countess in Racine's 
' Plaideurs,"' talking the jargon of English, 
instead of French, chicane. 

Blackamoor washed "White (The). 
A musical piece in two acts, by Henry 
Bate, first performed at Drury Lane on 
February 1, 1776, with a cast including Mrs. 
Siddons, King, and Parsons {Sir Oliver Odd- 
Jish).—^ The Blackamoor's Head' was first 
performed at Drury Lane on May 16, 1818, 
with Dowton and IJarley in the cast. 

Blackberries. A musical comedy- 
drama, by Maiuv Melford (q.v.), first 
performed at the Prince of Wales's Theah'e, 
Liverpool, on June 14, 1886, with W. Edouin, 
Miss Alice Atherton, and the author in the 
cast ; first performed in London at the 
Comedy Theatre on July 31, 1886. 

Blackberry, Farmer and Betty. 

Characters in O'Keefe's ' Farmer ' (q.v.). 

Blackbirding". A drama by C. H. 
Hazlewood (q.v.), Britannia Theatre, Lon- 
don, September S, 1873. 

Black-Eyed Sukey. See Blackey'd 


Blackey'd Susan; or, "All in the 
Downs." (1) A drama in three acts, by 
Douglas Jerrold (q.v.), suggested by the 
well-known ballad by John Gay, and first 
performed at the Surrey Theatre, London, 
on June 8, 1829, with T. P. Cooke as William, 
Forrester as Captain Crosstrec, Yardley as 
Hatchett, Dibdin Pitt as Doggrass, Rogers 
as Jacob Twig, Buckstone as Gnatbrain, 
Wilhamson as Blue Peter, Asbury as Sea- 
tceed, Lee as Quid, Dowsing as Yarn, Webb 
as Ploughshare, Miss Scott as Stisan, and 
Mrs. Vale as Lolly Mayjloiver [the piece 

" ran" for nearly a year] ; at Sadler's Wells 
in August of the same year, with Campbell 
as William and Mrs. Wilkinson as Susan; 
at New York in September, 1829, with 
Placide as Gnatbrain, Mercer as William, 
and Mrs. Hilson as Susan ; at the City The- 
atre, London, in June, 1831, with Cooke and 
Buckstone in their original parts ; at Covent 
Garden (for the first time in two acts) with 
Cooke in his original part and Miss Taylor 
(Mrs. W. Lacy) as Susan ; at New York in 
1842, with Marble as William ; at Dublin in 
1846, with Miss C. Cushman as William; 
at New York in 1854, with E. L. Davenport 
as William, Leffingwell as the Admiral, 
Davidge as Gnatbrain, Mdme. Ponisi as 
Susan, and Miss J. Gougenhein 'as Dolly ; 
at Covent Garden in February, 1S56, with 
Prof. Anderson as Williamami Miss Harriett 
Gordon as Susan; at the Adelphi in July, 
1857 ; at the Surrey in May, 1659, with J. 
Ryder as William and Mrs. Honner as 
Susan ; at Bradford in 1863, with Mrs. Nunn 
as JVilliam; at Sadler's Wells in 1866, with 
T. Swinbourne as William ; at Brighton in 
1867, with F. C. Burnand as Crosstrce and 
Miss Ranoe as William ; at the Holborn in 
1871, with G. Rignold as William and INIiss 
Jane Rignold as Susan ; at the Duke's The- 
atre in December, 1878, with Clarence Holt 
as William and Miss Ada Murray as Susan; 
at the Adelplii in December, 1896, with W. 
Terriss as William, Miss Millward as Susan, 
J. D. Beveridge as Doggrass, C. Fulton as 
Captain Crosstree, Oscar Adye as Hatchett, 
H. Nicholls as Gnatbrain, and Miss Vane 
Featherston as Dolly Mayflower. Captain 
Crosstree attempts to carry off Susan, and 
William, to save his wife, strikes the Captain, 
who is his superior officer. He is brought 
before a court-martial and condemned to 
die ; but Crosstree acknowledges his fault, 
and produces a discharge, which shows that 
William, when he struck the Captain, was no 
longer in the king's service. William is then 
acquitted. Doggrass is the uncle of Susan ; 
Gnatbrain is in love with Dolly ; Jacob Twig 
is a bailiff. ' Black-Ey'd Susan ' was adapted 
by W. G. Wills under the title of ' William 
and Susan' (q.v.).— The story of Black-Eyed 
Susan was made the foundation of (3) a 
pantomime called 'Harlequin Black-Eyed 
Sue,' written by Frank Talfourd (q.v.), 
and produced at the Strand Theatre, London, 
in December. 1855. — Jerrold's play was bur- 
lesqued by F. C. Burnand in (3) the piece 
entitled ' The Latest Edition of Black-Eyed 
Susan ; or. The Little Bill that was taken 
up. ' This was first performed at the Royalty 
Theatre, London, on November 29, 1866, 
with F. Dewar as Captain Crosstree, Miss 
Rosina Ranoe as William, C. Wyndham as 
Hatchett, Miss M. Oliver as Susan, Miss N. 
Bromley as Dolly Mayfloiver, and E. Danvers 
as Dame Hatley. The " run" concluded on 
September 23, 1868. The piece was revived 
at the same theatre on March 3, 1870, and 
at the Marylebone Theatre in 1871, with 
Dewar and INIiss Oliver in their original 
parts. It was played in New York in 1869, 
with Mark Smith as Crosstree, and in 1870 
with Stuart Robson as Crosstree and Lina 




Edwin as Susan. The play was further 
travestied (4) by Fox Cooper (q.v.) in a 
piece called 'Black-Eyed Sukey,' and (5) 
1)V Horace Lennard in ' Too-Lovely-Black- 
Ey'd Susan ' {q.v.). See All IN THE Downs 
and Blue-Eyed Susan. 

Blackfriars, Th.e Theatre in. See 
London Theatres. 

Blackleg- (Tlie). A drama in five acts, 
by Butler Stanhope, produced at Birken- 
head in October, 1SS6. 

Blackmail. (1) A drama in four acts, by 
Watts Phillips, first performed at the 
Grecian Theatre, London, on October 16, 
1880. (2) A play in four acts, by Dr. G. H. 
E. Dabiss (q.v.), produced at Shanklin, Isle 
(pf Wiu'lit, in September, 1SS7. (3) A play 
in three acts, by H. J. Stanley, Adelphi 
Theatre, Liverpool, April 27, 1896.—' The 
Blackmailers,' a drama in four acts, by 
John gray (q.v.) and Andre Raffalovitch 
iq.v.), was performed at the Prince of 
Wales's Theatre, London, on the afternoon 
of June 7, 1894, with W. L. Abingdon and 
C. Thursby in the title parts. 

Blackman. An attorney in Mrs. INCH- 
BALD's ' Next-Door Neighbour' (q.v.). 

Blackness, The Masque of, by Ben 
JoNSON (q-r.), was '■ persuimted at the Court 
at Whitehall, on the Twelfth-Night, 1605-6." 
It was performed, " with unusual magnifi- 
cence," at the cost ot £3000, the Queen 
(Anne) herself taking part in it. A version, 
from an original manuscript, revised and 
authenticated by the poet, was printed for 
the Shakespeare Society in 1849. 

Blacksmith (The). (1) A musical farce 
in one act, by W. Collier (q.v.), first per- 
formed at the Victoria Theatre, London, in 
January, 1S34, with Miss P. Horton as ^fiss 
Primrose. The name of the blacksmith is 
MacRivet, and among the characters are 
Ladti Pedigree and Scamper (a servant). (2) 
An Irish drama by Fred Maeder, Her 
Majesty's Theatre, Carlisle, January 30, 

Blacksmith of Antwerp (The). A 

farce by O'Keefe, first performed at Covent 
Garden on February 7, 17S5, with Farren as 
Quintin Matsys (the hero), We-nitzer as Va7i 
JJimderman, Mrs. Inchbald as Adela, and 
other characters by Edwin and Quick; re- 
vivedi " with songs and alterations," at 
Drury Lane in October, 1816, and at New 
York in 1851. Matsys, after several years' 
absence, returns to Antwerp just as his 
sweetheart, Adcla, is about to be man-ied 
to Vail Dunderman. After some complica- 
tions, the blackmith, now a painter, espouses 
Adela. See Art and Artifice. 

Blacksmith's Daug-hter (The). A 
play of the Elizabethan period, referred to 
by Stephen Gosson, in his ' Plays Confuted' 
(q.v.), as deaUng with "the treachery of the 
Turks, the honourable bounty of a noble 
mind, and the shining of vh-tue in distress." 

Blackstone, Mr. Cogrnovit. A lawyor 
in Williams's and Harris's ' Cruel to be 

Blade Bone (The). An interlude, per- 
formed at the Haymarket Theatre in 1778. 

Bladen, Martin. Some time comp- 
troller of the Mint, and afterwards a lord- 
commissioner of trade ; died 1746 ; author of 
' Solon,' a tragi-comedy, in which is included 
' Orpheus and Eurydice,' a masque, per- 
formed in 1705. See the ' Biographia 

Blades. See De Walden, 

Blag-ue, Mrs. A procuress in T. Hey- 
WOOD'S 'King Edward IV.' (q.v.). (2) 
Alcibiades Blague is the "chevalier d'in-; 
dustrie " in Jerrold'S ' Gertrude's Cherries ' 

Blaise. (1) Servant to Dame Gertrude ia 
H. Harris's 'Forest of Bondy.' (2) A 
character in D.^NCE'S 'Thy Lord is not my 
Lord' (5. r.). 

Blaisot. (1) A farm-boy in C. Selbt'S 
'Poor Nobleman' (q.v.). (2) There is a' 
Blaisot, also, in Arnold's ' Maid and the 
Magpie' (q.v.). 

Blaize. Servant to Bonassus in J. B. 
Buckstone's ' Victorine' (q.v.). 

Blake, Anne. See Anne Blake. 

Blake, Charles. Author of 'An' 
Historical Account of the Providence Stage'" 

Blake, Miss, vocalist, after appearing 
with success at Bath and Bristol, made hei 
London debut at the Haymarket Theatre 
in September, 1821, as Captain Macheath ir 
' The Beggar's Opera ' (q.v.). 

Blake, Mrs. "W. R. [Caroline Placide] 
Actress, born 1793 ; died at Longbranch 
May 21, 1881 ; appeared at the Park Theatre 
New York, in 1807, in a " ballet-ijanto 
mime ; ' in 1814 she began an engagemen 
at the Anthony Street Theatre. Her firs 
marriage was with an actor, named Waring 
by whom she had a daughter Mho becanH' 
successively Mrs. W. Sefton and Mrs. J. W' 
Wallack, jun. She married W. R. Blab* 
(q.v.) in 1826. In 1830, and onwards, she wa 
leading lady at the Park Theatre, Ncv 
York, where, in 1S31, she made a grea, 
success as Clorinda in 'Cinderella.' L' 
1862 she was at the Winter Garden Theatre 
where she was the original of Joan i' 
'Geraldine' and of Marita in 'Ros 
Gregorio.' "As a general actress," it ha' 
been said, "Mrs. Blake has had fe^ 
superiors, being almost equally at home i 
tragedy, comedy, opera, or farce." 

Blake, Thomas G. Author of 'Th 
Cattle Stealers,' ' Life as it is,' ' The Lonel 
Wave of the Ocean, ' Our Old House a 
Home,' ' A Spanking Legacy,' etc. 

Blake, "William Rufus. Actor, bor 
in Nova Scotia ; died at Boston. U.S.A 
April 22, 1863 ; made his New York debt 
on July 12, 1824, at the Chatham Garde 



Theatre as Frederick Bramble in ' The Poor 
Gentleman.' In August, 1826, he married 
Mrs. Waring (Miss Placide). He was mana- 
ger successively of the Tremont Theatre, 
Boston, 1827 ; of Walnut Street Theatre, 
Philadelphia, 1829, and, with H. E. Willard, 
of Olympic Theatre, New York, 1837. In 
1839 he went to England, and appeared 
at the Haymarket. In the same year he 
liecame stage-manager of the Walnut Street 
Theatre, Philadelphia, and in 1848 he ac- 
cepted the like position at the Broadway 
Theatre, New York. He was afterwards a 
member of the stock companies at Burton's, 
Wallack's, and Laura Keene's Theatres. 
His last appearance in New York was on 
, April 16, 1863, as Geoffrey Dale in ' The 
' Last Man ; ' his last appearance on the 
stage was on April 21, 1863, at the Boston 
Theatre as Sir Peter Teazle. According to 
T- A. Brown he was the first actor ever 
called before the curtain in America— an 
incident which happened at Boston, Mass., 
in 1827. "In certain characters," says J. 
N. Ireland, "he surpassed all who had 
attempted them. His Jesse Rural, Geoffrey 
Dale, Hardcastle, old Dornton, Admiral 
Kingston, Sir Peter Teazle, Sir Willoughhy 
Worrelt, Sir Anthony Absolute, Governor 
Heartall, etc., were examples of perfection. 
... In the line of 'old men' we doubt if 
he has ever been excelled on the New York 
boards " (' New York Stage,' 1866). William 
Winter speaks of "the richly humorous 
Blake, so noble in his dignity, so firm and 
fine and easy in his method, so copious 
in his natural humour" ('Shadows of the 
Stage '). 

Blakeley, "William. Actor; was in 
the original casts of Boucioault's ' How she 
Loves Him' (Sir Abel Ilotsjnir) in 1867, 
Robertson's 'Play ' (Bodmin Potter) in 1868, 
and Yates" Tame Cats' (Mr. Ttveedie) in the 
latter year. He also appeared at the Prince 
of Wales's as Jbhn Chodd, sen., in a re- 
vival of ' Society ' (1868). At the Olympic, 

■ in 1870, he played Tanks in a revival of 
'Mary Warner.' In the same year he was 
the original Sampson Brass in Halliday's 
'Neir (q.v.), and in 1871 created the part 
of Simeon Cole in Byron's ' Daisy Farm ' 
(q-v.). His long connection witli the Crite- 
rion Theatre appears to date from January, 
1881, when he figured in the original cast of 
' Brave Hearts ' (q.v.). After that he created 
at this theatre the following rdles:— Jere- 
miah Deeds in 'Flats' (1881), Talbot in 
'Foggerty's Fairy' (1881), Brummies in 
'Fourteen Days' (1882), Colonel Lindsay 
in ' Cupid in Camp ' (1882), Ferdinand Pet- 
tigrew in ' Featherbrain ' (1884), Barnabas 
Goodeve in 'The Candidate' (1885), Peter 
Mullins in 'The Man with Three Wives' 
(1886), Benjamin Boulter in ' IMy Bonny Boy ' 
(1886), the General in 'The Headless Man' 
(1889), Benjamin Bush in ' Papa's Honcy- 

j moon ' (1890), Mr. Samjjson Paley in ' Sow- 

.. ing and Pteaning ' (1890), Cranberry Buck 

, I in 'Welcome,* Little Stranger' (1890), Mon- 

tresor Smith in 'Husband and Wife' (1891), 

Blijah Quarm in ' Shylock and Co.' (1891), 

and Mr. Poynder in ' The Fringe of Society' 
(1892). He was also seen at the Criterion 
between 1881 and 1894, as Vanderpump 
in 'Brighton' (1881 and 1884), Babblebrook 
in 'A Lesson of Love' (1885), Ephraim 
Smooth in ' Wild Oats ' (1886 and 1891), 
Smith in 'David Garrick' (1886), Babington 
Jones in 'May and December' (1887), 3[r. 
Furnival in ' Two Roses ' (1887), Andrew 
Wylie in ' The Bachelor of Arts ' (1888), Mr. 
Birkett in 'Betsy' (1888), Potter in 'Still 
Waters Run Deep' (1889), Mr. Tinkle in 
'Who killed Cock Robin?' (1889), Hard- 
castle in ' She Stoops to Conquer ' (1890), Sir 
Partridge in 'Truth' (1890), Meddle in 'Lon- 
don Assurance' (1890), Ironside in 'Nine 
Points of the Law ' (1891), Crabtree in ' The 
School for Scandal' (1891), Sir Christopher 
Hatton in ' The Critic ' (1892), Uncle Bopaddy 
in ' Haste to the Wedding' (' The Wedding 
March ') (1892), M'Lud in ' Hot Water ' (1894). 
His more recent original parts include George 
Gleniield in 'The Urong Girl' (1894), Smog- 
gins in ' An Artist's Model ' (1895), Duckivorth 
Crabbe in ' The Chili Widow '(1895), Commo- 
dore Van Gutt in ' The New Baby ' (1896), and 
Mr. Pilkington in ' Solomon's Twins ' (1897). 

Blakely, Thomas H. Actor ; became, 
as a boy (1882), a member of the company 
of the Park Theatre, New York. In 1829, 
when again at the Park, "his enactments 
of old men began," says Ireland, " to at- 
tract attention. In the second grade of 
that line of business— a class of plain blunt 
sensible every-day old men, not too senti- 
mentally serious nor too broadly humorous 
—such as Sulky in 'The Road to Ruin,' 
Porcelain in 'Family Jars,' Humphrey Dob- 
bin in 'The Poor Gentleman,' Rowley in 
'The School for Scandal,' etc., he surpassed 
aU whom we have seen attempt it. He res 
tired from the profession about 1840 " (' New 
York Stage,' 1866). 

Blanch.. (1) Niece of King John in 
Shakespe.xres play. (2) The Avaiting- 
woman in Coljian's 'Iron Chest' (q.v.). 

Blanch, John. Author of three unacted 
comedies : ' The Beau Merchant ' (1714), 
'Swords into Anchors' (1725), and 'Hoops 
into Spinning Wheels ' (1725). 

Blanchard, Edward Leman. Dra- 
matic and miscellaneous AVTiter, theatrical 
historian and critic ; born December, 1820 ; 
the younger son of William Blanchard,. 
the actor (q.v.). After the death of his 
father in 1835 he entered upon a literary 
career, and it is believed that between 
the last-named year and 1840 he produced 
as many as thirty dramatic pieces, irre- 
spective of pantomimes (under the nom- 
de-gueiTe of ' Francisco Frost '). Between 
1840 and 1844 he was engaged as house- 
dramatist at the Olympic Theatre, where he 
produced, among many plays of various 
kinds, those entitled ' Angels and Lucifers, 
' The Artful Dodge,' ' Babes in the Wood,' 
'Game and Game,' 'Jack Nokes and Tom 
Styles,' ' Pork Chops,' and ' The Road of 
Life,' all of which see. Among his other 
works for the stage may be named lii:3 




• Arcadia ' (1S41), a burlesque of ' Antigone' 
(1845), 'Faith, Hope, and Charity' (1S45), 
'The Cricket on our Own Hearth' (1846), 
'A Wife for an Hour' (1847), 'Adam Buff' 
(1850), 'Taking tlie Census' (1851), 'The 
Three Perils of Man' (1852), 'The Man in 
the Moon' (1871), 'Nobody in London' 
(1873), ' The Bunch of Berries ' (1875), and, 
•with Cunningham Bridgman, the libretto of 
' Carina ' (1888). It is, however, mainly as 
a writer of pantomime or Christmas ex- 
travaganza that Blanchard will tigure in 
dramatic annals. His adult work in this 
department began in 1844, with the produc- 
tion of 'Jack and the Beanstalk' at the 
Victoria. In 1846 came 'King Alfred the 
Great' at the Olvmpic ; in the same year, 

* Watt ; or. The Birth of the Steam-Engine ' 
at the Victoria ; in 1S4S ' William the Con- 
queror' at the Olympic, 'Lord Lovel' at 
the Surrey, and ' The Land of Light ' at the 
Victoria ; in 1852 ' Harlequin Hudibras ' at 
Drury Lane, ' Harlequin and the World of 
Flowers ' at the Surrey, and ' Undine, the 
Spirit of AVater ' at the Marylebone ; in 1853 
' King Humming-top ' at Drury Lane ; in 
1854 ' Jack and Jill ' at Drury Lane ; in 1855 
♦Hey Diddle Diddle' at Drury Lane; in 
1856 'The Fisherman and the Genie' at 
Sadler's Wells ; in 1857 'Little Jack Horner' 
at Drury Lane; in 1859 at Sadler's Wells 
' The Golden Goose ; ' in 1863 ' Friar Bacon 
and John of Gaunt ' at Astley's ; in 1S64 
' Hop o' my Thumb ' at Drury Lane ; and 
so forth. Blanchard continued to write the 
annual pantomime for Drury Lane (some- 
times as "the Brothers Grinn") up to and 
including 1SS3. In September, 1SS9, he 
died. He had produced, in addition to 
ordinary theatrical pieces, " entertain- 
ments" such as 'The Carpet Bag' (1852) 
for W. S. Woodin and ' The Seven Ages of 
Woman' (1855) for Miss Emma Stanley. 
From an early age he had written on the- 
atrical matters for various newspapers and 
other publicat